tv Settlement of San Jose- Peralta Adobe CSPAN January 6, 2018 7:01am-8:12am EST
live coverage annual meeting. saturday on american history tv. on c-span 3. the coordinating producer on the city tour team. this year we visited 24 cities exploring their unique history and literary life. right now we'll show you several stops in san jose, california. a city that sits in the heart of silicon valley and the home of many large tech companies. november of 1777 a group of 6 settlers moved down from the san francisco and came here to san jose. to establish the peral. it was moved from the original location. to this location here. in proper downtown san jose. the adoeb.
is the last remaining structure of the pueblo. in the mid-1770s, california at that time was settled by the spaniards. and they had two different establishments at the time. you had operated and founded by the military. and then you had the missions that were established by the priests. up and down the california from san diego up to san francisco. at the time. until that time you had no civil basically a city type of establishment. and so during that time you had a lot of native americans still running throughout california. and it was the attempt of the spaniards to try and settle and christianize the original settlers the native americans that were established here.
at this time also you had the intrusion from the french, british, and russian interest coming into the pacific coast. so the spaniards are looking at a way of settling and kind of controlling the region that we know of california at the time. the difficulty was sea travel going up the coast was against the trade winds. from mexico. so the thought was if they could establish an oval hand trail method that that would help solidify the hoeltd on california. and in 1775, early soldier for the spanish government, created his own trail from basically southern arizona up into california. and up as far as monterey california. and so he went back to the
spaniard government and got permission to lead the exhibition following the same trail. 1776, he led a group of 240 people, this is a mix of different native americans, different spaniards, people mixed races. across on the this trail. and they ended up in monterey. a couple months later his lieutenant led the remaining group up to the san francisco. where they settled for six months. at that time the governor of california was loolking for a way of having a civil establishment beyond just the missions. but a civil type farming community that would act as a ply station for the different
establishments. and so with the known at the time you had mission that was founded. here in the early 1776. that is known by the missionaries at that time it was a rich agricultural. rich agricultural potential for farming. that's why november of 1777 a group of 66 settlers moved down from san francisco. and came here to san jose. to establish the pueblo. now we have come into the inside of the adoeb. there's only two rooms in the structure. for our interpret purposes sweat up the rooms to represent the two eras of one you had the spaniard era from 1777 to 1823.
when after 1823 you had the mexican independence. so you had the different era. this represented in the two rooms. this room here that we're in is the former bedroom for the both the gonzalez and -- if you can tell it's sparse. there's the floor is an adoe betype floor. and the walls are limited plaster. and the spaniard era the spaniards wanted to heavily tax the citizens. and so as a result the citizens were limited in terms of what that i had tray can do with other countries. they traded primarily only with the within the spanish empire. they were resourceful and using items from the local
environment. for their needs. one of the interesting things here is that the if you look at the the bed here the bed frame the springs are made of raw hide. there were stretched between the wood and beams here to give the spring effect. you have the animal skin for the bedding material. also notice on the crib that they use raw hide to hold things from the roof. we have added a little wire rope here to help support these structure. but that's give you a general idea of how they were resourceful using the items within the local community to funnish their home. another remarkable thing in this house this particular chair. if you notice the unique share. that is actually made out of a whale bone. they would find whale car kas
along the coast and use of course the rubber the blubber for oil. and also use the skeleton of the whale. to build different structures. many this case you see the rib bones are used for the arms of the chair. and then the backbone is actually used for the seat. along the ocean shore you had access to which provided the meals. but also provided shells like this. that the settlers use this to for different storage techniques. they would put beads or food. they would serve food in shells like this. but once again using the resources they had available to them in the area. that was during the spanish era. when we give tours of this
structure we explain to the groups of the different eras. going across here we enter the second room of the structure. this is used as maybe a meeting space. for serving food when you had weather. really the food preparation was done outside in the garden area. in the yard. if you notice in this area you have more furnishing. that are recognizable from european interest. or even the far east. that's because after 1823, when the area was under mexican control. the mexican government allowed trade with international countries. and so the local residents would meet ships in the harbors either monterey or san francisco.
and trade with people on the ships. for different items. they would trade the raw hide or some of the oats and grains that were here grown locally with the ships for china. or trade for furnishings. for different types of wood. as you go through here you'll see also some pots and pans. some items. that was the idea here for the mexican government is they want to encourage the trading with other parties. also a down fall for in terms of mexican rule. that encouraged people to settle in to the california area. primarily americans coming across country. over land through over the
passes and down through the desert. to settle california. and so that led to an influence of americans in the area. and one of those famous parties of course was the donna reed party. that we hear of so much of the tragedy that occurred in nevadas. a member of the party was the reed family. that protected some of the gruesome stories we hear that occurred in the tragedy. but the reed family mr. reed settled here in san jose. because he was a survivor of the donner party, that he was a well known it was a well known name at that time. and so when california became when people are meeting to discuss state hood for california, james reed had a prominent voice here in california when they met in monterey. and at that time in october of
1849, he promoted san jose to be the capitol of california. and so the delegates because of mr. reeds prominence they voted in favor of locating the first capitol of the state of california here in san jose. under the promise that james reed would encourage the local citizens to build a state house. for the first meeting of the legislature, and december of the year. when the legislators came here to san jose in december 1849, it was raining. it continued to rain. one of the first acts because they were so derespondent with the rainfalling that year. one of the firs acts was to start the motion to move the capitol to another location.
and that time two years later the capitol of california moved from san jose to up further north on along the between the bay and the delta rejoregion of california. rain played an important part of history here. the rain washed out the original sight of the pueblo. about a mile north here in 1778. and washed out the dreams of san jose being the capitol of california. in the rains of the december 1849. next. larry author of not so golden after all. the rise and fall of california. he shares the story of california's mixed history relating to immigration. it's economy. land and water issues. and its relationship with the
federal government. this is 20 minutes. so many people come to california because they see it as e den. it's heaven. and of course television hasn't helped because ask anybody, particularly east of the rockies and they think california drive convertibles, go to the beach. have a big dog in the back of the car and sit all day drinking beer. because that's what california -- and they're blond. that's what california is about. that's what commercials have been about for many years. that's not what california is about. if you know anything about california, among other thing i'm a native born california. i have studied third-degree state 50 years or more. you realize this state is so top si tur vi. it's like a roller coaster gone bad. it can be a boom state
economically one year. it can be in the hole $30 billion the next. it can be a state that embraces immigrants as it has in the past. it can be a state that is absolutely done everything it could to make immigrants feel uncomfortable. it can be a state where there's nothing but flowing water and enabling everybody to grow and use whatever purposes and it can be a state another five or six years later where there's nothing to drink. there are so many extremes in california. and just when we think we're sort of going to get it to get on top of things, we fall down. so that's why i said the rise and fall. it comes and goes. up and down. but at the end of the day it's certainly i think the most dp exciting place to be. the rise has been up and down.
it's not one asen dance. california had an incredible boom with the gold rush. that started it all. all the people came to california. and of course basically stole the state. obviously some historianing put it more gently. that's what happened. stole the state largely from the native americans and the spanish turned mexican. by that time. mexico because of its revolt from spain had been running california. they call it the revolt. about six shots. the idea was relatively few white men all of whom had come here and bloef me it was hard to get here. stage a coo. and it became an easy thing to do once the mexico signed the treaty. in texas. ending the mexican american war. and so that sort of sent the stage for the bear revolt. and boy, the state just boomed.
during the gold rush. they couldn't come here fast enough. and it's all the point in time when we saw the first great immigration wave. chinese coming to california. to help the next segment of the boom. that was the transcontinental railroad. for 30 years or so there was hustle and bustle in the state. it was changing left and right. and it became more diverse. and the people with money came into the state. and the railroad owned the state. all these things happened in a brief, 30 years or so. and you could argue during that period, wow we were going up. way up. of course things change. not that we had to go immediately down. we had a period where california was tranquil. the gold rush ended. abruptly it seems. and this became an agrarian state. after world war ii of course the va was important here.
all the people who worked. rosy riveter type. as well as the military come lg home. they all got loans. it was a goaden period. the 1940s. people were adjusting. men were going to school. and california had a history once it developed its higher education system of believe it or not making college free. it was free. during the 50s and 60s. the state put together its higher education program. university colleges and community colleges. it didn't last long enough. as far as i'm concerned. it was in the mid-60s when reagan became governor 1966. that was when he and the board of regions began to install tuition for the uc. and the commune colleges. not so much. but that was a golden period. then during the 50s there was automobile manufacturing here.
a lot. and all the parts that go with automobiles. and other manufacturing california. it was a big manufacturing state. the 70s and 80s were difficult. a bit more difficult. the pulse wasn't beating quite so hard. and quite so fast. and quite so loud. and so the state began to go into a very serious period of discrimination. and particularly against immigrants. and during people don't remember this anymore chl during the 80s and 90s we passed some of the harshest antiimmigrant legislation you could imagine. one proposition proposition 187 would have denied illegal immigrants any benefits provided by the state including education. most was thrown out by the federal court. another proposition during that period made english states official language. another proposition during that
period the voters passed all these. ended affirmative action. we were one of the first states to end it. people don't remember this. during the late 70s and 80s and 90s. this place really went back ward. in terms of a number of the social issues ha people talk about today. so this is part of california now. and it's all turned around. the california in terms of immigration during the 1970s and 90s. today this is one of the most p proimmigrant states in the country. a non-hispanic whites are a majority of the population. and their numbers have moved up in the state legislature. and in local office. and so because of that incredible growth of the various minorties, the state has become much more sensitive. now of course driver's licenses
for undocumented immigrants. now they can go to college and get state loans. and state aid. undocumented immigrants can. sanctuary cities popped up everywhere. and as we speak the state is on the verge the legislature on making california the first fully sanctuary state. so the changes that go on here are like massive waves. only the waves don't always go the same direction. and they batter things one way and batter the next. it's part of the excitement of the state. it's part of the exhilaration of the state. and for some it can be the heartbreak of the state. now when you look at the central vae lee about 400 miles hong. the richest land you'll find anywhere. the only missing ingredient is water. there have been water wars that will they made movies out of.
china town. the way los angeles stole water. water wars in the state larger than that area. largely because 80% of the water is number one owned -- goes to agriculture. 80%. or agriculture related activities. that leaves 20% for the rest of the state. inchuding people who like to drink it. add to that 75% of the water in this state comes into northern california. the sier ras. in the rain. in northern california. 25% about two-thirds. one-third of the water is generated in southern california. the problem is southern california has two-thirds of the population. and northern california which by the way we're generous with. for a will the of people it's north of the hatch pea. don't tell the people in real northern california.
as far as they're concerned we're all urban scum. the fact that most of the water is in northern california, most of the population is in southern california. that sets up a problem in itself. add to that that agriculture uses about 80% of the water. sets up an incredible competition. and fight really. between farmers and environmentalists. coupled with urban users. so about you know the battles here are endless. ways -- you won't find more water in california. you're just not. if you're lucky you'll get a decent year. count the snow pack. the snow pact counts for one-third of the water. no snow you're in trouble. draw from the colorado aqua for. which have been drained. thanks to the drought. farmers are always looking for
the water. and the environmentalists are saying the more water you take especially from the delta water coming down the rivers that would go to the delta, and circumvent that and pour it ento agriculture the more you're endangering fish and lots of species. that's one of the headaches that we have had here for the last, oh 40 years. it's kind of funny right now. we talk about president trump and talking about denying california money if the sanctuary cities and states don't cooperate. fact of the matter california is a donor state. this state contributes billions of dollars more to the federal government than we get back. it's a donor state. one of the largest around. the state to the south they're recipient states. many states in the midwest same thing.
so it's ironically the poor states are the one that gets the most from the federal government. and rich states don't. they contribute to the federal government. it's been an off and on relationship. having somebody like nancy pelosi as speaker. has been helpful to the state. our two senators. had great seniority in the senate. that matters. it does. right or wrong. we have 53 members of the house. the largest delegation by far. although rarely do they vote together. they can. when they do, their votes count for a lot. you add up all those things and we have the brains here. that's not to say there aren't brains other places. there's such a concentration of talent here. it's such a concentration. of so many smart people who do so many things. innovation is just one of those things that happens all the
time. and it doesn't always work. but it does what it does. it changes everything. go to facebook that company. there's whacky things all over the place. i remember walk through facebook and saw this sign on the white wall. fail first. ask for foriveness later. that mentality exists here. it doesn't exist in washington. so washington is status quo. california is the wild west. and so there's a culture differential to begin with. very different places. and i think that's sometimes causes tension. it depends on the the administration. bill clinton and obama saw great benefits from california. managed to get congress oftentimes to funnel us money. for mass transit for help out
with programs. other federal funds for space exploration. there's a will the of talent here. george w bush was benign. he didn't love it or hate it. he didn't understand it. i don't blame him. and he wasn't out ward on that stuff. trump is going to be interesting. some people are already pulling their hair out. because trump hates california in their mind. i'm not so sure. maybe he does. let's remember we have kevin mcar thi. the majority leader. and sharp people. republicans and democrats. in congress. which will be able to exercise a will the of common sense. and leverage. so i'm not so sure that even trump will turn this state upside down. it's going to be a different era. it has to play itself out.
california matters because it's so often the first. and if not the first it's really among the first. if you look at things like environmentalism, by the way democrats and republicans. arnold will go down in history for a lot of things. in terms of governess. it will be ab 32. a larger percentage of power from alternative energy. way ahead of everybody else. kp coming up with cap and trade. which taxes companies that use too much fuel. this was amazing. so environmentalism is big here. the women's movement is big here. one-third of our congress is women. it's female. you know, that's about double the national average.
minority rights have become big here. one-third of our congress are members is minority. which also is double close to double the national average. these are all movements here. this state in so many ways has set the trend. not always in a light direction for some people. it is a trend setter. you can view this as a country. it is the six largest separated from the nation it is the six largest country in the world in terms of economic development. only five nations that are more powerful than us in terms of economy. so we have used that leverage. in lots of ways. to move ahead. and a lot of states have come to emulate us. some states come to loathe us. my hope would be that people learn more about california.
it's a very exciting place. it's a very fast pace place. not fast pace like new york city. but fast pace in the sense so many things come and go. so many developments rise and fall. so many innovations come and change the world. i'd like them to realize that the complexity of the state the diversity of the state is also the bounty of the state. there's so much we learn from each other in california. it's a state where everybody can somehow get some representation depending whatever group or groups they belong to. a state of great conflict. there are competing values in the state. there's a place for everybody. the far right. and the left of course does as well. but it's a state where there's so much action and so much activity. it's so much energy. i think for that reason it's
exciting. it can be tiring. it can be tiring. it can be exhausting. especially when you try to figure out sacramento and what the legislature is doing and not doing. and the tax collection system. and it's all kinds of problems here. but problems are not it's a state that looks to move. most of the time forward sometimes not. it's a state ta looks to move and never rests on its loyals. and you know, it's a pretty exciting place to be. on february 19th, 1942, president franklin roosevelt signed an executive order which sent 100,000 people of japanese ancestry to relocation centers. the japanese american museum of san jose has a full scale recreation of a room. where the dismaced people were forced to live. a san jose resident was sent to one of the centers.
and built a recreation to give people a sense of what life was like. here's a look. >> this part of the museum is called the leaving for camp. as you can see forced removal is a real thing. how we were forced to move out because if we had one 16th japanese blood in us we had to pack up and leave. that was the order by the army. so it was no chance anybody to escape being non-japanese or if you were mixed marriage it was very few then, husband was a
non-japanese that he could stay in the home. but majority moouved with the family. when the executive order was written and then we were very uncertain what was going to happen to us. when this instruction to report back here myself, my brother and i went. and to sign up. we were given a time limit we report may 23 on may 30. we will be put on the train and be taken off. at the time we said what you can carry you can take. that's it. nothing more. so that was the whole thing. until then we were undecided what was going to happen to us. whether we stay or like myself born here, we will be allowed to
stay and parents born in japan. aliens will be going to the camp. that was the kind of the idea that we had. when this came out, we were all one. and that's when we lost our citizen ship. rights. and then were given a number with the tag on a telephone pole there. the number that's a family number and we were all identified by the number. like my family number was 32420 d. because i was a fourth one in the family. we go to camp. what's your identification number. that was it. and my last name was put on there. to verify. so that's the type of life we lived. our destination still was not known where we were going to go. majority went to -- for us one
train to center. and it was getting full. and we were crowded. then to one room. about three or four months. living in the atmosphere before camp before the war started the discrimination we had we wouldn't get a job like for myself i went to trade school. to take up carpentry. i found a job working in a company. when i graduated and went to union hall, the businesses don't allow people like you. we don't serve, keep ongoing. at that time then i really realize my schoolteacher he told me when i first went to the
class he said he was no construction man turned to be instructor because teaching degree in stanford. i still remember to this day he told me, i'll teach you all i can, you can learn what you can. and get what you can. that's all i can do. and then it dawned on me that's what he said. even though you graduate high school and class. whatever status you are, i can't help you. so that's really stuck with me. so he knew himself yet he was willing to teach me as much as he can about the construction. and so forth. which was huge, huge help for my survival in camp. because i always kept the back of my mind do the best i can. do the best you can.
nobody can expect anymore. in this is a bar rack room. the recreation of a 20 by 20. made for five people to live in. the code is i can't do it myself. i have to build it within a build for fire regulation. so forth. so this was built building on the outside of this completely so you can see how the outside. except you can see the tile paper and the old door that came from -- but from the outside it looks like outside of a bar rack. inside this is a it's kind of unique how the same material like the ceiling joints is building 20 foot wide. 20 foot material. they used two, ten foot and
spliced it. and so you can use a ten foot two by four. same as studs. this made it 7 foot ceiling. 14 footers. cut in half and made a ceiling height seven feet. and every day the normal studs are eight foot high. because it's standard. but this was quite the money saving for the army to go ahead and use the seven foot studs. we moved in here all we had was a cot. and the mattress. and the blanket. and the two blankets per bed. so we had to bring our own sheets. whatever we need be. like it was so cold that they decided to make blankets and
they didn't have anything to make blankets out of. they you can't see it too well, i'll give you an idea. this is a part of a army uniform. world war i army uniform. they unravelled it. this is a trouser. that the soldiers wore and unravelled all the pants and made blankets. and made 10,000 blankets. but then again there was 11,000 people in the so it didn't go very far. we had three blankets. but i myself i know three blankets with 30 below 0 is cold. and usually i take a shower come back and put my street clothes back on. there's one more layer of insulation and two blankets.
so that's how we survived. it was cold but we made it through. so a peacoat over there that was another world war i navy reject. and i couldn't get one to fit myself. because navy guys my size. my smaller sisters. the small peacoats. and everybody had peacoats on. a lot of the old army pants and shirts and not too many pants. but a will the of ladies woul unraffu unu unravel the pants. sp make skirts out of it. they made them look good. but still they were army pants. so but they didn't care. everyone else was in the same boat. ladies were wearing skirts made
out of old army pants. that's how they survived. money was not easy to come by. you got paid $16 a month. and $19 for lower end was $12. then it didn't buy very much. they allow clothing allowance. you had to work to get the clothing allowance. or go to welfare. and apply to get the clothing allowance. look back at that time, my life. and look at today. it hasn't changed. but just shut your eyes and look forward. i'm going to make the goal. that's all it is. is self-preservation. our cities tour continues with the computer history hue teem in mountain view
california. home to the largest international collection of computing art facts in the world. several items on display in the exhibit revolution. this is ten minutes. right now we're in the revolution exhibit at the computer history museum in mountain view, california. behind me are over 1,000 artifacts that tell the story of the history of computing going bab 2,000 years. the exhibit is laid out in 19 galleries each of which focuses on a different theme or object from the history of computing. for example one of the themes is realtime control. so here we look at things like pacemakers for hearts. these are computer systems that must function. they're not like your laptop which can crash and the worse is you'll lose your work. if a pacemaker crashes you die. the oldest item is probably a
set of napiers bones. small ivory counting sticks. those are from the 17th century. the most recent thing we have is an iphone. the first model. we're in the punch card gallery. and behind me you see a replica of a 1890 census machine. in 1980 the bower row had just finished the census. the u.s. constitution requires the census to be taken every ten years. 1890 census was not going to be completed in time. so he came up with a method to do this mechanically. typically the way the system worked was the taker would go out in the field and ask the usual questions. he would bring the questions back to the office where they would be tribe transcribed using this device. handwritten responses into machine readable form. using this blank card board the
census clerk punches holes in the card which correspond to the answers. so what he did by doing this is create the census results sp move them from human readable form to machine readable form. he could put the punch cards inside his census machine. which worked by counting heech each of the holes in the card. this was a real success story. and the census was kplocomplete three years. even though there were millions of immigrants and more questions. ibm grew out of the his pal ents kp come nated computing for the 20th century. his punch card called ibm card were the main way the people interacted with computer for most of the 20th century. right frau we're in the memory and storage gallery. the worlds first hard disk
drive. invented in 1956. at ibm san jose by a team led by ray johnson. a retired schoolteacher good at inventing. no formal engineering training at all. it replaced punch card. you could just have one of these hard disks and the difference too with punch cards you have to sort through them. in order to find the information. compared to a disk drive you can jump directly to the information. so this is much faster. this device is so well made it still functions. and we have a team of volunteers who demonstrate it once a week. they noticed there were 60 year-old data still on the hard disk. in basic form the disk hasn't changed. we are still using disk drives today. that have a platter and read head and a motor. welcome to the mini computer gol ri. they came out in the mid-60s and
computers that small businesses could afford. one that was advertised as the kitchen computer in the 1969 catalog. it cost $10,000. and they didn't sell any. part of the problem is that to program it, the user in this case the housewife would have to know a numbering system. and would have to be able to read the lamps in the code and program the computer using the switches. also in the code. almost an impossible task for most people. generally you would attach a kind of keyboard to this. we have it here in the gallery to show even though it was not practical it shows the beginning of people thinking about putting computers in the home. this came out in 1972 and a revolutionary machine. the alto had a system that used a desk top metaphor.
pull down the menus. and it had either net. laserjet printing. e-mail and spread sheets and word processing. this is 1972. steve jobs saw this machine and was inspired to create the lisa. at apple. which became. macintosh. the things we take for granted the desk top metaphor. on the mac and windows. all came from the xerox. there's a funny story in the history of computing. steve jobs allegedly complained to bill gates that he had stolen the idea for windows from apple. bill gates responded well that's not true we stole it from xerox. that shows you the depth the alto generated. and which continues to effect us all today in the computers we use. we're in the personal computer gallery. which shows all the different kinds of micro processer based
computers that were for sale in the 70s and 80s. we use personal computers today of course. the hay day was the 70s and 80s. the moe most significant here is the apple 1 computer. they sold about 220 of these. many of the them were assembledment some you could build in kit form. that's hi ss signature on the t. the apple one was a hobiest machine. aimed at gear heads. and connecting things up to their tv. on the basis of this steve jobs said if we made a computer for normal people, rather than nerds, no offense. i think we could sell a lot more. and the computer that resulted from that was called the apple test
not megabytes or gigabytes. and provided color. which was unusual for the time. on the basis of the apple two, apple actually kept itself afloat for many years the first few years of sales of the lisa and mac were very disappointing. and only because of the strong apple 2 sales that they stayed in business. apple 2 remained an apple product for 17 years. a few years later ibm joined the party. apple took out a full page add that said welcome ibm. seriously. the pc was not the most advanced computer out there. it has the very important job of legitimizing personal computers for business. until this time, most businessmen looked at the micro processer based computers like the apple as basically toys
suitable for home or educational environment. not for business. it took ibm in 1981 with the pc to finally put a stamp of appro and legitimacy on the pc. you could actually do business type of tasks using an ibm pc. ibm's initial strategy being a pur var of mainframe systems was to protect the mainframe. that's what was generating their billions of dollars in profits. mainframe is a room-sized computer filled with spinning drives and hard drives and people running around. the ibm pc was initially viewed as something that would connect tho those main frames and only later was it something that would standalone and be used by an individual. we're nourp in the networking in the web gallery. what we have is google's first web server. at the time they were a small
company with limited funds. what they did was built their equipment on the cheap. they went to a local electronic store and bought a whole bunch of ibm circuit boards and mounted them to this large cabinet. the cabinet acted like a search engine. so, in fact, if you did a google search in 1999 or 2000, there's a good chance that your search went through this very machine. this system is actually made out of corkboard. if you look underneath all of these pc sir vcircuits boards, they're separated by a very thin layer of cork. that very thin layer of cork is the only thing that's keeping the system from bursting into flames. so it's remarkably poorly designed in a sense. it's not safe really but nonetheless for starting a business when you're basically running out your own garage or a tilt-up kind of business, this was perfect for them.
one of the things that we tell, es superbly school kids when they come to the museum is that a computer is a tool like a hammer. with a hammer you can brain someone over the head with it or build a house. in one case it's evil and the other case it's great, it does something useful. the same with computers. we're seeing now the human or social impact of how everyone having a computer in their pocket is affecting how we live. and there are lots of negative consequences. insomnia, people feeling lonely in spite of being, quote, surrounded by cyber friends. the sort of spurious friendship that occurs on facebook, you call them friends but they're really not friends. and the pace of life now, i think, is the single greatest risk to human sanity in the next 20 years or so. there is the desire which we impose on ourselves seemingly to just always be on, to always be
responding to texts or e-mails or looking up web sites. we don't just sit down and watch the sky anymore. east of san jose stands the lick observer to. it's now operated by the university of california and serves as a research center for scientists, astronomers and students. next, resident astronomer eleanor gates tells us about the history of the observer to. >> james lick was a wealthy businessman in the san francisco bay area back in the 1800s. his fortune was over $3 million back in the 1860s and he wanted to be he remembered. and george davidson, the president of the california academy of sciences and george ma deer ra, an astronomer who showed him what saturn looked like through a small telescope were some of the factors that convinced him that a scientific
monument that would make great discove discoveries was the right way to go. he decided he wanted the greatest telescope made into his model. he gave much from -- the construction of this observer to took quite a long time and started in the 1870s. mount hamilton was an unoccupied mountain, there was no road to the top. so they convinced santa clara county to build a first-class road to the top of mount hamilton. that started in 8 teen 76. by 1888, the road truction was do -- construction was done and they could build this building. by 1886, they finally knew how big the telescope would be. the lenses were done being made and ground to their final figures so they could start
constructing this dome. and this dome is large diameter, i don't know how long it is, but approximately 100 feet in diameter and it houses the 60-foot long telescope. and you'll notice that the telescope suspect high up and that you can't reach the eye piece easily. but they worked around this problem because the floor i'm standing on was a huge elevator. and this floor would go up to the telescope. so the astronomer could ride the floor up to whatever place the telescope was and easily look through the eye piece or take the photographic plate data that they were taking back in the late 1800s and early 19 hundreds. astronomy in the late 1800s and early 19 hundreds when lick observer to was constructed was really going through a heyday of discovery. this telescope when it was constructed was the largest of its kind in the world in 1888 and with it they were able to make some great early discoveries just in the first few years of this observer to.
just the first night of assistance observations with this telescope in january of 1888, james kreerl a young astronomer here looked at saturn and he discovered a new gap in the rings of saturn that is now called the ancy division. a couple years later, they used this telescope in 1892 to discover the fifth moon of jup. i -- jupiter. when he looked through and discovered a fifth moon, that was a huge discovery. people didn't know there were more moons around jupiter and it was the last moon discovered in our solar system using visual sec e techniques, which looking with a human eyeball through a telescope. all subsequent means have been discovered photographically. this is lick observer to's plate vault or photographic plate
archive. lick observer to was very influential in the early days of astronomical photography and we have on the order of 150,000 photographic plates covering over 100 years of astronomical research. today we don't use photographic plates, we use digital cameras instead and lick observer to was also a key organization in moving to using digital cameras for astronomical research instead of the old photographic plates. i'm going pull a few photographic plates just so you can see what they look like. lick observe tori was very prominent in moon observation, so we have many, many plates of the moon from the early or late 18 hundreds and early 19 hundreds. and this is a plate from 1908.
this is a negative image so you can see the moon looks black. and these are some of the finest images of the moon in existence, particularly from that time period and are routinely used in textbooks even today when you are learning about the moon. lick observatory was not only doing research on the moon back in the early 1800s and 19 hundreds, but we had a key part to play in the apollo mission. they put on the moon on their first trip a what's called the lunar retro reflector.
this was little corner cube prisms that it light came in it would be sent right back along the same path. we here at lick observatory used our largest telescope, the shane 120 inch telescope to shoot a laser at that moon to hit that retro reflector and send the lait laser light back to us which we detected with that same 3 meter telescope. and that wreeldyielded the most accurate distance to the moon ever done to that point. james lick unfortunately did not get to see his monument finished. he died in 1876 and was originally buried in san francisco. but his final wish was actually to be buried at his monument. and so james lick was disenterred in san francisco and reenterred here and so his tomb is literally at the base of the telescope and the telescope itself is his tomb stone.
c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service >> just quattro months after shots were fired on fort sumter in 1861, the second major battle of the civil war was fought right here just 10 miles from springfield, missouri. right now, hear more about the battle of wilson's creek. sporting at the nra museum in springfield, missouri, the largest firearms related venue in the country. there are about 1000 firearms on display here. overall, the nra rate museum's system has custody and takes care of almost 10,000 firearms.
the theme of the museum is hunting, conservation and freedom. visitors are going to see the evolution of firearms in terms of their use in hunting. the studyalso learn and for that,n -- we focus on our theodore roosevelt gallery. wasit are roosevelt considered to be the grandfather of the conservation movement. a very active huntsman and sportsmen and a very vigorous conservationist responsible for founding the national park the folks who of began the concept of conservation of wildlife. theme throughout this museum and the other nra museums is the role of firearms in american life, from the earliest days up until today. they have been an integral part
of the founding and expansion and growth of this country and how they have been a part of american life throughout history. we try to focus on that here. whenever we can put a face with a firearm if it has been used by a historical figure, we like to do that. like to show firearms in the context they have been used. we are fortunate to have a number of guns owned by presidents and some of their close associates and we want to take a look at some of those right now. we will start with the most recent one. this is a winchester, model 21 shotgun. they are very elegant and popular. well-made shotguns. you get a clue to the owner of this one when you look at the underside and you see the five stars there of a five-star general. and you see the initials -- dde. that was presented
to dwight david eisenhower and was one of his favorite guns. there is a fun story to this me -- to this gun. our curator was standing near this exhibit and he watched a gentleman come up and stand in front of the case looking at it. the guy looked like a secret service agent out of central casting. he stood there for 5-10 minutes looking at the gun. finally, phil asked him if there was something he could tell him about the gun. he had been a secret service agent and his first day on the presidential detail, eisenhower was meeting with a foreign dignitary who he wanted to take out hunting. the agents went into eisenhower's gun room and asked everyone to grab a shotgun because they were going hunting. the agent grabbed this one here. he reached over for it. and someone said -- that is
ike's gun. and then the president said -- the kid has a good eye, let him take that one. the last day on the job, amy eisenhower asked him to go up and get the gun and bring it out to the car. he had him drive it to nra headquarters and take the gun in an presented to the nra museum. this gun has a lot of presidential history. and a little bit of nra history also. it is -- this is an elegant 20 gauge shotgun. the next shotgun is a big, heavy, large shotgun. people know cold as a maker of classic revolvers in the 1880's. they were also making double-barreled shotguns. this is one of their big camera lists shotguns. this was popular in 12 gauge. and 10 gauge which is even
bigger. this one is an eight gauge which is bigger still. and it is the only eight gauge that cold ever made. they made it for one of america's largest presidents, grover cleveland. cleveland was a large man. and the only person to ever be elected for two not been -- nonsequential terms as american president. theodore roosevelt was probably our shootingest president. hadas an avid hunter and he a remarkable military career as a leader of roosevelt's rough riders in the spanish-american war. the first u.s. volunteer cavalry. he was a congressional medal of honor recipient. the first thing he did when he left office was organized and go on a very large hunting safari to africa where he collected
specimens of wild game that are still on exhibit at the smithsonian today. this is one of theodore roosevelt big, heavy hunting rifles. in africa, there is a tradition with heavy, dangerous game to use a powerful double rifle. you want a powerful shot and a reliable second shot. the double barreled rifle gave you that. folks are familiar with double-barreled shotguns but not so familiar with double-barreled rifles. this one was prepared specifically for roosevelt. it has the presidential seal engraved on the breach. and of course, roosevelt was famous for the bull moose party and there is a bull moose engraved on the side plate of this gun. this was not one of roosevelt african safari rifles. he received this after his
african safari but it is a beautifully made gun that he did own. and it is typical of the big game, double rifles of the era. had -- he was an early adopter of the semiautomatic pistol. ique nacionalrq pistol. beautifully engraved with scroll work. this was a pistol that roosevelt kept in his nightstand. it was his nightstand done. it was also one that mrs. roosevelt taught the grandkids to shoot with off the porch in sagamore hill. we are very glad to have it in the museum. it is a beautiful, beautiful example. this smith & wesson model number three was ordered by theodore roosevelt in height
-- in 1898. he received it from smith & wesson immediately before leaving new york to go to san antonio to train the rough riders. it is engraved. it has an unusual target combat site. they are not the typical sites for this gun. they are a durable, sturdy site. they could be a justice to the individual load. we think we know what roosevelt had in mind for this gun the he did not want it chambered for the standard round for this rifle. he wanted this gun chambered for the u.s. military service round. the 38 cold. we believe he wanted to take this gun to cuba with their. it is not the gun he wound up using in cuba with the rough riders. for that, he wound up receiving action revolver
that had been salvaged from the's uncle battleship maine. that was a revolver he carried into combat and used. we have a couple of revolvers from associates of theodore roosevelt. very close friend and associate of roosevelt was senator henry cabot lodge. this was his gun. it was passed down in his family. the family member that they came from said that he only knew of one time that it had been fired in anger and that was when a cat was using their garden for a sandbox. i don't know if it was effective or not that that was the family lore with this gun. another close associate of the of are roosevelt was general leonard wood.eral he went on to a remarkable career as a medical doctor. he was an early coach of a
college football team. he was a military governor in the philippines after he commanded in cuba during the spanish-american war and a serious contender for the presidential nomination of the republican party. big smith & wesson 44 double action. it belonged to general leonard wood. a top break with automatic extraction. and very effective revolver. leonard wood was one of the first people to have brain surgery and survive. in thein today is possession of the smithsonian institution. leonard wood has a strong connection to this area in that fort leonard wood is a major army installation in missouri and a number of american servicemen and servicewomen have
gone through basic training at fort leonard wood. visitors gain an appreciation for the role that firearms have played in american history. we hope they enjoy themselves. we hope they get to see historic guns they might not have seen. we hope they enjoyed the hollywood guns that we display -- guns we have -- that have been used in movies. >> our cities tour staff recently traveled to springfield, missouri to learn about its rich history. learn more about springfield and other stops on our tour at c-span.org/video tour. you're watching american history tv, all we can, every weekend on c-span3. immediate cable partners worked with the staff whe