tv Veterans Day Ceremony at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial CSPAN December 29, 2017 5:48pm-6:48pm EST
>> american history tv is is looking back 50 years to the vietnam war. next, this year's veteran's day ceremony at the vietnam veteran's memorial in washington, d.c. speakers included the designer of the wall, maya lynn and former defense secretary and vietnam veteran, chuck hagel. [captioning performed by the
national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] >> good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. i'm the president and ceo of the vietnam veterans memorial fund and i'll be your master of ceremonies for today. it is my pleasure to be the first to welcome you to the annual veterans day ceremony at the wall. before we begin the formal program, i would like to recognize all of the gold star family members we have with us
here today. the mothers, father, wives, siblings, spouses, nieces, nephews, and the sons and daughters in touch. all those who have experienced experienced the loss of a loved one and know all too well the sacrifices that our military families make. and finally, to those still waiting for the return of their loved ones who are listed as missing. thank you for joining us. [ applause ] i'd like to take a moment to thank the wall volunteers. they're the folks you see in the yellow jackets in the yellow hats. and the staff of the vietnam veterans memorial fund for all they do year round to honor veterans and preserve the memorial. they truly put everything they have into making the experience of every single visitor at the wall as meaningful as it can be. [ applause ]
and my last thank you today goes to our 35th anniversary commemoration sponsors, pbs, edie and fred ross, land of the free foundation. pen fed credit union. the slater foundation. usaa and wells fargo. thank you for helping to make today's ceremony and all that we have done this year to mark the 35th anniversary of the wall possible. [ applause ] before we begin our program today, we'll pause to recognize our p.o.w.s and m.i.a.s. i call your attention to the chair which occupies a place of dignity and honor on our stage.
let us always remember and never forget their sacrifices. and now i'd like to start with an invocation. please welcome our chaplain, major luis a. garayua iii who will lead us in the invocation. >> would you please join me in prayer. heavenly father, as we celebrate the 35th anniversary of this wall let us remember all those who served and those that are not here today. we commemorate those names that are on the wall and lord, we pray for those that are here today that still carry the scars from service in vietnam. we ask that in your precious and mighty name. amen. >> and now i would like to introduce the joint armed forces color guard from the military district of washington for our
♪ whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight ♪ ♪ o'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? ♪ ♪ and the rockets' red glare the bombs bursting in air ♪ ♪ gave proof through the night that our flag was still there ♪ ♪ oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave ♪ ♪ o'er the land of the free ♪
♪ and the home of the brave? ♪ [ applause ] >> please remain standing while we are led in the pledge of allegiance. >> thank you. my name is lieutenant general chuck petey, and mark milley and our chief of staff of the army, i may add my father and father-in-law who are both vietnam veterans, i thank you for being here and for the privilege of leading you in our pledge of allegiance. if you'd please place your hand over your heart and join me. i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america.
>> please be seated. the vietnam veterans memorial fund hosts a ceremony each year in partnership with the national park service. at this time, i'd like to welcome the secretary of the interior as our partner in today's ceremony. secretary ryan zinke is a former navy s.e.a.l. he certainly understands the importance of remembering the sacrifices of those who serve in military service and we are extremely pleased to have him join us for a few days ago to read names listed on the wall. welcome, secretary zinke. [ applause ]
>> well, happy veterans day. you know, all of us have a different experience about vietnam. my experience was growing up in a little town called white fish, montana. and every veterans day a parade would go by. my grandfather owned a chevrolet dealership. used to bring me to the curb and give me a flag. i remember the veterans marching by. from the time the veterans would march by the year and the war they fought. i remember the dough boys. they had their weapons shouldered. and they marched, brilliantly. followed by the world war ii veterans. at the time there was a lot of world war ii veterans. you recall the world war ii
veterans growing up in my lifetime were always the ones the civic leaders in charge of the lions club, the kiwanis club and they were the pillars of our community. in the korean war, my step father was a marine. semper fi. he fought in the korean war and they marched. then i remember as a child looking at the vietnam veterans. up front, you always marched a little differently. a war was a different war. the monument behind us is a different monument than all of the other monuments in this great mall. if you can compare the monument to the world war ii monument the
glory, the size and the majestic of the monument, compared to the monument behind us, it lies low on the horizon. when i was a congressman, on the 50th anniversary of the war one of my greatest honors would be to give pins to the veterans that served in the vietnam war. and the experience of the vietnam war was different than mine. the war in vietnam came to me. i remember watching it with walter cronkite with me every night. i remember my parents with me watching the war. when you came home, it was a different experience than what i experienced. the number of veterans that served that war always talk about coming into either san francisco, taking off the
uniforms, throwing them in trash cans. that's a different experience than what i experienced. when i came home, it was adulation. thanks, support your troops, bands. a lot of the reason why i received what i did in my generation is because you did not. i think as a nation we should be ashamed. at how we viewed your service. your dedication. the monument behind me i think is not a tribute to victory or defeat. it's a tribute to remembrance.
we should never run away from the history of our country. we should learn. when i served in the s.e.a.l. team for 23 years, in 1995 most of my instructors were s.e.a.l.s that had served in vietnam. they cut their teeth in the jungles and the rivers and i learned a lot. from those fine warriors. i have learned a lot from you. those that have fought. i have learned commitment, dedication, sacrifice. and i thank you.
to tell a quick story while i say semper fi to every marine i see. as i fought with general mattis in fallujah, i can tell you i sleep better at night knowing general mattis has the military. [ applause ] and i have to tell you, you know god loves us because general kelly's in the white house. but when i was in fallujah, i was on the front lines. i was the deputy commander of special forces in iraq and we were looking at what was going on in fallujah. and general conway, later became the commandant of the marine corps and general mattis who was the first division marine commander, i showed him what we were doing, where the safe houses were, where the snipers were. you know, kind of laying out the
battle and that went along and this young sergeant next to me -- bear in mind, i'm the commander. this young sergeant grabs me by my collar and nearly throws me down. when i get up and shake myself off and i'm red in the face and i go right up to him, and he goes, sir, they're shooting at you. and for you marines semper fi, thank you. so lastly i want to express how grateful i am to be your secretary and how grateful our nation is for you magnificent vietnam veterans. and for those family members today, share in the understanding that we are a better nation for your service. with that, god bless.
[ applause ] >> thank you, secretary zinke. now please welcome diane carlson evans a vietnam war veteran nurse and a founder of the vietnam foundation. >> thank you. we are grateful to be here for the 35th anniversary because it means we're all survivors. we a here, we're together. and exactly one year from today we'll celebrate another anniversary, the 25th anniversary of the dedication of the vietnam women's memorial. which stands behind you and designed by glenna goodacre. one of the women who this memorial will share her story as
an army nurse in vietnam. we are very proud of kate o'hare-palmer. she was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1967 from seal beech, california, at the ripe old age of 21. she served as an operating room nurse and emergency room nurse at the ripe old age of 21. at the second surgical hospital in laicai in 1968 and 1969. kate came home like most of us -- just wanting to get on with her life, have a family and continue with her nursing career. there were bumps in the road. however, her commitment to her fellow veterans has always been there. kate's career in nursing has spanned 30 years. her story can be found in the
book "officer nurse woman". upon returning home she completed her bs degree in nutrition at uc berkeley. she has held the vietnam veterans of america chair for the past five years. she has worked with legislators and community members at the state and national level, fighting for veterans' rights and benefits. kate never gave up in her fight to care for veterans. she continues to sit on the sfva medical center women's health committee and works with various education committees at the high school and college levels to enhance the knowledge of women veterans. please give kate o'hare a warm welcome. [ applause ] thank you, diane, for that wonderful introduction.
it's am >> thank you, diane, for that wonderful introduction. it's amazing to me i have been coming here for years, sitting out there with you all. and now i'm up here to tell my story. and i wanted to say that this is a special anniversary, the 35th. i was here for the 25th for the parade. this is amazing. last month i opened up a fortune cookie and it said, you will be traveling and coming into a fortune. well, i traveled across from california to here and here's my fortune, my brothers and sisters. welcome home. i want to share just a short bit about my time as an army nurse in vietnam, my transition home and the current needs of women veterans. who have served in the military. my military service truly began in my home because both my
parents were in the army air corps during world war ii. and my mother scrambled eggs in the morning and was teaching us morse code. dit dit dit, dada dada. i could have used that sos a few times in vietnam. my older brother tom was an in country veteran in 1965 and '66. i saw his pictures come home, he was in a hospital there. and i wanted to help. i was a nursing student. it was that simple. upon graduation i raised my right hand with three of my friends and we took the oath to support and defend the constitution of the united states against all enemies. i believe this. i am a constitutionalist. the war was permeating all our lives and i didn't know how much then my heart, my mind, and my soul would be tested.
i went to vietnam in june of '68 the day after robert kennedy was assassinated. within two hours of hitting chulai i was in the hospital operating room scrubbed in. after three weeks i began to wonder how i was going to make it. working between the emergency and operating rooms, i saw injuries and carnage that no one could be prepared for. even though i trained at a 5,000 bed l.a. county general hospital. i was grateful for the training i received in the army before i went over, and it helped me with my first tracheostomy to save a life. the team work of all the medics, nurses and doctors that i was able to work with was hard to beat and will be forever remembered. we were a team.
we supported the first cav in icorps in '68. some of us were either dating, engaged or married to men who were also serving in the military. so not only were we caring for those in our hospital, we were worrying would we see our guy come in on a litter? the 312 evacuation hospital came up to chulai and second surge was sent down to 3 corps to laicai and we changed our mission to support big red one. i know there's a lot of you here. in the spring of '69, the long range reconnaissance patrol brought to our hospital american soldiers who had been held as p.o.w.s in cambodia. they were severely mutilated, some of their genitals cut off and they were barely alive. one of them asked me to let him die.
he didn't want to go home like that. i just hugged him. my duties were never ending. my hands continued to work but my compassion was being drained. my soul was tearing and no one that wants -- no one that is in a war ever wants war to continue. the robot kate took over those last few months in country. it was too much. coming home to air force base and bussed into oakland depot, we had protesters throw rotten vegetables on us. we were not prepared for that. i was buffered somewhat in the early '70s by being at ft. stewart, georgia, with my husband, and i worked at a local
hospital while the south vietnamese soldiers were being trained. however, the war followed me home. an unexpected thing happened to me. i started having dreams, bad dreams, blood dreams. covered in blood because i was an operating room nurse. they started intruding into my daytime life and i called them my day mares. after being in vietnam and being so strong, i felt so weak and scared and i didn't know what to do. it broke up my marriage because i didn't want to tell my husband after being so strong that i was so scared and weak. so those memories were relegated to a subconscious and i returned to san francisco and finished college. one night while i was working at the v.a. san francisco a patient came out of his room and up to
me and he said, you were my mask angel. i recognize your blue eyes and your voice and i will never forget when you said to me, you are safe now. you will go home. it was stunning to me to meet somebody that was alive. we cry for all these names. we cry for all of these men and women that died. but to meet somebody that made it back was the beginning of our healing. the dedication in 1993 of the women's memorial was an ecstatic day for us. we women were back together and acknowledged. the effort, energy and support to get this project completed were herculean and on that veterans day dedication we were greeted by our brothers. many had their military records and were looking for their nurses, clerks, women they worked with in intelligence or aircraft maintenance. they were looking for the
american red cross workers who had flown into their lz. these thank yous and hugs that we got and continue to get every time we come here are so warm and so amazing to us. diane's message and circle of healing was truly begun. the spiritual component of our healing was weaving through us and it was only the beginning of a long road home for many of us. i'm grateful to the vets center because they really helped me. they gave us back our pride and honor in our service when we were feeling less than whole. during our vietnam war era 2% of the military were women because there was a cap on how many could serve. now there's almost 15% women that serve. over 250,000 served during the vietnam war era, but much more now. what i wanted to mention because
there's still many areas that need advancement. and we continue to help with that. women experience toxic exposure related to cancers and ptsd like our fellow soldiers. the vietnam veterans of america and other major veteran service organizations have worked tirelessly to help get that toxic exposure and research act passed last year. but that's only the beginning. you need to keep on everyone so that we get the benefits and the care that we deserve after toxic exposure. it's for our children and our grandchildren now. timely care is needed at the v.a. health care. obstetrics and gynecological care should be standard in all v.a. hospitals. it's a goal but hasn't been met yet and infertility in both
women and men that serve in country or serve in other areas today that have toxic exposure is something that we need more work on. v.a. benefits meet inclusion of comparable claims for women veterans. suicide and homeless rates for women veterans are really on the rise and we need to look at that and help. military sexual trauma care is a sore point. in 2014, we had a bill passed that was supposed to help take care of that. it's not enough. and we need to say no more ever again. the forever gi bill that just passed will be greatly used by our veterans that have been delayed entry back to school for
either family, mental health or medical reasons. the majority of us veterans, all of us, we have gone home, served in our communities, been in places of leadership and we have continued to work with ourselves and others. we need to stand and work and live together always because we are special. we are. thank you. i'm proud to be a veteran and welcome home. [ applause ] >> thank you, kate. it is now my pleasure to introduce maya lin. maya was a student at yale when she won the design competition for the memorial that thrust her into the national spotlight.
over the last 35 years she has gone on to have a very successful career as a designer and artist. ladies and gentlemen, please welcome maya lin. [ applause ] >> thank you. i'm so deeply honored to be here today, veterans day. the day our country sets aside to honor our nation's veterans. the design of the vietnam veterans memorial was always meant to do just that. remember and honor the veterans who served in the vietnam war. and remember those who did not come back. it's hard to believe it's been 35 years since its dedication. almost 37 years ago i stood here for the first time looking at this beautiful park. i had no idea what was to come over the next two years. i stood here and had a simple
impulse -- to cut open the earth and to polish the earth's open sides. now to realize this design was not an easy journey. it was full of controversy and emotions on all sides. in 1982 at the wall's dedication, i was here and at that time i was met by a very angry, very emotional vietnam veteran right here on the eve of the dedication. and as he raged at me, i could not help but to think how the pain and memories that that veteran was experiencing that made him lash out at me signified that the memorial was beginning to work. by creating a space that would allow a returning veteran to remember that time and although those memories at times would be emotionally charged and at times
painful, it is only when we can honestly face that loss and that pain that we can begin to overcome it. and that cathartic healing process that has become so much a part of the space was always at the heart of this design. i have been fortunate through the years to have received so many heart felt thanks and letters from veterans, from family members who have lost a loved one, from a psychiatrist who helped those with ptsd and wrote of how his final victory was to bring veterans to the wall. by it's i who need to thank you for your service and sacrifice. it has been a deeply moving experience for me. at the time i must confess it wasn't the easiest of projects. i too was the average age of vietnam service member. i was 21 going on 22. and though my battle and what we
all went through to build this is nothing compared to what you endured, maybe it too was part of the story of the vietnam war and its aftermath. i want to acknowledge and give thanks to those who were instrumental in realizing this design. the small group of vietnam veterans who work so hard to set up the idea to get congressional authorization, to hold the competition and then to weather an incredible political firestorm to get it built. to jan scruggs the founder of the vvmf whose idea it was to build a memorial. who was then aided -- [ applause ] -- by a small group of dedicated vietnam veterans. robert due beck, ron gibbs, jack wheeler, colonel don shape, john woods. some of whom are here today. and sadly, for those who are not
still with us. they fought so hard to help realize this design. and to cooper lechy, to henry arnold the landscape architect who had originally designed this beautiful park in constitution gardens. to jay carter brown of the fine arts commission and so many commissioners who shepherded the project through the numerous planning meetings in d.c. and to so many senators and congressmen, generals, veterans, gold star families and volunteers who all made this memorial reality. so that it can stand today and have the effect that it does on millions of visitors each year. it wasn't the easiest of designs to understand before it was built. since it connects to you in a very personal and psychological way. my task as the artist was to keep that design simple and
pure. from the politics, from the controversy, from serious alterations and for all the myriad design details that help make this design what it is today. i envision cutting open the earth and polishing the earth's open sides. the walls would not be massive, but instead, thin and light so that the names alone become the object. that the walls would be published to a mirror shine. so you see yourself reflected in the names. and that the depth would be enough to offer you refuge, but not enough to become oppressive. that it had always had to be of human scale and that as you descend the names rise up to meet you. and of utmost importance that you would be able to find your time on the wall. and connect with your fallen colleagues. i was intently focused on creating a work that would talk to each one of you individually.
yet also to have you seen together as a whole, as a family. and to see yourself reflected in both the washington monument and the lincoln memorial so that you and your service would become a part of the very fabric of our country. so that you've become an honored and storied part of our nation's history. i cannot imagine what you endured overseas. only to come home and not be welcomed home by the country that asked you to serve. i believe so strongly that the politics of that war had been so divisive that this memorial had to rise above that. that this memorial could not let the politics of the war color your service, your sacrifice and your loss. we must never forget ever the heroism and sacrifice that you
and your fellow veterans have made for our country. and if this memorial has helped to welcome you home, and to help heal some of the turmoil and pain of that war and to embrace you and honor you in our nation's capital, then i'm deeply honored to have played my part in your story. thank you. [ applause ] >> i know every single one of us here today >> well, i know every single one of us would like to come up to maya at the end of the ceremony and offer their personal thanks,
but she has to leave quickly and take a flight to london. but i think we all can use the loudness of our applause to let her know exactly how much her design, this memorial means to all of us. [ applause ] and it is now my distinct honor to introduce our keynote speaker for today. vietnam veteran enlisted in the army, senator from nebraska, and of course chairman of our 35th anniversary committee, 24th secretary of defense, chuck hagel. [ applause ] >> jim, thank you.
secretary zinke, to all of our distinguished leaders that i have the privilege of sharing the podium with, thank you to our vietnam veterans, their families. to all of our veterans, all here, thank you. thank you for your service. thank you for being here. thank you for sharing a special day. for not just vietnam war veterans but all of our veterans and the active duty military men and women and to you maya, again. your presence, your words reflect as well as anyone can what this memorial means. what it has meant and it will continue to mean to future generations. so maya, thank you once again. i want to add my personal thanks to the group of individuals that
maya mentioned starting with jan scruggs. his founding board, some are here today. so many people that were part of working through the difficulty of getting this memorial built at a difficult time. maya, you mentioned some members of congress and there are two specific individuals that i have had the pleasure of not just serving with, but getting to know over the years. but two united states senators without who support -- whose support i don't think this memorial would have been built. senator john warner from virginia and matt mathias. these two individuals really made it happen. 35 years ago today, this memorial was dedicated. it was built to honor, remember and recognize the sacrifices of
over 58,000 americans and all the men and women who served in a confusing and unpopular war in a very distant land. this memorial was built for future generations. so they would learn from this war. and would always remember that wars have serious and lasting consequences. i said in my remarks at the ground breaking for this memorial 35 years ago there is no glory in war. only suffering. but with all the suffering vietnam veterans endured and saw, they also witnessed uncommon courage and compassion. there was heroism all around. but mostly, it was that they did the job their country asked them to do. their commitment to each other and their individual decency and
their belief in country sustained them. nearly 3 million american men and women served in vietnam and they returned home not asking for special recognition. they didn't wallow in the self-pity or the lack of respect they did not receive. not all succeeded. many struggled. and still struggle from that experience in that far away land. as i wrote these remarks this week, i looked at photos of my brother tom who served with me. side by side in vietnam who is here today. my brother tom and my father in the south pacific during world war ii. as i looked at those pictures, i wondered what a 21-year-old
charlie hagel and his buddies were thinking in 1944. wars are fought by human beings, machines don't fight wars. people fight wars. men and women fight wars. those who survive wars are either embittered or inspired to help make a better world. like all veterans of america's wars vietnam veterans chose the latter course. war gives one clarity. it helps you see what is really important in life. all vietnam veterans should be proud of that hard earned clarity and their service. we should be proud of each other. each generation faces its own unique challenges. unique to their time and history. these challenges are not of the soldiers' making. different times, different wars,
different political currents, all dictate wars and reasons for fighting wars. every generation of americans answered their country's call. and today's veterans of iraq and afghanistan and our current service members are no different. vietnam veterans answered their call and served with honor. historians have written that the common equation for mankind throughout history, that is determined the strength and success of societies. it's challenge, response. challenge, response. how each generation responds to the challenges of its time. those societies that responded well learned, adapted and adjusted, always prospered and helped make a better world for all people. vietnam veterans responded well to their generation's
challenges. strengthening the foundations of a special country with special people. their recognition came far too late. but look around you now. it is here today. i have always believed that the greatest responsibility of leaders is to leave their institutions and those they lead better than they found them. i often heard from the service men and women today and afghan and iraq war veterans that they looked to the vietnam veterans for courage and inspiration. vietnam veterans did serve as role models. and are now the senior statesman of the veterans community. just as the world war ii and korean war veterans before them. last week i attended a ground
breaking for the eisenhower memorial to be built near the capitol. reminding me that it was the vietnam veterans memorial. this memorial that led the way for the next two american war memorials to be built on these sacred grounds of lincoln. as i listened to the eisenhower memorial speakers reflect on the greatness of this soldier statesman, a theme emerged clearly. that captured ike's life. humility, dignity, and quiet leadership. hallmarks of veterans of every war. vietnam veterans were no different. to our vietnam veterans, celebrating your day of recognition. you have earned it. you deserve it. and thank each other. for you are the quiet heroes of your generation.
god bless you all. thank you. [ applause ] >> secretary hagel, you are a true public >> secretary hagel, sir, you are a true public servant. and i'm honored to call you friend. >> thanks. >> allow me to direct your attention to the representatives of several of the nation's leading veteran service organizations. many of them are leaving the stage. for many years these service organizations have joined our tradition of laying wreaths at the vietnam veterans memorial and in honor of the fallen.
while they get in position i want to share a few highlights of what's been a busy year for the vietnam veterans memorial fund. recently, the effort to put a face to every name on the wall passed a major milestone. of the 58,318 photos we have been seeking, less than 4,500 photos are left to meet our goal. i would ask you please if you have photos of anyone on the wall, please make sure they are part of our wall of faces. you can find it through our website, vvmf.org. we also inducted 412 vietnam veterans into the in memory honor roll which honors the men and women who served in the vietnam war and later died as a
result of their service. as we do each year we inducted them into the honor roll the saturday of father's day weekend. we do it on the knoll right over here overlooking the wall. in march, we commemorated the ground breaking for construction of the wall 35 years ago. and we were lucky enough to have remembrances from the retired vietnam veterans memorial fund president and founder, jan scruggs and the first executive director of the fund, robert duebeck who is with us here today. for memorial day, jan was our master of ceremonies and our speakers were ken burns and lynn novak, co-directors of the recently released documentary "the vietnam war." we release public service announcements starring gary sinese, ken burns and ann-margret.
[ applause ] thanks to all of them for supporting our efforts. and we are ending our anniversary commemoration this week with the reading of the names. honoring maya lin, and hearing from the only enlisted vietnam veteran ever to serve as secretary of defense, chuck hagel. with all of our speakers and the activities we maintained the commitment the wall was built on -- never forget. i will now read the names of the organizations as they lay their wreaths today. i would ask you to please stand if you're able. while the wreaths are being laid, you will hear the bagpiper playing "amazing grace" for the 19th year. today's ceremony will close with the playing of taps by master
sergeant daniel orbin jr. of the president's own united states marine band. the organizations laying wreaths, national park service. ♪ vietnam veterans memorial fund. vietnam women's memorial. american gold star mothers. operation freedom bird. paralyzed veterans of america. gold star wives of america. the 101st airborne division.
first calvary division association. sons an daughters in touch. fifth battalion, seventh cavalry association. 25th infantry division. military order of the purple heart. verizon veterans advisory board. national dusters, quads and search lights association. vietnam veterans of america. 8:00 to 9:00 ptsd class, washington. association of vietnam veterans of america.
>> honor guard, you are dismissed. this concludes our ceremony. thank you for coming, ladies and gentlemen. this week, washington journal features authors of key books published this past year. join us for or live conversation with authors about their popular books. coming up on saturday, jessica bruter with her book. and on sunday, author chris whipple with "the gatekeepers, how the white house chiefs of staff define every presidency." washington journal's author series all this week at 8:00 a.m. eastern on c-span, c-span.org and c-span radio.
paying with their bodies, american war and the problem of the disabled veteran is a 2015 book by oklahoma state history professor john kinder. next on american history tv from the new york academy of medicine, professor kinder explores the history of u.s. wars through the injured bodies of five disabled veterans and argues that the nation struggles and often fails to meet the needs of the wounded veterans. this 75-minute illustrated talk includes graphic images. >> now, for this evening, we're very happy to welcome john kinder and his talk, a history of american war in five bodies. this is part of a series of lectures and events we have had throughout the year. legacies of war, medical innovations and impacts, which commemorate the american entry into world war i. for the talk