tv Lectures in History Randal Jelks on African American Ministers Politics CSPAN December 2, 2017 8:00pm-9:06pm EST
entitlement, pressing for assistance. money starts flowing to politicians that protect those benefits. >> on u.s. federal entitlement on c-span's q&a. >> good afternoon. let us try that again. on what we began to talk about last week. on monday. and that is african-americans had a civil society. by that i mean a society outside
of the state. where people had their social networks, their continuities. one of the interesting things has come out of those ofnections was a kind leadership out of a black congregation, particularly the clergy. in this discussion, i am going ,o talk too much about men but males have dominated in some ways the kind of conversation about american politics for a number of reasons as we can see. let us see if my little thing works. let us try that again. a host ofare characters. i will not talk about all of them. there are some things that i really want you to pay attention to. one, it says indigenous
community organizations. black churches are indigenous community organizations. by the it is controlled people at the very lowest level. at the ground level. i don't mean that in terms of status but at the ground level. thatherefore, you can see it creates its own organic leadership. a leadership that belongs to its own community. about that aalk little more, these terms, ecclesial politics. national personalities. one of the things that you will people,hat black clergy whether male or female, have to build a support system and have to be affirmed by their own people. and that is what i mean by organic leadership.
that organic leadership is crucial, crucial, crucial to black churches, black american politics, and so on. 1972, this is one of the few books that examines lack politics called "the black preacher in america." it came out in 1970 two. professor hamilton is still alive. he is a political scientist and he is best known for a book he wrote or co-authored with powerhael called "lack and the politics of liberation." you can see it at the top there. hamilton began to study in some ways clergy behavior. and he ended up writing a book
on when the people -- on one of the people that we will talk about, the political biography of an american dilemma. studied people have black clergy with the exception of dr. martin luther king junior who gets a lot of ink like abraham lincoln. america. preacher in he wanted to take this wide sweep in the 1970's to look at it. this book comes in the context of a book you have already read by arthur. there are a group of books shortly after the assassination of martin luther king. all of these books were coming out after the assassination of king as a minister, king as a
leader. there were a number of books coming out and people were thinking about -- what did black history mean? particularly in the era of black power. in ahat did that mean revision of black history? and of course, if i can get this that in-- you can see the 1970's, along with your book by al, there were plenty of books coming out about slavery and all of them made reference to slave communities and slave churches and the invisible institution. all of them made references to or jean asked the question -- why didn't slaves in the u.s. rebel more?
as they might have in a place like haiti. what kept slaves from rebellion? is ahe comes up with marxist formulation. that there is a kind of paternalism and religion was one thing that kept the slaves from rebelling. these were kind of books that were coming out. wanted tocommunity revise how people understood what was going on at the time. this as a you backdrop to the book because it is important to understand that ans conversation is in academic conversation with other books. if you thought about it for a moment, if you thought really --d about what is going on
in the 1920's, the american academic establishment wrote that slavery was a good thing. and that people were happy. and after reconstruction, african-americans had no place in politics. they were written out of politics. this was then a kind of reversal of this. this became a long going conversation through the late 1950's, through the 1960's and the 1970's. and of course, we keep getting the new studies. i just wanted to put the context in here for you to understand hamilton's book on the black preacher. what was that role? pacification?e of was it the role of charlatan?
and so forth. the context for black preachers is this -- black preachers are as much american as apple pie. and what i mean by that is that black preachers come out of the same stuff that white american preachers come out of. the same stuff that you might have heard of for billy graham, or from george, whitfield in the 1850's. richard allen. all of those are coming out of the same source material. they are using the bible. they are evangelical in the protestant sense. showmencourse, they are . all religious leaders have to be showmen. and i do not mean that to be insultingly. i mean that if you say the mass,
you have to be a performer. if you are a rabbi, people want you to be an excellent or door. they do not want to be -- people want you to be an excellent orator. there is all of this performance that goes with this. are in anericans oppressive situation of slavery and post slavery, building institutions so people can live. politics, i mean how black leaders engage the state regionally and nationally. pertaining to laws and social inequities. i love this -- this took place in harlem. there was a funeral service for jim crow. that took place on the street. the social inequities. jim crow. racial apartheid. jane crow, sexual apartheid.
voting, economic disparities. black ministers in a way were different from their white counterparts have had to encounter not just the religious lies of their own people but the very laws that constrict the lives of their people. and it is important to note, that for a while, not now, but for a while, the clergy was the most educated people in the u.s. we forget that in the 19th century, many of the people that were educated were clergy. this is why morehouse college was called atlanta baptist seminary. spelman college was called the seminary for women. these were the educated people and therefore they would take a place in leadership. and of course, we have now gone and over the institutional
parameters of the african methodist episcopal church with the starting wilberforce college. normally, the educated people ,ecome leaders, spokespersons whatever the case may be. because we created indigenous -- thetions, because -- ecclesial politics is first. where do your politics begin? inside the church organization. inside the temple organization. inside the rabbi. and so forth. this is where the ecclesial politics become very important. it is a training ground. if you want to learn how to lead
, you need to have an organization to leave. such as weuxiliaries have read about the women of church of god. all of the places that people get training to have leadership. -- and they learn how to play politics. how do you organize your coalition? within the church to get something done? how are you going to persuade the clergy that your program is valuable? church politics was the first. as i told you about my grandfather. he became a deacon on sunday and that was a very important role and a political role because you had to be unelected deacon in your church. you did not just become a deacon. and you wanted to remain on the deacon board so you had to learn how -- you had to learn
procedure. ecclesial politics is a training ground. has at the church you think no similar organization. it has organization. an indigenous learning. my grandmother understood roberts rules of order better than the people i see running the meetings here at ku. out of ordere you and she had a seventh grade education. and i wondered where she had dealt -- where she had learned all about. and she said at the church meetings. ugly zeal politics. there is a clay zeal politics between the clergy. in ais, if you are hierarchical system, a bishop system, you run for bishop.
how are you going to become a bishop? now, there are people who self appoint themselves bishops. right? and they start an organization and call themselves bishops but there are also people that have to have that conferred by the people and the other clergy to vote you up the chain. and that also requires organizing and politics. there is nothing like going to a baptist convention, an ame convention, the church convention of any sort to watch the politics aspect because people operate at a very high level. and this was a training ground for a lot of the people. this a clay zeal politics is a part of that indigenous organizing that is going on. people learnhat the rules of order.
i want to give you one example. two baptist ministers. the one is joseph h jackson. the head of the national baptist convention. and the other one, you will recognize, martin luther king jr.. jackson, a joseph use -- to be more aggressive about civil rights. and joseph h jackson did not want to do that at all. he thought that the church should not be in politics. i'm going to see if i can switch here for a minute. will it work for me? something is spinning. all rights. . it is slow. , in 1961, the
national baptist convention met in kansas city and it was a controversial action going on. you should look at this site. the king global site. -- hentroversial leader was elected over and over again even if he had to do it semi-fraudulently. he was a political leader. jackson often clashed with other leaders who believed that jackson's opposition to the use of civil this obedience for civil rights was too conservative. you have got to persuade your people at the convention who should be in. an uneducatedt man. very sophisticated. born in mississippi. went to jackson college. went to colgate rochester divinity school in rochester, new york where frederick
douglass is buried. and then he came out here to the midwest. and he went to creighton university to get his ma. he was ordained as a baptist minister. he resisted the civil rights impetus by king and others because he thought the church should not be in politics. the thing about jackson was that in chicago, he was very much in politics. withs very much aligned mayor richard daley. withs very much aligned richard daley and others because he wanted his people to get jobs. he wanted his people to get things. and chicago politics meant you had to be a lined with the machine. -- you had to be aligned with
the daley machine. on one hand he did not want the national baptist to be involved with civil rights too much, he, on the other hand, in chicago politics, tried to be kind of like a mini political boss. by the 1960's, there was an outright battle to take over the convention from jackson. at the 1961 convention, you see this paragraph. in kansas city, missouri, jackson and taylor both claimed the presidency. taylor,le that gardner a famous black preacher from new york city, brooklyn, concord baptist. and a scuffle broke out. was pushed off the stage and died.
ministers, you know, all churches can get into a scuffle. they got into a scuffle. what happened was that jackson would blame king for this and write scoreless -- scurrilous op-ed. thiser bad this may seem, was a struggle and it led to the formation of another baptist convention. called the progressive baptist. one baptist cannot tell another baptist what to do. these are the internal organizing politics of a community. procedures,knew the and there isoving, always a power struggle. a power struggle for who will run the institutional members of
the community. reconstruction, there 2000 black elected officials nationally. they were all males given the 15th amendment and roughly a third or more were clergy. i point out to you henry mcneil turner who was in the georgia statehouse. bishop.n ame they were all part of it because they were the reading populace. the question was whether or not these clergy people were on the side of their own people or were they on the side -- or were they too easy to compromise? this is a question that scholars ask all of the time. do they compromise? are they selling out the people? there is a myth that black
arele -- that black clergy selling out their own people for their own self interests. some are. but this is the kind of thing that black clergy had to be the because many of them had access to the kind of education that was needed to make legislation. thing that you have to andrstand -- black face religion grew up in oppression. and so we talk about protest politics. you have two always address the issue of inequities. a matter of a local church issue but a national issue. slavery was a national, international in many ways issue. slavery went from argentina all the way up through north america
and the caribbean. clergyman, garnet , really wanted to say -- he called for slave rebellion. he believed that slaves should rebel against their masters. one, he thought this because first of all, he said it violated his own the logical proposition. the sabbath. he said -- slavery violates the sabbath. thiso, scholars often miss point of his. it is a violation of the sabbath and that means this is not a god-given institution. they are damaging people. they are working people. , andgod took a day off
the seventh day ought to be honored. slavery has spread its dark wings of death over the church. the priest prophesies to falsely. it has grown, is established, now 3igns triumphant and million of your fellow citizens are prohibited by law and public opinion. which in this country is stronger than law, from reading the book of light. you could not even read the bible. it was against the law. with theood protestant book. him, the for protestant version of the bible. he died and is buried in monrovia, liberia. turner, peopleil
began to think -- maybe i should return to the african continent. but you see, this is a long tradition of people protesting the very public sphere. this is not a new thing in black life. movements, with an black protestant churches are also a political ground. studieden, scholars women a great deal, but more women were in the church than in black women's clubs. i will probably get hit by some of my scholar friends. but more women went to church. more ordinary women went to church and this is where they learned their politics. they first learned their politics sometimes in support of or against their clergy.
politics, they learned in support of or against their clergy. they may not agree with their clergy and they would hold --. if they wanted their clergy out, they would whisper. many of them were married to the deacons if they were baptists and they would say -- get that person out. it was a form of politics going on. and also, black clergy, as i've told you before, are trying to don't allowat they women to get too much power. it is a power struggle. sometimes, about who is going to control.
and women's movements within the black protestant church is all over. women ofng was from the church of god and christ. i'm going to move up a minute. this is my man. reverend ike. the preplo dollar. if you are a student of black churches, you have seen these. and if you haven't, you can go on youtube. reverend ike is one of the most fascinating americans. why i chose him is because most people associate black clergy with a reverend ike or the big televangelists.
he is kind of the father of televangelists and the prosperity gospel. that has been around for a long time. before reverend ike, it was norman vincent peel. be happy. think and grow rich. positive attitude. people thinkaith confers value. these have always been in the american psyche. from the 19th century. being positive, being self-reliant. there was no one quite like ike in this regard. this is from the new york times. his obituary.
and, these were the kinds of lines that he used. you can see in the third paragraph. he says -- close your eyes and see green. right? he would tell his 5000 in washington heights. way uptown, past harlem in new york. much of it is a dominican neighborhood. this headquarters. money up to your armpits. a room full of money. it around,re tossing in it like a swimming pool. like the cartoon character, little richie rich. this exhortation was quoted by the new york times. his philosophy. prosperity.lled --
you just have to think of it and you get it. black associate all of clergy with ike. ikes had a social role. we will get to that. but then, we have another kind of clergy. outside a protestant is a. in the nation of islam. stemming from alternative theology as a challenge to the state. mohammed is probably the most misunderstood and misinterpreted in many ways -- his faith was nationalism. he believed that white -- that black people were priority and came that way.
you part of this is a lisha mohammed built -- is eli jeff --elijah mohammed built an organization with an interesting collaboration -- conglomeration pose forto try to people an identity outside the state sanctioned black identity. that is, in his era you were born negro, you died negro, and you are impoverished. he is trying to come up with a cosmology that is different. tryingel tois reshapeijah the minds of people he considers that are poor, misguided, and he is trying to build an organization where they have some strength of identity. people who were
migrating from the south like you did. his targets were people who had substance abuse, like he had once had in detroit. his targets were these people. he tried not to make himself until a discovery of the nation of islam by tel wallace in a documentary "the hate that produces hate" that came on television, that they discovered there was a whole nation of islam. i know you all know about malcolm x, but nobody really knew about this organization outside the black community really until it hits television. followingubstantial of people in major cities, york,elphia, chicago, new
and he is trying to give an alternative identity. hasolleague at princeton written a wonderful book about these kinds of organizations the nation is under called "new world coming," about great migration, religion, about the transfer. for someone like elijah mohammed , the problem is the old-style christian churches are the real problem, because it pacifiers, as he argues. it pacifiers the people. something that will make them self-reliant. he is not that much different in the practicality of what the church of god in christ is doing. modestly dressed, hair covering, good work ethic, family life.
group along with marcus garvey becomes the target of fbi investigation already, because these are alternatives. elijah muhammad is a little bit controversial, because he was rooting for the japanese. he said, that is a colored people who might defeat these europeans. there is a long history of black people until world war ii being enamored with the japanese as a colored people that might beat the european imperialism. without questioning the imperialism of the japanese. so he has got an alternative. secondly, he goes to jail because he refuses to fight in world war ii.
threat to theas a state, whereas the other people we are talking about had not been seen as a threat to the state and its policy. when the great characters of all time -- one of the great characters of all time, very interesting in the depression area, his father divine. i know you have not heard of them. there is father divine and daddy grace, but we are just going to talk about father divine. father divine also uses his religious notions to offer alternatives. the first thing he notices is his wife, right? this is the 1930's.
in 1967, the supreme court ruled against the state of virginia in loving v. virginia on interracial marriages. he says his religion allows him to marry whoever he wants to. let's take a little peek at -- >> ♪ , people paycountry homage to his name. speaks with a loudspeaker from his inner sanctum. [indiscernible]
prof. jelks: so father divine is different. actually he is feeding people during the depression. he is also providing some kind of -- that peace mission is supporting some kind of alternative identity for people. so religious identities are different. challenging the structure in the same way that elijah muhammad is, but he is in essence doing the same thing, creating businesses, trying to create jobs at the height of the depression, and creating a sensation. you have a question? got to go to the mic.
my question is -- is this on? prof. jelks: yes. >> my question is why is it ok -- why were they calling him god? why is that ok in his eyes? usually it is blasphemy, people are calling other people god. i know in the muslim religion, that is really bad, but also in christianity. prof. jelks: also judaism, it is blasphemous to call yourself god. he is calling himself god for a number of reasons. one that he is delivering the manna from heaven, and people buy into it or they go along with it, we can't tell. some people actually believe, some people -- i'm getting things from this dude while it lasts.
there were attempted investigations of father divine, peace missions. i forget exactly the details of the story, but one of the investigating people died. he said, you know, i told you. [laughter] >> because he was using uppercase g instead of lowercase g. that was all i had. and where they praying to him? prof. jelks: the adoration, we don't know if they were praying to him or just saying, as long as he is delivering goods. this is the tricky part. we don't know if people in this -- and of course, this is shot to give him more publicity, so it is shot in the positive. but he is a radical alternative than what is going on in general society. he is breaking rules and he is
saying religion can break the rules. feeds political struggle. >> thanks. >> so he says his religion allows him to marry whoever he pleases. was his marriage legal in the eyes of the courts? prof. jelks: that's a good question. we don't know. there are several different biographies on him and several different really good books, about three of them. we don't know. was she the money funder? they were in a relationship. clearlyerence is that he has also a social mission involved. he is engaging people at their very basic needs, food, jobs, businesses. are,he and elijah muhammad in that regard, trying to create
a broader infrastructure that provides people for their needs, people the state blocks from those kinds of things. , saying, i the rules am allowed to marry outside my race, he has got to be a bad man, because he is doing something nobody else -- though the other person who could get away with that would be jack johnson, the boxer. of course, he got jail time. but not father divine. the great churches that were established in the united states that still exist in 1808 was abyssinian baptist church. abyssinian is one of the names
you can look up used for ethiopia or as part of ethiopia, the kingdom of the city a -- the kingdom of abyssinia. the man in the back is the pastor of the abyssinian baptist church, the reverend adam clayton powell sr. he will move abyssinian baptist church from roughly its midtown where central park harlem,e 1950's, up to and they will build a building in 1925. that is the building all these students are standing in front of. adam clayton powell sr. was a traditional pastor. harlem had several large churches, all kinds of different churches. saint philip's episcopal,
abyssinian, and the list could go on. a sizable roman catholic church. all-black in this neighborhood. but abyssinian had a storied history because it will become the storied history of his son, adam clayton powell jr. he will inherit the church. this is a very interesting thing. become thed religion family business. so if i am the son or daughter of a rabbi, i might become a rabbi. if i am the son or daughter of a baptist manager -- minister, i might become a baptist minister. and i will learn, even if i don't become them, i will learn politics at the foot of my father or grandfather or whoever it was. was thiston powell sort of social gospel.
, they were divine roughly contemporary -- he has all kinds of social operations coming out of abyssinian baptist church to serve the needs of people who are desperate, looking for jobs, looking for the good life. have to serve as 's in allgregation kinds of levels, not just abstract spirituality, but at the level of god and social needs. the church functions as a social service unit. this is his son. adam clayton powell jr. baptist minister, married.
in 1941, he was elected on the democratic ticket as new york city's first black city councilmember. after serving on the council for three years, powell in 1944 adopted a progressive civil rights platform. a successful campaign to serve in the house of representatives representing harlem. when powell took office in 1945, he became the first black congressman from new york state. having chicago roots, he is johnny-come-lately. in chicago we like black congressman. i'm just saying. but there was nobody more flamboyant than adam. yes? was his -- he looks very white. is he --?
prof. jelks: yes, black people can look white, right? >> i was wondering, was his mom black -- prof. jelks: his mom was very fair skinned. we have this very crazy role in the united states -- crazy rule in the united states. one drop from sub sahara africa and you are black. proudly claimed their blackness, even though adam was originally born with blonde hair and blue eyes. you look at his baby pictures, it is like, no. but he is black and his father is black and they are the blackest of black, right? let me give you a little clip of adam. [video clip] >> [indiscernible]
god said to moses, what's in your hand? [indiscernible] he said, let me use what is in your hand. god use that to divide the red ,ea, bring water out of rocks and bring his people the freedom. what's in your hand? [applause] what's in your hand? [indiscernible] and talk with him, stick together and fight together, and with god's hand in your hand, the victory will be accomplished sooner than you dreamed, sooner than you hoped, sooner than you planned for, sooner than you imagined. good night and god bless you. so adam was cool,
all those things. until he the congress was unceremoniously put out of congress in the late 1960's. adam, unfortunately or fortunately, had a little trouble in an island called bimini. that seems to be a very sticky place for politicians. both he and presidential bothdate gary hart probably got caught on the monkey business, let me put it that way. again, the father-son business is political. martin luther king jr. is the son of martin luther king senior
and was the grandson of the second pastor of the ebenezer baptist church. that is the line of succession. his brother albert, named after his grandfather, was also a baptist minister. the kind of ways that one learns leadership is in the kind of context of the ecclesial politics. how to galvanize people, how to bring people together, how to win a majority. whenhose things are useful you go into electoral politics, whether you are the mayor. of course, we don't live far from kansas city here. we have a sitting congressperson representing the city of kansas city, missouri, emanuel cleaver. he is an ordained methodist minister. these kinds of ways -- the training ground for families is
the politics. ,olitics becomes very important because anytime you are running an organization you are engaged in policy, whether you are the you are theipal or superintendent, you still have to bring people together. and how are you going to do that? when there are oppositions to your point of view, these are the kinds of questions, the kind of training ground where people learn their politics, is at the local level. politicspeople learn from their local organization. one of the few women that i want to point out to you is a woman i met when i was a high school
student, addie wyatt. her maiden name was once cameron. addie l. wyatt. wyatt worked as a meatpacker between 1941 and 1954, combining that with looking after children with her husband and increased involvement with the labor unions. the packing house food alliance workers union. by the early 1950's she was a well-known activist and in 1953 was elected vice president of her branch, becoming the first black woman to hold a senior office in a american labor union. in 1955, wyatt was ordained into the church of god. not the church of god in christ, there is another church of god where her husband was re: a minister. why it worked on this -- wyatt
worked on the south side of chicago organizing labor. they served together at the vernon avenue church of god in christ in chicago. she was quite the dynamic person. once again, she is not at the national level. you don't read about addie wyatt at the national level, but she is an operator. she understands the internal politics of the church because she is married to a minister and becomes one herself, but she is also a labor organizer. having the experience of bringing people together to work. i'm going to show you a bit of an interview with her, talking about her labor experience. she is older than. [video clip] >> i was impressed. mencould two young black meet with two white bosses and achieve [indiscernible]
i was told it was because of the union. it was violation of the union contract and she explained to me, and i was really rude. i wanted to do something to help the union. -- i knewnew to help i needed help and here was a place i could get help. [indiscernible] i could join with them to make the union strong and powerful enough to bring about change. prof. jelks: so addie wyatt combines that with her own religious beliefs, that working people need protection.
that became a very important aspect of it. when i met her as a high school student, she was trying to convince us why we should be thinking about what labor meant, of way ofs a sort keeping wages at a certain level, but what it did for people's lives immediately. how do you protect people's lives? for her, she combined both of these things and became a very important local leader in the chicago area. outside of chicago, not a lot of people know about her. but in my era, she was a very important local labor leader and religious voice, because she could go into many protestant churches around chicago and talk about what labor protections meant for ordinary people, why
was important. not in this interview, but she saw this as a religious duty as well. ?ou have a question her -- in the union and when she became part of the church, did they just help african-american women, or did they also help african-american men, in the sense of -- prof. jelks: the labor union was for everybody. >> right, right. i'm just asking because, was there a sort of, kind of specifically detailed way for african-american women to get -- not only be a part of the union and get help by the union benefits, but also by the church. we should say in a
certain era, all people who attended any kind of black religious organization were working people. they were not always college-educated working people. they were working people who work in retail, domestic service . cities like kansas city, chicago, omaha, were still centers of meatpacking and other things. if you read "the jungle," in high school, it is enough to make you a vegetarian, right? but people worked in these conditions. you wanted to make sure people had safe conditions, that they were properly paid. she fused her labor organizing with her religious activity, so
they became one. she often will come to work with jesse jackson later on. bill gray, not too many people know about him, but the other day i mentioned florida memorial , university down in miami. it was on the powerpoint the other day. his father was a baptist andster, so was bill gray, his father was the president of florida memorial. he was also a politician. he became the first in the house of representatives to become the house majority whip in 1989 and 1991. he served as chairman of the house budget committee.
those are all big deals. if you pay attention to the tax proposals right now, if you are the chairman of the house budget committee, you are powerful chairman. this is something everybody learn from adam clayton powell jr. for all of his interesting dalliances, he was a politician and served on very powerful committees to get legislation through. that is how you get legislation through. all learn howray to work the system and to navigate it. he is the first person -- he 2013, too early. he became -- after leaving congress, he became the president of the united negro college fund.
of course, he is at a very powerful time, being in the house committee on the budget, because he is working with george bush the first. he has to help shepherd him raising taxes through, because under the reagan administration the budget gets out of kilter and they have to raise taxes. bill gray is it. if you look at his background, you can see he has learned the art of politics, again through those organizations that he is trained up in. that is primarily in his case the baptist church. jesse lewis jackson sr. -- people still know who jesse jackson is, right?
leader, famous ,hicago and -- chicagoan somebody i'm trying to do research on, trying to think about a book project on, particularly as it centers black people running for the presidency. , 1972 atesse jackson the democratic convention and then later on in 1984 , there would be no obama. here's a little video. -- jackson split from the leadership. in 1971, 4 operation bush.
hiring blackre clerks. said, you're going to have to somehiring african-americans or that is set. >> in 1979, he's got. here to jackson came support. is one of the most courageous leaders in the united states. >> i am somebody. he founded the rainbow coalition to fight for equal rights for everyone. that same year, jackson ran for president. he came in third in the democratic primaries. in 1988, he ran once again. [indiscernible]
andhen the returns came in 2008 and obama was on stage -- jackson is a baptist minister and civil rights leader. junior served in the house of representatives. [indiscernible] ♪ clip] deo >> that is a very favorable video clip of jesse jackson. on the projects, they called him messy jesse. but, the point is that this unique position has been carved
is not just a religious role. it has taken on the other social significance. any last questions? i would ask you to pay attention to william barber, who started moral mondays in north carolina to start aempting poor people's union in the united states. these same position, then people's political news are also spiritual. thank you. announcer: join us every saturday evening at 8:00 p.m. and been dying to eastern as we join students and college classrooms to hear lectures on college topics ranging from the american revolution to card. visit our website for podcasts
or download them from itunes. q&a,nday on c-span's u.s. federal on entitlement programs. >> entitlement program stem from a basic human desire to help someone who is in need of assistance. it is just common. all of us have it in us. it is easier of course to do it with someone else's money but they still have that same basic desire that you and i do. they also have this desire to be reelected. so one-sided entitlement is put in place, then the game has changed. interest groups form around protecting that entitlement, pressing for more assistance. money starts flowing to politicians who protect those benefits. it is a desire for reelection --
>> talking about u.s. federal entitlement programs sunday night on c-span's q&a. >> american history tv, u.s. -- university officer's icon for aikrishnaures -- s prakash. he focuses on the separation of powers and argues that the united states constitution does not focus on what he calls "double duty." this is a 45 minute program in the supreme court chamber. >> i would like to express the society's gratitude to our h