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tv   Reel America The Inheritance - 1964  CSPAN  September 15, 2018 10:00pm-11:01pm EDT

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world war i battle this sunday at 6:00 p.m. end 10:00 p.m. eastern on american artifacts. america," "the inheritance." it was produced by the amalgamated clothing workers of america . ryan,ed by actor robert the documents advances from ellis island to the civil rights movement. s itsroup got it start in the 1920's and in 1964 merged. this is just under one hour.
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[seagulls chirping] horn] s
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♪ [voices in song] narrator: today is born out of yesterday, and there is no birth without pain. spring, 1901. 16 years old, coming to america
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with five boards of english. gravitch. is xena an impossible language. i will never learn it. xena g >> in the i worked like an before god i swear my children t live as i live. ♪ [song being sung freedom, freedom is a hard won work for it,ve to fight for it, day and night for it, and every generation has to win it again. ,ass it on to your children
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brother pass it on to your children, brother you have to work for it, fight for it, day and night for it, pass it on to your children, pass it on. [crowd noise] >> arrivals for examination, present your documents. >> name. place of birth. >> odesza. >> how much money do you have? >> no understand. >> money. dinero. exactly 32 minutes to ask them 32 questions and finish the inspection. .eep an eye out for tb
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without a lot of it lately. -- we have had a lot of it lately. nothing good let wrong, let them not notice the babies running loose, let them take us into america. ♪ >> why do you keep asking me what it is going to be like? you 1000 times. the streets are paved with gold and the houses are all marble. >> i am in this country, golden america. learn, study, pay attention,
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keep your eyes open, you hear? , where golden america millionaires grow on trees like little apples. [children singing] ♪ [orchestra playing] this a country. as to as i'm standing here, one family, the vanderbilts, has got seven houses on fifth avenue. and in case they need some fresh air, they have a dump on long island and a hole in the wall on rhode island, not to mention a 60 room shack in north carolina. let it be a lesson.
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save your money. >> an official new york housing survey, 1905. >> we find it difficult to convey conditions in the new immigrant neighborhoods. dampness, dirt, discomfort, disease, bacteria and death. >> mulberry street. 17 of us in four rooms. ianca and the kid sleep
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in the parlor. if i ever get a boyfriend, where can we hold hands? in the park, with the pigeons. >> my dear, there are some rules of etiquette one simply does not question. if unmarried, girl must be accompanied by a chaperone. a male relative would be quite satisfactory. naturally, the best and safest thing to do is stay at home and help mother about the house. >> 12 hours a day. mama makes $.50. i make a dime. louis makes a nickel. [train whistle] >> laying down tracks for the train, digging
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out: the west virginia hills, hammering steel. immigrants from austria and italy, immigrants from riga on the ball to see, slow backs, swedes, irishmen from limerick, english men from leeds. week, a 12 hour day, and it's welcome boys to the usa. a dollar a day for a factory hand, and it is welcome ladies to the promised land. ♪ [guitar being played] immigrants and the sons of immigrants, putting down roots, hanging on, stubborn as a tree
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that pushes its way up through the rock. and clowns, rascals and lovers, builders and dreamers, leaving their signature on the city's, from bratislava and budapest, columbia and county court they came, and finding no .iracles they made their own theracle of friendship, miracle of laughter, the miracle the miracleations, of learning. >> want to hear the president? george washington, john adams, thomas jefferson. >> professor genius, what else did you learn? >> justice is the great interest of man on earth.
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>> from your mouth to god's ears. i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible with liberty and justice for all. >> golden america. half dream and half nightmare. ♪ when i die don't bury me at all, hang me up in the pool room hall, i can keep on working in the promised land. i got the blues. i got the blues. ♪ lordy, got to work like hell. narrator: 2 million children in 6e mills and the mines,
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million grown-ups unemployed. for oneire in and dollar when you can hire a kid for a dime? in my youth that it was the height of vulgarity to discuss money. narrator: a professor in chicago came up with a few statistics. and american family cannot adequately survive unless the $900 a year. the average working man earns about $400. ♪ song being sucked -- [song being sung] ♪ makes us strong olidarity forever,
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solidarity forever, ofrator: the garment workers new york, keeping alive a tradition going back to the philadelphia printers who formed a union before washington was president. immigrants and the sons of immigrants, carrying on the heritage of the boston carpenters who fought for the 10 hour day while missouri was still indian territory. ♪ union men weing, are, we will battle onward side-by-side victory will come. the minekesman for owners, the rights and interests of the laboring man will be cared for not by the labor agitator but by the christian god's wisdom has been given control of the property interests of this country. ♪
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>> freedom doesn't come like the bird on the wing, doesn't come down like the summer rain. , freedom, is a hard-one thing you have to work for it, fight for it, day and night for it and every generation has got to in it again pass it on to your children, mother pass it on to your children, brother >> i came to chicago green off the boat, 1910. got myself a job in a men's clothing shop. shaking in your boots, scared of being fired for talking, sneezing, looking at the foreman cross eyed. >> a busy season, it up before
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dawn, come home in the dark am a children's faces you don't look on except when they are sleeping. season, you can go crazy with the speed, turning out more, more, more for the same money. [sewing machine] all of aike this, sudden the foreman announces they are cutting the piece rates for seeming pants -- four seaming pants. >> you have a wife and kids to support. you keep your mouth shut. >> are you going to sit there and take it?
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not me. i not taking it. i'm walking out. ♪ it's all right for them, a handful of girls. i've got kids to feed. it got me blacklisted, finished in chicago. >> why doesn't the union do something? >> the so-called union is strictly for the cutters, the aristocrats. >> what am i doing out here taking over their work? i ought to be out there with them. >> what do we do? >> i don't know what you're going to do. i know what i'm going to do. out. i am walking out. ♪ >> do you hear? an hour.dollars >> 18,000. >> 35,000.
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>> 40,000. rumor the union is looking to make a deal under the table and sell us down the river . ♪ sung] eing they go wild simply wild over me. stomachs, fourty months out on the freezing street, four months standing together, standing solid. >> i see charlie out there walking in the line. up comes a foreman who gives him a punch and yells, go home
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troublemaker. charlie says, i got my rights. rights they gave him. a bullet in the head, they gave him. >> how do you do, sir? my name is jane adams. i'm a social worker. is a beenhow long since you saw with your own eyes the conditions under which these people work for you? i went to my factory and i looked in that it wasn't
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surprised they went on strike. i was only surprised they waited so long. >> schaffner is going to arbitrate grievances and wage demands. >> what does hellmann say? treatede want is to be as human beings, not machines. arbitration is the first step. >> so they got arbitration. they got a little security. >> it'll leave the rest of us right back where we started. >> you think this is the end? take it from me, this is only the beginning. ♪ wind,or: something in the blowing east in chicago, a restless murmur running through the shops, something being born, a beginning. heart of the2, men's clothing market.
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makers,uttonhole cutters, tailors, slapped in jail by the police, bailed out by a tough little labor lawyer named fiorina low laguardia. >> 53 hour week. >> ice in the winter. get, if i amou wrong, if my information is mistaken, please correct me, which i will appreciate. thank you. narrator: something in the wind, something struggling to be born. baltimore, strike and sellout. sellout and hardship.
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[crowd noise] the union is having a convention, nashville, tennessee. >> why nashville? >> because the locals are in new york, chicago, baltimore, that's the reason. they are making it tough for us to get out there. >> so why nashville? why not alaska? scraper: that, borrow, together the money for train fare. >> all out for nashville. york, boston, rochester, cincinnati, philadelphia, altoona., >> we were all on strike, we didn't eat, how can we pay dues? >> baltimore is still out on strike. >> the balcony is out of order.
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i insist the people in the balcony be heard. >> the delegate from chicago is out of order. were just came in for nashville. chicago just walked out of the convention. >> yes, and new york and baltimore. >> 75% of the membership walked out. >> holding their own convention. >> we are setting up our own union. ♪ >> it will be an outlaw outfit, won't even be af of l. you are staking your hand on a wild gamble. narrator: in december 1914 they gathered at webster hall, and they took the gamble.
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>> it's in our dream to give lincoln to our members, said a nation cannot exist half slave and half free. neither can a man. we cannot be free individually but slaves industrialist. ly. organizers for them out of made it clothing workers here in milwaukee. narrator: starting with nothing, empty pockets and a barrel of hope, organizing new york and chicago, wisconsin and new jersey, baltimore and boston, kentucky, missouri, ohio, montreal, pennsylvania. hillman, maybe
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you can come to our assistance. we had a little strike down here in philadelphia. our business agent got thrown in jail. i haven't got to buy postage stamps, much less pay the fine. worse comes to worse, don't worry, i will talk my overcoat. -- i will hock my overcoat. >> the union is the best thing that ever happened in this industry. we've got arbitration, come together like human beings, set rates in a civilized manner, do you know what i mean? since we went union we have never had a strike. february 1, 1915, midway through the wilson administration there are indications the nation's seeing the beginnings of a new freedom, a weakening of the grip of monopolies by the passage of the corrupt practices act, the antitrust act, workmen's
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compensation, child labor laws. ♪ [piano being played] ♪ immigrants and the sons of immigrants, fishermen from then talk it, factory hands from the lower east side, farm boys from arkansas. ♪
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> i may not know what the wars about but i bet by gosh i will sure find out. [explosions] >> i may not know what the war is about, but i bet by gosh i will soon find out. fear darling, don't you i'll bring you a gun for a souvenir. ♪ u.s. army, dead and missing, 130,500. 234,300.,
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profits $2 billion. in the backwash of war, depression and a rising hysteria, and a single year, 61 murders by lynching. revolution in russia, touching off panic is home -- panic at home. victims of the palmer raids, houses ransacked without search warrants. 3000 foreign-born arrested, denied lawyers, held without charges for three months. in pittsburgh and gary, indiana, it was the 12 hour day, take it or leave it to read and you know what is good for you. ♪
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[labor protest song being sung] would he beat your brother and sister down? ♪ >> a macle made it clothing workers of america of the af of l, and closed find our contribution of $100,000 for the relief of the steel strikers. we know it's only the beginning of one of the greatest attacks ever directed at american labor. narrator: 1920. in six short years we have built ourselves one of the strongest unions in the country. i-44 our weekend a working machinery of arbitration
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hour week and a working machinery of arbitration. they offered us a contract and when we turned it down, lockout. >> they starve us out. >> the judge came back into the courtroom. he's getting ready to read the decision. >> what happens if they get the injunction? >> we get thrown in the clinker. >> the supreme court of the state of new york is now in session. the court must stand at all times as the representatives of capital industry. injection granted. >> while employers may succeed
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in getting in junctions, they succeeded nothing else. as long as they think they can ship their customers in injunctions instead of pants, let them go ahead. >> your organization must ask a great sacrifices. we asked you to walk instead of spending a nickel car fare. your lives depend on it, the future, the future of your children, we will take care that there is not a single house without bread. buton't give you meat, your brothers and sisters in chicago and rochester and baltimore won't let you starve. >> starting at a sweatshop at the age of 11, somehow i never got a chance to go to harvard. i'm in lockout7,
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college, american history, public speaking, labor history, even art classes. ♪ volunteered to go down there and arrange entertainment. believe the world has such children anywhere is the eastside children. they took our modest program and transformed it with their magic. thinking, what if the society were making children like this instead of profits? hung on for six long months. and we won. >> we did it. we did it. we hung on and we won. ♪ >> the 1920's. a chicken in every pot and a tin
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lizzie in every garage. >> cancel the child labor laws. >> what did calvin coolidge say ♪ and packer henry made a speech a famous speech when he told them, liberty or black bottom. >> believe you me, the 20's oh, doe deegota i do. you go to the bank and basket for security. this and that. if i had security, i wouldn't be there in the first place. >> as we come marching, marching, we battle for men they are women's children and
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when mother them again. ♪ give a spread but give us roses. amalgamatede pioneering slum clearance, putting up the first cooperative low-rent houses, founding a bank where working man can get alone out of the security of his labor, setting up the only unemployment insurance program in the nation. that was also the 1920's. up, up boys, the sky is the limit. >> 23 skidoo. i love my wife. steel, 313. what's wrong with the market? u.s. steel, 300. steel, 152.
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u.s. steel, 60. ♪ sung] eing who cares what they say in yonkers as long as you have cutters? assureddent hoover reporters today that the fundamental business of the country is on a sound and prosperous basis. the secretary of the treasury announced, i can guarantee there is nothing in the situation to be concerned about. ♪ it's a mighty hard row that these poor hands hold my poor dad traveled a hard, dusty road. at the edge of your cities you will see us and then and we with the dust,
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are gone with the wind. >> fed up with being unemployed, fed up with being hungry, 20,000 doughboys went on to washington to demand the veterans bonus that we had coming to us. herbert hoover called the cops on us, chased us out of the capital. mr., we atell you, taking it no more. there's going to be some changes made. is proud toa nominate a president. california, 44 votes for roosevelt. [applause] >> there is a mysterious cycle and human events. to some generations, much is
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given. much isr generations, of other-- generations, much is expected. n of americansn as a date with destiny. [explosions] ♪ narrator: the new deal, beginning to roll, a running legislation,al bringing jobs to 9 million unemployed, fair labor laws
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setting minimum wages and maximum hours. child labor laws passed again. the tva, bringing light to the dark valleys. the social security act, partially inspired by the amalgamated pattern, providing old-age insurance. the wagner labor relations act. a right tos have bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing. you have organized and expressed yourselves. the politicians will vote for a itl, then congress, lengthens the working hours and abolishes the prevailing wage. that's what consolidation will do, unless you make your wants and your rights known. and you can't do it unless you organize. >> this country wants
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the workers want organization, they want participation, they want protection, they want employment, and they are going to have those things through the leadership and instrumentality of this new labor movement. [applause] of 1000 crab unions segregating the workers, the cio meant one great union for the industry. organize the unorganized, furnace man in the steel mills, aboard thestokers roustabout's in rubber workers, electrical workers.
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the amalgamated organizing cotton garment workers in pennsylvania, new england and the prairie states, organizing laundry workers, cleaners and dyers, retail clerks, providing the manpower and money to organize a textile workers union. ♪ [song being sung] >> if y'all stick together, it won't be long you'll get shorter hours, better working conditions, vacation days to take your kids to the seashore. a better explain we've got to becausethe union train, if you wait till the boss to raise your pay we will all be waiting until the judgment day, dead and buried, gone to heaven. underpaid, thee boss speeds up the work until
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you are about to faint, you may be down and out, but talk it over. ♪ >> which side are you one? which side are you on? >> i will stick with the union wtil this whole fight is on. >> which side are you on? which side are you on? >> we have been down here for five days, what do you say boys? [applause] ♪ landis land is your this land is my land from california to the new york islands from the redwood forests to the gulf stream waters, this land was made for you and
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me. as i went walking that ribbon of highway i saw above me that in the skyway i saw the loading that golden valley this land was made for you and me. ♪ this land is your land this land is my land from california to the new york islands from the redwood forests to the gulf stream waters [yelling] 1937.or: memorial day [gunfire]
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[more gunfire] 600 arrested. 60 sent to the hospital. 30 bleeding from gunshot, including one woman and three children. 10 dead, shot in the back. ♪
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flint, michigan. 1937. ♪ sung] song being sit down, sit down. sit down, sit down. when you want the boss to come across sit down, sit down.
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sit down, sit down. down the auto plants for 44 days and we came up with a union contract. clothing in the men's field, victory. industrywide collective bargaining, bringing order out of chaos. auto organized, cio. steel organized. textile organized. rubber, oil, copper, merchant marine, furniture workers, leather workers, woodworkers. ♪ land" beingis your sung] in three years, 5 million americans organized. cio. 1938. ♪ >> forget your troubles and just get happy
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you better take all your cares away sing hallelujah get ready for the judgment day ♪ forget your troubles and just get happy you better chase all your cares away. berlin. chancellor adolf hitler told reporters today germany had no territorial ambitions. he claimed all allegations to contrary are all occasions an international jewish conspiracy. 1939.or: poland, [explosions]
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♪ ,oland, denmark, norway luxembourg,gium, france, yugoslavia, greece. 7, [explosions] pearl harbor. a present from tokyo.
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♪ in the african hills, on the weak islands of the pacific, got the message the days when the united states could sit isolated behind its oceans were gone forever. better orn, for worse, it was one world. the battle line ran from the philippines to iwo jima, from from al normandy, .lamein to stalingrad the battle line ran through pittsburgh, detroit, nor folk, norfolk, san --
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francisco. ♪ and yet, in the midst of war, in the 1942 elections only one third of america's 80 million eligible voters went to the polls. franklin roosevelt, the white house, washington, to sidney hillman. dear sydney, i can think of nothing more important than the continuing political education of the people who do the jobs of this land. >> it is our duty now to begin to lay the plans and determine the strategy for winning a lasting peace, and the establishment of an american standard of living higher than ever known before. narrator: the man dies, but the dream endures. , so toave accepted
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speak, a second bill of whites under which -- second bill of which a new prosperity can be established for all regardless thetation or race or creed, right to art enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation, the right to adequate protection from the fears of old age, sickness, unemployment. finally, the right to a good education. all of these rights spell security. narrator: the clock ticks away the inexorable hours. the days vanish like wild birds. the sky announces a new season. pinned up on the drawing board our plans for the destruction of
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pianos and violins. lightning flashes among the constellations, and yet the human spark burns on. the clouds,s above and yet the small, persistent voice of a man prevails. i look backe of 83, to see the changes that have taken place. when that hillman had just arrived from chicago, i said to a friend of mine, he looks like a young fellow but i would take my hat off to him. if he can take these wolves and make them see the light, and create a business where individuals could make a and do away with that slavery that existed all through the years.
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>> i can go back to a time with wepop, may he rest in peace, worked together and he broke me in. we used to work next to each other. he was a strict man. and hit when he was out just one day, there was no pay, and when there was no paid there was no food in the house. at that time the boss was able your machine,o terror off the continent take you out. that was it. when things got slow the boss used to cut prices and we used to work cheaper. you had no standard of conditions, you had no standard of garments, you had no standard of labor. this was dog eat dog.
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benefits, we had none. today, as long as i stay in the amalgamated, i've got my benefits, i can work at any union shop in the country, keep my medical care, keep my pension. that this thought trade would have three weeks' vacation? whoever thought we would have real holidays? whoever thought we would see a business agent who could walk into a shop and tell the boss, you can't fire this man because he is older because he is sick. you've got to keep him. thought that in this trade, when a man reached 65 he could retire? because never did we think we would see it in this trade. a man used to work until he dropped by the machine. after he dropped you hoped his family could support him. i can remember when a man got sick, he was broke.
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today we got the union hospitalization on x-rays, psychiatric, right down the line. today i come into a shop and look around and see the younger people and girls and boys, and i say to myself, do these people know what we fought for? do they know how hard it was to get the conditions that we have got? do they know what a union actually means? do they know what they have to go through to keep the conditions that they have? do they know that they must sacrifice to keep the conditions? they call each other brothers and sisters at a union meeting. ♪ >> if i had a hammer i'd hammer in the morning i'd hammer in the evening all over this land. i'd hammer out danger i'd hammer out a warning have abiggest thing we
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show the south through our union is dignity. the thing that is most important down there is dignity, the right thetand up and grieve, right to know they can take a stand when they are mistreated in the shop. you go into a town that is antiunion, make contact which is contact as-- make quietly as possible. many times we are refused accommodations at hotels and motels. i myself have been in front of a plant in a southern community, police andficials, sheriff groups chase us away from the plant, take the number neck, car, rope around my pulled up on my tiptoes and told, if you ever come back here again, we will get you. say i'mes a worker will
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for you, i'm going to vote for you, but don't park your car close to our house because they will see you and i might get fired tomorrow. it takes a lot of courage for a worker to sign a union card, but the workers have got courage, a lot of them have. ♪ hammer" beinga sung] i'd hammer up freedom justiceer out out love between my brother sent my sisters all over this land. they were not ready. how can i give him something he is not ready for? but i am ready. i've been ready. but maybe you don't recognize
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it. children, and i'm worried about them like you are worried about yours. ♪ work for it, to fight for it day and night for it. and every generation has got to win it again. >> sometimes i start thinking, if only i could protect them from all the troubles of the world, discrimination, poverty, war. but the best i can do is let her learn to stand up and fight for a decent life. that's her inheritance. the seed is planted and the seed flowers. the roots take hold. a stubborn three forces its way through the rock. immigrants and the sons of immigrants, handing down their inheritance, creating out of their dreams and their anguish the face ofngs
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america. ♪ freedom doesn't come like a bird on the wing doesn't come down like the summer rain freedom, freedom is a hard-won thing you have to work for it, fight for it day and night for it. and any generation -- and every generation has got to win it again. the lack
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> you think this is the end? take it from me, this is only the beginning. >> american history tv is in prime time next week on c-span3.
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starting monday at 8:00 p.m. eastern, a discussion of the role of black teachers in the south who fought against school segregation, with an emory university professor. tuesday, a symposium on the concept of liberty, exploring how the ideas of freedom, law and liberty have changed through history. wednesday on oral histories, our women in congress series history continues. thursday, historians look at the role of espionage and conflicts over the past century and a half. and friday, "reel america." series, "why we about the rise of authoritarianism in germany, italy and japan announcer: next on american
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history tv, a college professor and the true -- truman presidential library archivist talk about war espionage. topic and -- topics include the president response to obtaining nuclear -- ethel and julius rosenberg. the harry s truman presidential library and muses them listed this event just under an hour. >> let's talk about who we have today. i'm excited to have mr. lee lacy who is a assistant professor teaching an advance operation .ourse he is a graduate at the university of arkansas who received a master from webster university. he has been published in s


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