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tv   Lectures in History Abraham Lincoln in Art Photographs  CSPAN  January 20, 2018 8:00pm-9:14pm EST

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but they were definitely celebrating in the south in the lead up to the war, and possibly even during the war. [applause] american watching history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. history,n lectures on the paul university professor mark pohlad teaches a class on of abrahamions lincoln in art and photographs. he describes how images of lincoln might reach different audiences such as engravings rented in newspapers that could be more widely circulated than a single painting or photograph. his class is about 70 minutes. marx: the recognize this?
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this statue? we are all chicagoans. i am going to shame you a little bit, you should know what may be the best sculpture of lincoln from the 19th century, linkin park. -- lincoln park. there is free admission there. aep outside next time, it is amazing sculpture. it is called "the standing lincoln." but we will get back to this. i love this material. he'sso moved by lincoln, -- his error -- his era. i am in love with his body -- there are lots of things to say about his photographs. i do not dress up like abraham lincoln, even though i am tall
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and thin my came. maybe one day. thatg said that, i realize public history or formative history or living history is really important. -- lincoln actors have a wonderful place in history. we have one of them and our history department. i used to give lots of talks like this in the state of illinois leading up to his bicentennial, the bicentennial of the birth of lincoln back of abraham lincoln in art andin 2009. he was born in 1809. illinois is a huge state, and the most southerly part of illinois is further south than of confederacy capital virginia. i am anxious to kind of get
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going. before we start moving to the images, one finger about the civil war. all of the images we see reference the civil war in some way. the fact that we are looking at lincoln images, right? between the spring of 1861 and the spring of 1865, there were maybe one million soldiers killed altogether and it engendered some of the bloodiest battles the american continent has ever seen, with casualty routinely in the tens of thousands, for each battle area -- for each battle. routinely in the tens of thousands, for each battlewhen , there were three american casualties. which was horrible. every life counts, of course you read but the public would no longer stand the kind of casualties and death numbers that they experienced in just
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20 thousand,attle, 40 thousand, 50,000, over the course of a few days. lincoln was nominated for a presidency here in chicago, in the republican party. we were working in overdrive here to get him to be the republican nominee, and he inherited, actually walked into this enormous national crisis of it was about slavery, about the war. attitudes to slavery, about its spread, about different economies, about abolition, and about the profound injustice of it. i have to say at this point, african americans played a crucial role as agents in their own freedom, as soldiers in the as peoplermies,
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involved in abolitionist organizations and movements, as members of the underground railroad. passage of the 13th amendment, 4 million and slaved persons were freed. so that is kind of a little background -- we have to think civil war you are a when we see images of lincoln, obviously. -- civil war era. i just wanted to point out, do you remember the proudhon statue by george washington -- of george washington, his vest is missing a single button. it was thought at the time to show that washington was a real everyman, not concerned with his clothing. the same thing here, the vest is wrinkled, people made a big deal about that. this capturing of the man that
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lincoln was, who was not fixing himself, he was not a dandy. he was everyman's president. i cannot wait to get into details like this, fantastic. for today, the themes and concepts. this is a incredible truism, ridiculously obvious. reflectss of lincoln that time and circumstances in which they were made. we should be able to talk about the posture in which they were produced, and the artists who are behind them. vivideflect a really dramatic way, how art was understood and used, in modern ways, which is my next point. we will be looking at some photographs of lincoln, because photography is relatively new, and grew up with lincoln, with
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coming of age. photography was invented in the late 1830's, when lincoln was already in his 20's. lincoln is the first extensively photographed president. not theters, he was first american president of which we have a photograph, but he was the first extensively-photographed. he was also the first president to actually thought that it there weret photographs of him. he had a modern belief that if you are going to get elected, you had to get your face out there. how did he know this? hisse photography to advantage? we will see how he did that. he was extremely modern in his ,se of media, not just lincoln but also the campaign around him. people in chicago.
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we will talk about a print made of a photograph, because there was no way -- a published photograph was not available until much later. the'ow, in the 1850's, 60's, if he wanted to publish a photograph, you had to make a drawing of it, and publish the print. that was remarkable for this age, it was like incredibly modern. after a photograph, it would say at the bottom. how that wassee done. we are also examining images of sculptures made in the north and the 19th century. i need you to keep that in mind. for a lot of reasons, because the south was poor, they lacked artists, ink, paper.
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gone to their men, had serve in the military, an inordinate amount. there simply are not that many images of lincoln. century,of the 19th onther dissertation one day lincoln in the 20th century, i will give you one of those. he continues to be very important for 20th century art. and maybe for the 21st century too. by the way, you might have a portrait of abraham lincoln on you, right now. right? the most one of recognized faces besides jesus in the western world. his face is much more recognizable today than it ever was during his own career. in fact, after he died, people really understood what he looks like. there was a media explosion
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which saturated america. have a fiveyou dollar bill or a lincoln penny, that is an image of lincoln, which is amazing to think about. we know his face, the topography of his body, things like that. finally, i would like to show you the works from chicago of lincoln. they are great and really interesting, and we can see them. i am also working on a project involving chicago artists, painters, sculptors, photographers, who did images of lincoln. -- i will show you this when we start to do our final papers -- you will be looking at some of this. if you do a lincoln-related topics -- of the
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every statue it seems, was lauriston bullard who won a pulitzer for reporting on the socko and vanzetti case of -- second one vanzetti vanzetti case. he covered a lot of the lincoln imagery area at peterson also was an expert on lincoln imagery as well, he kept writing wonderful things about it. kirk savage taught us to be sensitive about race when we look at sculpture of lincoln. even the images of his which appear to be him freeing enslaved persons are problematic in the relationships that they show between lincoln and the enslaved persons. much is needed there.
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then, anything from the presidential library and museum in springfield, -- have you all been there? it is wonderful. i am envious that you are from illinois, many of you. there wasin ohio, and a story that lincoln had come to my little small town, visiting the hotel. i don't know that it is true, i hope that it is true. but it mattered a great deal. right at the end of our alley. we grew up with the presence of lincoln, which was really something. alrigh, this is a wonderful chicago patient in the .useum -- chicago painting we do not know a lot about it except that it is an oil painting and really big.
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it was probably used in the campaign of 1860, to elect lincoln for the republican nomination. that was as much as we know about it. they had to come up with some a way to make all of the manual labor that lincoln had done, acceptable, and make it popular. bee, a reallyles famous friend of president lincoln was a real rail-better. we know this about lincoln, he was strong, tall, athletic and his friend was awe know this abe real-a-- rail-splitter. for lincoln, it may have been embarrassing for him, that they
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had little pieces of wood from had split, tohe show delegates at the convention, logs to show that he had split them. to make him popular for working people. people on the front year, or people in the west. year is so interesting, i do not know whether it comes from a photograph or a print, but it is derived from a couple of different photographs. something else i would like for you to remember, artists are using photographs to make their images of lincoln. for the first time, you do not actually have to go and sit with someone, to make a portrait of them. although they do do that. artists and legislators can refer to these things which are already there. in some sense, that is why so many sculptures of lincoln are very accurate.
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because they had been photographs. facemask made a here in chicago. way, did you think lincoln might be holding an ax? ll, a bigalled a mu mallet. you would put a wedge on a log and hit it until the log split. this is how they used to split rails. it was a big mallet. a photograph of lincoln, let me give you some raw data to read there are 130 different original photographs taken of him. this was in 56 different ok's occasions by 36 different cameraman. this is a question for the midterm, operators. the recalled operators, not cameraman at this time.
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you were called an operator if you are a photographer in the 19th century. if you ever find a photograph of , in yourome to light lifetime you will probably see a couple of new ones, which is astounding to read every lincoln person goes crazy when a new photograph, even if there are just whispers that there might be a lincoln photograph. if you find one where he has a beard, he is president. if he is on bearded, he is not resident yet. -- if you find one where he is not with a beard, that means he was not president yet. in this one, a new beard is sproutingnot area he had had a g day, but he loved chicago. may retard and his family loved chicago as well. --coln loved chicago because mary todd and his family loved
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chicago as well. his wife, loved chicago for the shopping. most of that was along lake street. , it was nottreet until the 19th century that all of the shopping in chicago changed to state street, north and south. the commerce grew up along the river, where the both could unload. , thel of the stores photographers, galleries, they were along lake street, and lincoln was generally a patient sitter for works of art. very accommodating, he wanted things to go well. so he was patient. it is not like washington, you remember, we talked about
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washington after he got to mount vernon, people would knock on his door. many artists thought that they could make a living if they had a painting of him. but he would always complain, saying that his teeth hurt, or that he was bored. lincoln on the other hand, his face never really did that. mary todd teased him that he had a photographers face. lincoln loved stories, he was a mimic, he would laugh, smile, would not stop talking at times, but his face was very rarely slack like that. so, that is not the man. -- you allincoln, have never seen me make this face, right?
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that is not how my face goes. so, if my family saw a photograph like that, they would say, god, he was so strange area and his face was so mobile. it is the same thing with lincoln. ofs is a photograph we saw lincoln which came to light late in the 19th century, a famous writer and journalist got it from robert todd lincoln who lived here in chicago, among other places. he died in 1926. the photoshop everybody because people do not realize, my gosh, he has soap together. -- so put together. he was very well groomed, had a beautiful house on eighth and jackson street in springfield. how many people have been there? boys, ambitious, smart, really smart wife, and he
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would be going to the house of representatives to serve in washington. again, it was startling because we like to imagine lincoln as clothing,ll fitting people said, you could see his wrists, or his aunts were incredibly short. that all ended when he got to washington, and he started wearing tailored clothing made at brooks brothers. photographs can tell us an awful lot. this image by the way is how he looked when he was debating stephen douglas, by far the most famous politician in illinois. he was certainly going to be president one day, that he never became one. thenvited lincoln to debate issue of slavery and in seven locations around illinois, he had this huge outdoor stairs. incredibly long. had fights, battles and
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arguments, even picnics, that were decisive in making lincoln known. he did not win the seat he was going for a guest eggless, douglas won, but suddenly he was a national figure. if you had seen him in illinois, this was how he looked. incredibly, the figure that sees -- if you stand behind him as he is getting his actor taken, that figure was called a mobilizer. sometimes you can see it in photographs of lincoln. it is not a torture device, if you backed up into it, then your operator new that you were in focus. it was kind of a minder for your head. so, lincoln was so tall, that he had to have a little bench lined him. -- mobilizer was behind him
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immobilizer was behind him. in a lot of the photographs, lincoln is scruffy, his calle -- hiscollar is a jar. we will talk about that abnormalities lincoln's face may have had, later. sculptor, may be our first professional scope sculptor,r city -- was his name. lincoln, if he could tting, and pose for him. he saw that lincoln's star was
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rising, that he may become the republican nominee. so he told lincoln, the next time lincoln was in town arguing a case, please stop, building on clark street, and dimly be honors -- do me the honors of sitting for me. lincoln said, sure. lincoln always honored his promises. put wet plaster over lincoln's face, put two straws in lincoln's nose, then had to make small talk with lincoln for about 45-50 minutes. can you imagine this? the pressure on an artist -- have you seen the booth brothers? they are playing down on lake street. so, are you staying at the tremont hotel? stephen douglas stays there too -- lincoln's face was covered in
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plaster. after about 45 minutes, they andd the plaster loose, lincoln started getting teary-eyed. they laughed at that. volk had ahat, three-dimensional photograph almost, of lincoln's face. went to springfield, to lincoln's house, and lincoln allowed his hands to be cast. with bees, volk made a whole industry out of lincoln's sculptures. he is to my mind, the pieces.lptor of lincoln i have seen this online, it is called a death mask. there is no death mask of lincoln. they have done that of other people, jefferson, washington,
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the founding fathers, napoleon. when they could, they would. but this is lincoln as he 1860, 1859,ked in was the face and 1860 was the hands. withis a volk statue made the help of a mask. you can see how incredibly-accurate it is. these are plasterers which volk took out, he took out a patent. you could actuallyyou could acts of art in the 19th century. believe it or not. that ended. he patented batches of lebron lincoln. york, walkedto new into a shop -- he patented statues of abraham lincoln. once he went into a shop in new york and saw bootlegged copies of his statues, which is where he started destroying the
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statues in new york. the police came, and he had to explain -- i have a patent for , and these people are ripping off my work, etc., etc.. we had a very famous fireographer in pre- chicago, alexander hessler. this was the first photograph, e weping off my work, knew of in a long time, before the other photographs surfaced from ida tarbell. lincoln's hair in this photograph is -- my personal feeling is that it is too clean. he could not do anything with it, because he had had a bath. .e probably needed some product to put it together. so, this is the photograph that a print was we knew of in a made, i will show t to you in a second, for the
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delegation held at a building gwam," where the republican convention was held. the street, side of it burned almost immediately. but thedid not attend, print was made from this photograph. photographs can't be published kick out ofot a big how he looked in this photograph, and he told the story, that he heard newsboys selling a print of this photograph. came raining down during the convention in chicago. and he said that he heard newsboys saying "get your picture of lincoln, when elected, he will have a better !" rcut
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it may not be true, but lincoln got a big kick out of this appearance. he thought he was hideous-looking. chanced about it every he got. he joked about his height, his face. we have taken him at his word for so long, and it took a historian, doris kearns goodwin, rivals," aneam of important biography of lincoln -- she said in a talk show -- he was not ugly! he was handsome. he is unusual, striking, interesting. he is not ugly. and all of us were like, oh, absolutely. he is not ugly at all. hanksn's mother was nancy , who died when lincoln was nine. so tom hanks, was proud to
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remember this, he is lincoln's third cousin, five times removed. do not ask me what removed means, i just know the word. lincoln's third cousin, five times removed. which is really cool. they have the square face, really interesting striking cheekbones. so lincoln goes to new york to make a really important speech, the cooper union speech. he is introduced to eastern audiences as a serious candidate for the republican party. lincoln traveled to new york, really nervous. he had really studied and worked hard on the speech, and at first when he got up to talk, people winced, feeling sorry for him. but in fact, he started speaking. the force and clarity of his arguments made an impression --
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who is this guy with a kind of rural accent? the first words out of his ,"uth, "thank you mr. chairman -- chairman? really? they thought, who is this midwestern guy? a couple of things about the way he spoke, lincoln did not have this kind of james earl jones bass voice that we expect all of our heroes in america to have. he had a light voice with a southern twining. -- a southern twang. if you have the -- if you watched the spielberg movie on lincoln, daniel day lewis nailed the voice. stephen douglas, he was called "the little giant," he was short and elegant.
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elegant gestures, a beautiful manner of speaking, perfectly gestured elocution. he was a judge, a great speaker. by comparison, lincoln looked untutored and course. --coarse. but between his wisdom and the way that he reached and connected with his audience, people were drawn to him. times heard this -- at during the debates, lincoln had a habit of drawing his voice download and start shrinking, shrinking the voice. then he would suddenly leap up and the volume of his voice would go up, and people in front row would be startled. because he would be looming over them. but he had sort of robotic and .nattractive gestures it was hugely effective, but he
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did not look like the graceful orator. this photograph shows how it might have looked like when they were taking the image, and that is a definitely be immobilizer --. immobilizer on the right. operators were taking the lens lens, the cap off the using a clock to count out the duration of the shot, and simply back on.ens cap apparently, they had a wonderful moment where brady had to go up and i just lincoln scholar. said, oh, you are shortening my neck, i see. and brady said, yes, that is what i am doing. , theyiggled and laughed
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had a beautiful report. for his part, lincoln said that the speech at cooper union, and brady, who had the most -- who was the most popular photograph operator of his day, but lincoln in the white house. thisis to say that photograph, which is widely circulated, and the cooper union speech, but me in the white house. how could lincoln again, known the power of photography? brady had real trouble with his vision. today, he might be considered legally blind or unable to drive. can you imagine a photographer with vision problems? anyway, he was a master. inventnot photography in america, but he made it acceptable, popular. he had a real knows for whose images that she had a real nose
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for whose images could be important. this is the illustrious collection. only worth a few dollars, it was called a"carte visite," was invented in the 1850's in france and became very popular in the united states. lots ofe could get these, and they could be distributed when lincoln was running for president. theyally mattered, because did not have a screen, computers, social media, to constantly show at candidates face. 18 64 --ard is from
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54, 55, 57. see if you can read what is on the bottom here. as i explained it, you'll see. "cartes de visite," were called that, because it were almost like a visitors card -- a visitor's card. they resembled the little card that you used to make a call on someone. my card would say, mark pohlad, and i would show it to the lady of the house, and ask for the master who would then come out and meet me. they were literally visiting cards, and the most important thing about them in some ways, is that now people can have albums of them. collections.
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you could have the doctor, the president, your minister, all our family, oh gosh, tom , an, an image -- tom thumb twins.f the siamese so lincoln's album had a picture of john wilkes booth before the assassination. assassinn had his own in his own photograph collection, before his assassination took place. that is because again, you collected everybody. lincoln loved theater, and he loved the booths. lincoln had seen all of them perform before, so he had john vilkes those in his own cd photo album.
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these are actual photographs, by they cut and put in these little campaign medals which show lincoln here, and again, he isunbearded. candidates did not choose her own vice president's at that time, unbelievably. at the tremont hotel, and they were both tall. i think hamlin came from a town lincoln, maine. they both giggled about this. both of them had lost a son to illness and they got along famously. volume of photographically-related
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merchandise and material relating to lincoln's campaign -- let us get to some political cartoons. this one is really writing. these are -- this one is really biting. elected, seven states from the south secede. he walks to his first inauguration knowing that these states have already seceded and within a few weeks, the war begins. so, his whole presidency was about crisis, about the civil war. can you understand what is happening here? lincoln, give me back my 500,000 sons, meaning the soldiers who had been lost in the war. this was one of the darkest hours of the civil war, 1864. lincoln, the artist shown with his leg slung over his chair lincoln,bumpkin,try
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his reputation of being so not elegant and kind of crude. he also had a reputation for always telling stories, tall tales and jokes. sometime to a really irritating extent. always telling storiesso, this , cartoon. political on the floor, you can see 500,000 more troops that lincoln is calling for, to keep the draft numbers in the north up, so that they can be victorious. by the way, columbia is a symbol of america. that is a symbol of america. here is a political cartoon where lincoln gets the better end of the deal. in 1854,uns for office during the war, can you imagine? running for president, re-election, during a
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horrifying, nightmarish war. eventually, he wins, but one of the people opposing him is a former general of his, mcclellan , who is really, really short. his troops,groom drill them, dig in, in camp. but he did not like to fight, and it eventually, it lincoln had to relieve him of his duties. says,this case, lincoln "that reminds me of a little joke," same line as the previous cartoon. but this time, the joke is about ex-general mcclellan. referring to his reputation of not fighting, and lincoln now has the upper hand in this cartoon. a smart local cartoon. in the south, they had political
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cartoons too, and they made vicious fun out of lincoln and they could. but as i told you, the south lacked artists, paper, ink, typesetters. so they did not produce as many political cartoons, and the ones they did, sometimes suffered. can you tell in this one, that this is supposed to be lincoln? master abraham lincoln gets a new toy -- that refers to a new general who would lead them to victory. on the shelf behind, you see all the generals who have not been mcclellan, burnside, fremont, mcdowell, banks, all older generals who had not been able to bring victory to the north. so in the south, so what, master lincoln has a new toy. this will be the new general -- he takes his turn.
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is relieved ofer his command as well. it would not be until general grant assumed control of all the armies, racking up very, very bloody victories, but that the reason nonetheless. why don't we take a five-minute break at this point, and come back. we will look at some sculptures and paintings. ok? prof. pohlad: we are back. thank you for that. i was thinking of how the complex -- how complex this period is. even the artists that i showed book who did the face -- leonard volk who did
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the facemask of lincoln. he was related to stephen , because his wife was a cousin of stephen douglas. so how is it that a douglas mann wasso close to lincoln and responsible for the way that we understand his sculptures? whole period is very difficult. even in art, it was not easy sometimes to get our minds around it. anyways, back to paintings of abraham lincoln. this one showed the first reading of the emancipation proclamation before the cabinet. lincoln had just stopped reading his new idea for the emancipation of proclamation. remember, this would only take effect in the states that were in the northern control, so it could not free the slaves in the states that had seceded.
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nevertheless, it was a major effort by the administration. william h seward, sitting on the other side of the table, closest to lincoln, secretary of state --, had said something like don't you think we should wait for a major big three before we unroll this. but generally, the artist had arranged the progressives over on this side, edwin stanton, secretary of war, chase, secretary of treasury, and the other figures mirror, secretary of the navy, gideon welles, edward bates, attorney general -- people who had reservations or who were not taking along the lines of lincoln, in relation to the emancipation proclamation. and lincoln said, yes, this is a good arrangement. the artist lived in the white house for six months, in order to take this tainting. up of measurements drawn
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the room, he had photographs taken of every person. the painting is kind of muddy, i would say. most like he could not stop touching it up. so the resulting print, this is what it might have looked like with abraham lincoln over the shoulder of carpenter. no pressure,. paint -- wehing you do not know if this actually happened, but carpenter did spend a lot of time with lincoln talking about the war and other things. carpenter wrote a book about his time in the white house after the death of lincoln. this, you can see that the detail is more easily seen. the idea was, as we have talked about in class, a painter can make one painting and it is
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unique. it gets sold and then carpenter had the painting bought by the american government -- you can see it in congress today in the stairwell. but the print that was made by a publisher, after the painting, imitating the painting, was made twicel for $100, $50, five dollars, $10, and that is it. that was how an artist or publisher would make money. in fact, the first person would be a subscriber and would approach you with a book saying, ma'am, would you like to purchase a painting? would you like to see who has asked for a print? and the first name would be abraham lincoln. ironically, he did not live long enough to see his print, because he was assassinated. but the print became very
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popular, even more so than the painting itself. i think i'm going to go a little further after this area at this is a painting known as the aacemakers, which shows meeting on a riverboat, the river queen at city point virginia. lincoln meets with grant, sherman and admiral quarter to talk about the end of the war. healy, another great chicago artist made individual portraits of each of them. 1865,n again had died in and then those studies were based on photographs. the newberry library has a beautiful study of lincoln, which was incorporated into this painting. and as you can see, the painting exists in the dining room of the white house. you.t like to show it to
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what is beautiful about this, apparently lincoln actually sat that way you read this is based on real observation. when he crossed his legs, they were so long, that the opposite leg almost reached the ground, as you can see their. i love this painting because it shows lincoln doing something that he did really, really well -- listening. that was his idea about hiring , who were his cabinet enemies of one another. sometimes his own adversaries, people who thought that they could be a better president and should be president. ,incoln, instead of firing them thought he could gather them around and hear every side of an answers through the give and take friction of politics. now, let's go here.
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i wanted to stop and point out, sometime we see the civil war as the boys game, don't we. tooi wanted to stop and point o, mentorin many generals, we talk about soldiers. but we could be talking about women in the home front, in the underground railroad, women who disguised themselves as men, mentoringgenuinely transgender, who fought in battle. there is a famous transgender man from illinois who did that. but there were also famous women linked to the civil war decades afterward. he was a photograph of lincoln at gettysburg, and it gives this are religiously -- he gives this speech, 272owerful words. 10 short little sentences. and it changes the nature of the war, weber were fighting it. this man, -- why we were fighting it.
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this man, you can still see him striking his pose, he has his arm in that gesture and his face is blurry, looking around like this. he spoke for nearly two hours, and now it is lincoln turn to get up and speak. many people believe that this is lincoln after he had already spoken, going back to his seat. imagine, the photographer felt like edward everett, who had been president of harvard, former secretary of state , he was really important. he had spoken for two hours. definitely will have time to set up my camera for lincoln. but no, it was a really brief, really powerful and moving speech. what i wanted to say, the only reason we have this photograph is because the library and an archivist in definitely will hae to set up my camera for washinge
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1950's, named josephine cobb knew that lincoln would be at gettysburg, and she was in charge of photography at the library of congress. she said, she believed that lincoln would be summer and here. this was in the 1950's. she actually blew up the photograph, imagined where he, and saw lincoln -- somewhere in here. so again, historians and people looking hard, there are always things to find. things are hiding in plain sight. i wanted to give a shout out to joseph in cobb -- just i josephine cobb. this is a fine moment when he was leader of the country. very good. a couple of more photographs here. lincoln entering richmond, the
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moment he got to play the conquering hero, when the war was won four days earlier. the richmond confederate capital falls, and lincoln appears in richmond. in his of some foul up arrangement, he is simply ,alking offshore with his son named so because dust people say because he was really wiggly as otherle boy, and saying that because he had a big head. head. lincoln gets into a carriage also -- freed african-american enslaved persons come out to touch him, kissed him. lincoln actually takes off his hat, shakes hands, tells people, do not kneel. he is teary-eyed, really, really moving. he goes to the confederate white
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' roomto jefferson davis and office, sits in davis' chair for a few minutes. thanks, reflects, that it. we have talked a lot about napoleon, lincoln could devastate richmond further area he could have destroyed the confederate white house. he can have dragged people and had them hanged as traitors. instead, his style was gentler and more about reconciliation. he was more humane. the white citizens would not go out, they had the drapes pulled. lincoln was only shown in this spectacle once, as he is here. sometimes, he is holding his spectacles. -- lincoln was only shown in his
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spectacles once. if you ever take my history of photography class, we will talk operatorse brady's who were so talented, eventually left him and started their own businesses or became different photographers altogether. but in his day, he would just be photographed by rady. the camera was really operated by anthony berger. lincoln looks like he is reading from a bible to his son. in fact, lincoln worried about that when he saw the photograph. he said, i don't want this to be a species of false pretense, he said. sometimes, illustrations made of the photograph made it look like a bible. pretensebut after lincoln died,s and it made people
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feel really deeply, because it was the first image of lincoln is a farther -- as a father. of how theexample photograph was published. it says "photographed by brady." so that people who saw this, would not think it was a photograph but the next best thing. it is super accurate. a representation of the photograph was super accurate. this is what it look like when the photograph became a print. harper's weekly was the most popular illustrated magazine in the north for the duration of the war, and even the whole entire period. lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office. it stunned everybody. i have to say, it was hard for people to grasp, weight, and actor shot lincoln? yes.
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one of the booth brothers. >> the older one? >> no, the younger one. john wilkes booth. because he was an actor and he could pass off and get through security at the theater, he did not look out of place. he snuck into the presidential box, the ladies heard a big glass in the -- everyone heard -- he waited until there was a big laugh in the play, the president was relaxing with mary todd after having a conversation in the famous buggy ride. we should go to the middle east, we should go to chicago -- he talked about retiring in chicago. they had talked about how they were going to start living again after the civil war. and there was a little moment where there was a scuffle between booth and another man.
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he stabbed him in the arm with a dagger. /him. people remembered someone saying ." e south is a benched other people remember "sic semper tyrannis." "this is what happens to tyrants." it was really hard to grasp. this is one of the most famous prints ever made, it was in peoples parlors for a long time, very popular print. publishers were thinking about what they were going to do when lincoln lay dying. very quickly. this print came out within four days of the assassination, it usually took weeks. it is awkward. the bodies and the heads are a bit miss matched, a little out of shape. remember, they had to find a photograph of john wilkes booth,
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to make the face -- by the way, lincoln was not grasping the flag at this moment, he was not looking at this direction, he was looking down into the audience. it would take a few seconds to know what is happening, and he jumped up. the whole body of imagery that showed how dastardly and horrible john wilkes booth is, like satan tempting booth to the murder of the president. can you make out what is happening? this image of john wilkes booth comes from a photograph. it is pretty stiff, right? satan is actually talking over his shoulder and pointing with one hand, at the open box of the president. ofeover, writing the idea assassination in both's mind and with his other claw, pointing to
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the derringer that booth uses to kill the president. gruesomepretty close-up. alonzo chappell made a painting of all of the people who came to house. they took lincoln's body -- he was still conscious for a few hours after the shooting. they took him to this house. they took lincoln's little rooming house, a soldier gave up his room. if any of you have ever been to the rooming house, it is very .like nine by 14 feet so, just really looks like a room for a bed and a nightstand, chappell has to include all 47 people that night.up that
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so he had photographs made of everybody. is the oldest son, robert todd. periodfor art in this, i want you to get it out of your head it's about art and expression. it's about business, media, striking while the iron is hot. isn't this something? ?an you imagine that your father is assassinated. you go to a photographer's gallery, have your portrait taken the way you thought you mourningve been in the room that is much too small. they have to show everybody that
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came that night. a rubber room, a room that keeps getting bigger. this is sad. this is a man that jumped up to protect lincoln and had a really horrible life afterwards. he gets pushed all the way to the end. that's not fair. here's a print made of the painting, same thing as the carpenter painting here and if you got a print, you actually got a numbered print that told you everybody's name and everybody's position. you can see because this isn't a great reproduction, but there are numbers above the heads that tell you. if you had been part of this, you would want one, your family would want one. oncoln passed away at 7:22 april 15 and then the imagery of lincoln really took off. look at some of these images, he
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is ascending to have an met by george washington, which is industry -- which is interesting. regard lincoln a little higher than washington, he was second to lincoln. century eyes,nd this is so absurd, but in the period people knew exactly what this meant and they wouldn't have criticized the media for being so strange and manipulated . here is what i passed around to you what does this say down here? our beloved president. maybe this was in somebody's album and that inscription comes from -- well, we don't know when
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it comes from. we can't be sure, but it was somebody who about strongly about the president and it is written not in a ballpoint pen, but a steel tipped 10. pen.eel tipped bum.was in somebody's out i can't quite tell when it's from, but it could be any point after the death of lincoln. for this photograph, this is so strange. the photographer has combed lincoln's hair against the part. this is says more about lincoln then the photographer to get the part completely wrong. wouldn't you say something if somebody started coming your hair the wrong direction?
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and yet robert todd lincoln said this was the best photo of his father to this one showed best what his father looked like. and you imagine if you're in -- you're an artist or photographer, robert todd becomes the authority. i think this is magnificent, captures his majesty. robert todd lincoln is a living around thehe imagery dead president. let's do a little bit more and then we will -- i will take some questions. an inventor in new england and came up with tabletop sculptures made of plaster. there is wire are mature in their and i think we might have spoken about these.
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did we speak about these in class? these were really popular hyman and wedding presents, the three-dimensional versions of prints. lincoln looks like he's reading a newspaper, but he's reading a map. he was really involved in the conduct of the war. this is grant and staton, brilliantly done, extremely accurate. rogers produced these in the thousands. they were about $15 at the time. these, hei like about painted these gray secant see the dust collecting on them. isn't that smart? ien i heard that i felt like wanted to get everything in my
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apartment painted gray, brilliant. great strategy. prodigy from madison, wisconsin spent time painting and sculpting images of native americans, she went as an 18 year old to washington and given a commission to make a statue. lincoln was charmed by her, sat her, after his assassination she asked to do one. 1971. he is holding the emancipation proclamation and it's only after lincoln's death that any imagery of lincoln as the emancipator came about. during his life, even though
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lincoln thought he would be most remembered for freeing enslaved persons, it was only until he was assassinated that people could make that -- could imagine having works of art associated with that accomplishment. anytime you see him holding a scroll, it's the emancipation proclamation. let me get to this work, maybe we will finish with this one. ball, working in italy. i think he made a little model or statue of lincoln. and when the organizers of this asked whataw it and he saidst to buy it he'd do it just for the cost of materials. this statue was paid for
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entirely by african americans. ohio was heard to say by her employer after the war, i'd give five dollars of my pay for a suitable monument to father abraham. minister found that out and made it a reality in can elected -- and collected money only from african-americans. 1876. this is a statue i was referring talkingi was about an awkwardness. we were taught in the book " standing soldiers, kneeling slave," whatever this is it is still an image of a white man lording over an african american. that makes it kind of complicit in an attitude about enslaved persons.
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first, that they are somehow less than human. to show him in and still chained does that, but also to suggest they don't have any agency and work part of their own emancipation. let me read you a quote that stephen douglas spoke at the unveiling of this statue on april 14, the day of lincoln's assassination, 1876. he said -- this was kind of jarring. objects yours were the of lincoln's deepest affection. we -- african-american -- or only his stepchildren, children by adoption, by circumstance and necessity. while abraham lincoln saved for
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your country, he delivered from as a bondage, one hour was worse than the ages of oppression than your father rose in rebellion to ", the oppression that led to the revolutionary war on americans. frederick douglas wants people to know that african-american's still have a difficult time, still can't claim lincoln and his legacy for their own and he is certainly right considering what happened in reconstruction and after. -- in a fewkind of words to conclude, the wave lincoln is portrayed in various media speaks to medically to the political and cultural experience of the 19th century and beyond. westudents of history, as are encouraged to be, it is incumbent upon us to understand this vital period and all the
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players, all the artists, operators, soldiers, slave worsens, women, children, and to understand the various audiences for this images across time. thank you for your good attention, see you in class on wednesday. we will discuss the reading on the greek slaves. the next time we go to the art institute i want to show you a statues byreat the man who did the colossal lincoln in the lincoln memorial. i'm not sure why i'm doing this. that is his post. if it's a nice day i want to show you the statue, seated lincoln just a few steps away in grant park. any questions? time for a couple of questions, anyway. like to go back to any of the
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images? very good. thank you so much. >> join us every saturday evening at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern as we join students in college classrooms to hear topics ranging from the american revolution to 9/11. lectures in history are also available as podcasts. you can download them from itunes. c-span's q and a, author and professor noah feldman and his book "the three lives of james madison." >> the constitution is madison's
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monument. in that way it's all around you when you come to washington, d.c. the three-part structure of government, exercising free speech, all of that is madison's monument as sort of was the case in st. paul -- you say if you seek his monument, look around you. similarly, if you seek madison's minmetals will look around you. it is everywhere. universityrvard professor annette gordon-reed talks about the legacy of andrew johnson, the nation 17th president who took office after the assassination of lincoln. he is called the president of lost opportunities because of his failure to help former slaves or advance the cause of black citizenship in the early


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