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tv   The Presidency Eleanor Roosevelts Advice Column  CSPAN  December 30, 2018 8:00pm-9:01pm EST

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cable or satellite provider. next, on the presidency, a discussion of eleanor roosevelt advice column written for more than 20 years for ladies' home journal and mccall's magazine. the franklin d roosevelt presidential library and museum posted this one hour event. paul: hello, good afternoon everyone. welcome to the wallace center. happy birthday, eleanor roosevelt. [applause] one of the things we are so lucky as to have eleanor's papers here along with franklin roosevelt and his administration. if you go over and look at the
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building, the two wings of the library are the eleanor roosevelt wings that were built in 1972. after the library first open, fdr started sketching what would be the structure here to incorporate eleanor's papers. when his archivist said do you think she will give them to you, he said he was never sure what she could do. how many of you are members here today? thank you so much. your support makes programs like as possible. we appreciate everything you do for us. we are a federally funded institution but we rely on private donations to allow us to do these programs and exhibits. today we have with us a very special friend and guest. she has spent many days here when she was working on the eleanor roosevelt papers for george washington university.
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she is now with george mason university. she has put together a book that looks at the advice the eleanor roosevelt gave. is amazing how relevant so many of the questions were, even though they are 50 years old. her advice remains inspiring and practical at the same time. it is something we could all use right now. some advice to get us through our daily lives. please welcome mary jo binker. [applause] mary jo: thank you. i am delighted to be here with you today. there is no place i enjoy being more than an hyde park and the hudson valley. it is a great treat to be here with you. i am here to talk about my new book. advicu ask me: essential
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roosevelt." here is the top half of the page of one of her magazine columns. she wrote it for two women's magazines, first of all ladies' 1941 untill from 1949. in that year, she moved over to mccall's magazine and was with that magazine until her death in 1962. idea before itn was a column. the editors of ladies' home waynal envisioned it for a for first lady eleanor roosevelt to combat the rumors, innuendos, and backstairs gossip about the white house.
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as well as a way to answer these other queries about which the public rightly or wrongly thinks it has to know. more practically, the editors thought that a question and answer column would be easier to edit because they did not think eleanor roosevelt was a very good writer. that was the plan. but it did not work out that way. because eleanor roosevelt and her readers soon turned the column into a two-way conversation about almost every aspect of american life. unlike my book, which is organized thematically, i have organized this talk chronologically, starting with the white house in world war ii. i thought what we could do today would be to eavesdrop on the conversation that eleanor had with her readers. inn the column first began
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1941, franklin roosevelt was beginning an unprecedented third term. europe was at war and the great depression was ending as america geared up to become the arsenal of democracy. it was a tense and difficult time. americans were jittery and afraid. by the spring of 1941, eleanor roosevelt was arguably one of the best-known women in the united states. millions of americans had seen , or heard her on the radio read her syndicated newspaper column, "my day." widely admired and roundly criticized for her support of minorities, women, and young people. many ofrth noting that fdr's political opponents in the 1940 presidential campaign had warned campaign buttons that said "we don't want eleanor
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either." began,he time her column eleanor roosevelt and the american public had established a relationship. this made writing traversing natural. many of those first columns that with the military and homefront issues. here are some of those questions. the first one comes from a military wife. tell me why a soldier can get furlough to see his dog will my husband cannot get a furlough for the first time to see his 14-month-old son? " lady,r answers, "my dear it went to happen that the soldier who had got a furlough to see his dog was due for one and a reporter made a good newspaper story out of it.
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i am sure that no man would get a furlough and less he was entitled to it and he was allowed to leave at that particular time. paramount consideration in granting any furloughs is the need of the military services, not the pleasure of the individual involved." the comes from a citizen. he is worried about his money. hat assurance do people have that defense bonds are safe? under week and on some leadership, the bonds might not be redeemable later?" "you must have faith in your ability and of the rest of the country to choose sound leadership. there is nothing else you can rely upon except the judgment of the people as a whole to make your government efficient.
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bondsnts like, if u.s. are not good, neither is anything else in the world. you might as well reconcile yourself to it." this one comes from a military mother. y can't mothers know what their sons and daughters are? if their would it do enemies knew that bill jones is in alaska or australia? " eleanor replied, "if you and your children would use a little bit of ingenuity, you could keep yourselves informed about your whereabouts. if it was openly dying, it could be harmful, not because bill jones is known to be in australia or alaska, but because the enemy would be able to find out what groups bill jones belongs to and from that might discover what opposition they were facing and the number of men probably involved."
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this is a great question. this is a reader asking about a rumor. is it true that soldiers from midwestern states, which are normally republican, are sent into combat zones before soldiers from democratic states?" [laughter] eleanor replies, "i have never heard anything so idiotic." [laughter] " as your question. no soldier is asked what his politics are. and they would be so mixed in the unit, it would be utterly impossible to separate them. anyone who believes such a statement as this, should go at once to a psychiatrist." [laughter] here is a question about rationing, which was a very big deal on the home front.
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you think of course should because that is necessary despite the rubber shortage? eleanor replies, "no, i imagine we will find some kind of substitute which will serve to keep us." pointedly, "dot you think women are wrong to have babies in these times?" "certainlylies, not. have faith in our simulation, you should do your share to populate the earth.' now we move on to the early postwar. . withbegan for eleanor franklin's death in april of 1945. piece was at hand.
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but the dropping of the atom bomb and the emerging cold war with the soviet union did not inspire confidence in the future. closer to home, americans were concerned that the wartime prosperity would collapse without the stimulus of military production. was in short supply and inflation was rampant. politically, fdr's successor, truman, and his liberal supporters were trying to extend the new deal while the conservatives in both parties were trying to rein in what they saw as socialistic excess. social change added to the chaos. women had left home to work in the factories or join the military. african-americans who had served in the military were coming home to segregation and discrimination. and other minorities were also
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facing poor working and living conditions. like millions of other americans, eleanor roosevelt had to adjust to both her new status and life in postwar america. she moved back here to her home intending to continue writing and lecturing as a private citizen. harry truman, however, had other ideas. in december of 1945, he appointed her to the first u.s. delegation to the inaugural session of the united nations general assembly. it was a job she would hold for six years and led to her becoming chair of the you -- you and human rights conditions and one of the principal architects of the universal declaration of human rights. to hear of the questions from that. -- period. the first comes in a reader worried about the economy.
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our country is headed into a bad depression. do you think this is true? what could be done to avoid it?" "i do not think we need to have a bad depression. if our economists and industrialists learned their lessons in the 1930's, it cannot be avoided by greedy men. it must be avoided by men who see that the mass of the people cannot be led without their fair share." the next question has particular relevance. "do you think using women to fill men's jobs is economically justified?" "certainly, if women do the
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same work, they should get the same pay." "i love and admire my wife. but there is one subject on which we can never agree. she thinks i should help with the dishes. do you think this is a husband's work?" "i thinkeplies, anything connected with the home is as much the husband's work as the wife's. this silly idea that there is a division and housework seems to me for this when very often the wife earns money outside the home as well as a husband. certainly if there are children, the wife has two jobs. the one of being a mother and the other of being a wife. the kind of man who thinks helping with the dishes is will also think that helping with the baby is beneath them. and then he is certainly not going to be a very successful father."
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the next question comes from a wife whose political views differ from her husband's. my husbands as the truman administration is a cesspool of corruption. how can i answer him/" "you can tell your husband that if any government is a cesspool of corruption, every single citizen is is possible when the government is a republic. governments do not become corrupt unless their citizens have allowed those standards to exist. youou live in a democracy, set the standard as the individual citizen. you elect your representative and the government belongs to you. you and i have to correct anything that is wrong. heard.always be if anything is wrong, the blame is ours."
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children often wrote to eleanor. here's a question from a concerned younger citizen. "i am in the sixth grade. or can i do to make the world more peaceful?" can learn to live harmoniously with people of your own age even though they might be from different races and religions. if you do that, you will be preparing your generation to live better and more peacefully in the world as a whole." not every questionnaire was so polite. here is one with an edge. "our newspaper published an amazing picture of you smiling all sweetness and light as you shook hands with russia's ambassador at the recent opening of the u.n. who are you kidding?" eleanor didn't miss a beat.
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"i did not know i was kidding anyone. i was preserving the amenities. when you shake hands, you usually smile. seat in the general assembly, we have to pass to rec league of the russian and u.k. delegates. i had known him for a long time. photographers, who are always on the alert, insisted on taking the photograph. i believe as long as we serve in the general assembly or anywhere in the u.n., we must be polite to one another. we must be able to talk to one somedayin the hope that this bridge will be used for the benefit of a peaceful settlement of our difficulties." many of eleanor's replies were much briefer than the one i just read. consider this question. you think is the
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greatest single cause of misunderstanding between the nations of the world, both great and small?" eleanor had a one-word answer. "fear." early in thebegins 1950's after dwight eisenhower has been elected president and eleanor has returned to private life. the increasing prosperity of the 1950's used americans financial worries what at the same time heightening their social was. marriage rates have risen before and after world war ii as young people hurried to exchange bows before shipping out to combat or married as soon as they returned. these young couples also have more children. the nation's birth rate rose --m fewer than 20,000 births 20 births per thousand in the 1930's to 25 births per thousand
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in 1947. the increased birthrates and the rise of a youth culture characterized by discontent and rebelliousness and concerns over juvenile the link with the made child-rearing questions more urgent. at the same time, divorce rates spiked, leading to uncertainty about how to deal with remarriage and wounded families. been moremay have prosperous, but politically, they were uneasy about possible communist subversion and american life. even began to fear their neighbors along with many other suspect groups that also included career public servants, educators, clergyman, librarians, and individuals working in the media. civil liberties contracted as the believe took hold that the rights of the accused could be
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ignored because the threat of communism was so severe. roosevelt haver returned to private life. she had firmly established herself as a trusted source and confidant for many americans. here is a typical question from this. questiontart with a from a marriage minded reader. do you consider the three most important qualifications of a good husband/" be honest, not only in material things, but in intellectual things. that he shall be capable of real love. and that he should find the world and increasingly interesting place in which to live." on birth control, which in the 1950's, was still a controversial topic. "do you believe in planned
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parenthood?" "yes, i do, if it is not used as an excuse to shirk having a family. i believe every married couple should have children if they are able to do so. but i believe they should use intelligence, so the children will be healthy and the mother not physically exhausted. of course, if this is against your religious beliefs, this is a different matter. seemde of that, it would sensible to plan intelligently for the family health and happiness." this next one is probably one of my most favorite of all the questions. "my has been once our son to play football and i don't. don't you think that bodily contact sports are necessary to the development of a boy's character?" says,"i i do know that
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they are necessary but i do know if a necessary -- boy wants to play football and you keep him from it, you will probably find that his character or his temper at least will not improve. he will probably align himself with his father and you will be left on the outside. so i advise you not to be too vocal about your feelings." i took this advice and she is absolutely right. is veryone that contemporary. son and his wife are republicans but my daughter recently married a man who favors the democrats. no matter how hard i try, i cannot keep the two couples from getting into nasty political arguments. visits. all of our
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how do you handle political differences in your own family?" " i try to make them amusing. my family loves to argue. they can argue passionately about things they really do not care about. i find a little laughter into and if necessary changing the subject makes our only gatherings rather entertaining." here is another one that come straight out of today's headlines. "how do you feel about wiretapping? justifiable?" only time i think it is
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justifiable as if the authorities have reason to suspect spies or traders. and then it should only be used by the most responsible authorities. for any other reason, it should never be allowed." roosevelt association with many liberal groups led many people to assume that she was a communist sympathizer. . the question from one of those readers. "what is your answer to people who accuse you of being procommunist?" very simple one. i have never been a communist. but i have never been afraid to come into contact with calmness. -- communists. but i think it will be a poor person who could not stand up
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and meet the communists and their theories." and senatorey long mccarthy have raised fears. under what circumstances would we be in danger of a dictatorship and what would be the best ways for citizens to recognize that danger in oppose it?" who have the instinct for dictatorship are always a danger in any society. must because of the alert to observe their liberties. in the u.s., it is easy to discover a demagogue, but it sometimes takes courage to stand up immediately and say you do not agree with certain methods and ideas. however, if we want to preserve our liberties, we better show that courage. it is the only way i know of to remain a free people. "
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the final air coincides with the last years of eleanor's life. 1950's, a growing restlessness was simmering under the seemingly placid surface of american life. the cold war, the burgeoning thel rights movement, increasing visibility of poverty, and the rising frustrations of women and other marginalized groups was becoming more apparent. nevertheless, the 1960's open on , note of hopeful optimism inspired in part by the election of a youthful president, john f. kennedy. early 1960's, eleanor was well into her 70's but still maintaining a hectic schedule. thewas still writing column, but on a reduced basis. three columns of week instead of six. and she was still traveling extensively and had added teaching and a monthly public affairs television program to her schedule. at president kennedy's request,
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she had also become the chair of the president's commission on the status of women. she continued to be active in the civil rights and labor movements and the democratic party. she was still writing her column. by this point, she had been a public figure for almost 40 years. she had seen it all and done most of it. she was used to being in the public eye. there were a few questions that taser. r. fazed he "does it's ever bother you that her age, a woman traditional secret, is known to all the world?" "no, my age has been known for so long it does not bother me at all." how do you explain the fact that you have grown much better looking as you have grown
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older?" compliment. for the you grow means as as older, people do not expected to be as good-looking as they expect a younger person to be. so they are kinder in their judgments." here is a question that draws on her long relationship with her mother in law. do do you think it is possible for two much or women, mother-in-law and daughter-in-law for instance, to live under one roof in peaceful coexistence?" "i think it possible, but not probable." [laughter] 1960 was an election year. readers wanted to know eleanor's views. "in any election year, there is
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always a big argument over whether to vote based straight ticket or split your ballot. you please tell me what you think/" "i have always said that this is something the individual must decide for himself. while ago thatg voting for the individual rather than the party was valid in local elections but not in elections covering state and national issues. , one chooses a party because on the whole, the party has shown a record of a competent that approximates one idea of good government. choice has been made, it seems to me that anything beyond the local level should be a question of voting for a party, rather than an individual." is a question about life in the white house, once she was well qualified to address.
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"shortly, we will have not only a first president but a new first lady. what would be the most difficult problem she will face?" "living her own life as she wants to live it. there are certain things you are obliged to do as first lady. in many ways you are him then, and you have this -- to fight your way out if you deal like you want some life of your own." . as a question from 1961 that displays eleanor's political acumen. "would you care to make a and telle prediction us to you think the republican candidate for president in 1964 will be?" "there will undoubtedly be some
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soul-searching and the republican party that could lead to the nomination of mr. rockefeller or perhaps mr. goldwater. who knows? " here is another question about politics. his appointment to the, there was publicity about mcnamara having to sell his ford holdings. do you think it is necessary to penalize public servants in this way? our cabino me that if members cannot be trusted to separate personal interests from public duty, they should not be trusted in such important positions at all." "it is customary and has been for many years for people accepting positions in government to divest themselves of holdings in any enterprise that does business with the
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government. it is not a question of distrust. it is a question of influence. it stems from the fact that they have such holdings. therefore, it is probably a wise decision but no one working in the government should have a considerable interest in any company transacting business with the government." one final question about women in politics. this comes from march of 1962, shortly before she died. " do you think there is a double standard in politics? are women candidates for office treated more gently than their opponents?" have watched a great many men and political life, and i think they are more reticent in bringing up certain types of accusations against a woman. i have an idea that if those accusations have foundation in
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fact, they will not be left out of a political campaign. when anyone, man or woman, goes into politics, i believe one has to develop a pretty tough skin and take for granted that one will be cheated no more gently than any other candidate." more than 50 years have passed since eleanor wrote those words. if you ask me, much has changed, yet much remains the same. anhough we live in increasingly wired world where events seem to move at warped speed and every day brings a fresh controversy, we still worry about our relationships, our children's upbringing, and how to make a living. social issues like health care and abortion are still with us. our domestic politics are increasingly fractious. and the world remains a dangerous place. the questions and answers and, if you ask me, are a vibrant conversation between what women in her fellow citizens as issues
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-- relevant as the latest tweet. they remind us that in times of tremendous change, our hopes and desires and worries remain constant. after half ais why century, eleanor roosevelt words remain so powerful. thank you. [laughter] paul: mary jo will answer some questions now. mary jo: i just want to say that i am not giving any advice. [laughter] anything else is fine. >> thank you for reminding us of
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eleanor's wisdom. youryou considered sending book to the present first lady of the united states? mary jo: honestly, no. i have been so busy try to get it out that i have not thought about it. but maybe for christmas. [laughter] >> as the first lady, was she as outgoing a person when she first became first lady or was it franklin found he would have to have some help?
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since mrs. hoover was so outgoing, and her husband was very shy, in the case of the roosevelts, mrs. roosevelt, as she originally very shy and fdrt and then because of having to come out and take his place? mary jo: as a young wife, yes. she was extremely shy and self-conscious. but she trained herself overtime to overcome that. roosevelt time the center the white house in 1933, she has already established herself as a public figure in new york because she has been the governor's wife for four years. she was by that time very active in the democratic party. in terms of what she was doing in the white house, she was looking for a role to fill because she did not want to be
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stuck in the house hosting tea parties and shaking hands. she wanted to be doing something that she felt was meaningful. and sheent to franklin was trying to figure out what to do and he said, do what you want to do and i will tell people, that is her, i cannot do anything with her. but i think that is how they proceeded. -- devolves that role evolved that role. is no four-point plan in her papers were she says she is not going to transform into a first lady. it is an evolutionary thing. she tries several different things like press conferences. she begins to travel and do lecture tour's twice a year. she continues to be involved in different causes that she had been involved in before.
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she moves that onto a national stage. column.ns to write her it is evolving. it is always evolving. she is always one to reach for more opportunity. franklin really does like it in the way. that would be really dumb if he had because she was a freight train. you are an expert on her column. where you talk about the difference between her newspaper column and what it -- she planted her advice column? day" was a daily diary. students once told me eleanor was the original blogger.
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she does not know day-to-day anymore that her readers. she can only write what she knows. so she is writing about her daily activities and things that are of the moment. that is one big difference. directed, because it is based off the readers questions. she is not saying anything that does not have a basis in what is on the mind of her reader. that is very different. y," she can"my da write about whatever she wants to. if these people are not interested, it will not be discussed. i was amazed about how many questions they were on the
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united nations. something i would think people of these publications would be interested in. the way this column was written, readers would brighten their thetions, but they wrote to magazine. they did not write to the white house. the editors would go through all the questions and group them. they would put together the questions and then they would send them to eleanor. the answersite them and then ship the questions back. also a filter that is another difference. probably they weeded out more of the hostile questions or the questions that they did not think their readers would be interested in.
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>> are you aware of any advice that she might have had for the media? mary jo: not directly. she considered herself part of the media. writing, sheted joins the newspaper guild. the union. she had a union card. she is very clear that she does not think that the newspapers are not always all they should be. she says that biased stories should never be written. but she is well aware that they are. for us asdvocates is citizens to read as widely as possible. to read both sides of an issue. to do that rather than relying on a single source.
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but she does not really come out and criticize the media very much. in part it is because she has a lot of really close relationships. the women who covered her in her press conferences, many of them become good friends. after she leaves the white house, she considers herself a newspaper woman. so she is in the fold, so to speak. regard to the earlier question about how eleanor had changed over time, don't you think her friends had an extraordinary role in this? they helped her with her speeches. there was a lot of interaction with her friends that really helped her along, don't you think? mary jo: totally. in fact, i want to write a book
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about just that subject. making ofll it "the eleanor roosevelt." it was a cooperative. . i think she would not have been who she was without them. that they often get short shrift. because franklin is so dominant. and i do not mean that in a negative way. he takes up a lot of space. and they do not stop to look behind eleanor and see all of these other people. some of her friends were remarkable women. i completely agree.
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all of those people had a huge role in the making of eleanor roosevelt. i cannot start anything until january of 2019. i am busy. but i am working on it. >> was eleanor compensated for her writing? was she the first or only first lady to have a job? mary jo: she was definitely compensated. when she started writing for the ladies' home journal, they paid her $2000 an issue. that was pretty serious money in 1941. i tried to figure out using an inflation talk you later, how much that would be today.
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$35,000 a column. she was making serious money. and she was giving a lot of it away. thatad the perspective money was an indicator of value and importance. she understood that she lived in a monetary society. she wanted to be compensated. she was working. did she do a lot of volunteer work, yes. but she wanted that money because it was her means to further the goals that she had for a more just and inclusive society. did she ever received any letters about franklin's health and his polio? mary jo: yes.
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--y did ask her to express respond to that. specifically. i know there was a general agreement with photographers not to show his paralysis. but i wonder if the same thing happened on these questions. mary jo: she is very circumspect. well, you know, the doctors all said that if he wanted to do it, he could do it. that's is what she was saying for public consumption. is has never been clear to me what eleanor knew when and whether she realized the true extent of his health. 1945, they are both extremely busy and tired and they are going in different directions.
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it is really very hard to know, do you really want to admit that? that i knew my husband was dying? i do not think so. you cited one of her answers and what she encouraged people to befriend others of different races and religions. any interesting stories that would surprise us now about people taking a stand against that principle? mary jo: many questions revolve around the issue of intermarriage.
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would you let your granddaughter marry a person of another race? one of your let granddaughters go to a racially mixed school? or why are we talking about the south when the schools in new york city are full of puerto ricans? there is definitely that bias that eleanor is speaking into. if you are asking me is she making any converts to her cause, i would say not necessarily. at that time, those things were not really done. you did not extend yourself. even now, it is hard for some people to move out of their comfort zone. she certainly was always talking about it. for the entire time that she is in the white house. but i cannot say that she had
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great success with that. why did she go from ladies' home journal two mccall's magazine. what kind of magazine was mccall's magazine? what demographic was reading that particular magazine? was there any competition to have her as a columnist or did she have to get -- fight to get it? mary jo: those are all great questions. i cannot wait to answer. was hoping someone would ask me. she originally went to mccall's magazine because she had a relationship with the magazine. they had serialized the first addition of her memoirs. the editors wanted to keep that relationship going. 1941 andtarted up in
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it was until 1949. in that year, there was a little test -- tiff. was editede journal by a husband and wife team. the husband, when you read his correspondence, he comes across as pompous. he has read this book and he does not like it. likells her, this reads you wrote it while you were riding a bicycle on the way to a fire. its deals with her time in the white house. she had some pretty dramatic stuff that she could be relat ing.
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her contemporaries thought she was very forthright and very honest. like she was putting it out there. for us, when we read her memoirs in her autobiography, we think this is kind of bland. i read it and think she is not telling the whole story. a class a semester and i am having my students read the autobiography to get a sense of the scope of her life. i spent 15 minutes every class. time are saying this is what she wrote but this is what was really going on. i do not want them to think it is all sweetness and light. so the editor of ladies' home journal the not like this book. he wanted her to dish. he wanted color and drama and the inside story.
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but she did not want to do it. so her son elliott at the time was her ever sensitive. so he took the manuscript and walked down the street to mccall's magazine which was the arch competitor to ladies' home journal. the editor there, and this was the era when men edited women's magazines, he said great. he not only took the manuscript, he took the column. they never really had a contract with eleanor. it was kind of a handshake deal. so she was free to go. and she went. and the editor knew what he had.
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and he bent over backwards the next 13 years to make her happy. as to her marketability, i would say it was highest in the 1945 toing, from about 1960. in 1960, there is the beginning of a drop-off. it is because she is getting older. time is moving on and things are changing. i would say she took advantage of her peak opportunity. thate had cut it all off 1960, it would have been more difficult to get back in the game. there is going to be a book signing. please buy them all. [laughter] did she lobby harry truman to
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get her post at the u.n.? mary jo: no. in fact when he first called, she turned it down. she said i cannot do that. i'm not a lawyer. i don't know anything about mass international law. this is 1945. nobody knew what the u.n. was going to be. there were people on both sides of the atlantic he thought it would be a failure like the league of nations. so this is not exactly a plum job. he was not offering to make her ambassador. he was sending her into the jaws of the line. -- lion. upy were going to try to set what she would call the machinery for the effective use of the united nations. interested andly
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followed all of the preparatory work. the dumbarton oaks agreement and all of that stuff. she had been involved in promoting it. lived, he wanted her to go with him in san francisco in may of 1945 for the u.n. conference where they would sign the charter. .o she was and it -- in it one of the last thing she did in the white house, the day franklin died, she was meeting with state department officials about the question of trusteeship. what were we going to do with these colonies that now the war is over. germany had colonies and other people have colonies. what are we going to do with these people? are we going to make them independent? put them under the trust of the u.n.? are we going to work that out? so she was totally into it.
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but i did not think she was expected to get the job. she told one of her sons and her secretary and they said to call truman back and take the job. on her kind of beat up little bit before she called harry truman back and said she would do it. [laughter] [applause] >> from george washington to george w. bush, every sunday at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern, we feature the presidency, a weekly series looking at political and presidential legacies.
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you are watching american history tv, all weekend and every weekend, on c-span. ♪ >> the united states senate, a uniquely american institution. legislating in carrying out constitutional duties in 1789. wednesday, c-span takes you inside the senate, learning about the legislative body and its informal workings. >> arguing about things and kicking them around and have a great debates is a thoroughly american thing. >> it is a cooling saucer. and the longer you are in the senate, the longer you will appreciate that. >> we will look at its history of con -- conflict and
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compromise and unprecedented access, allowing us to bring cameras into the chamber. theows the evolution of senate into the modern era, from advise and consent to their role in impeachment. the senate: conflict and compromise. a c-span original production exploring the role of this uniquely american institution. premieres wednesday at the clock p.m. eastern and pacific on c-span. more --to go online to learn more about the program and watch original full-length s, youiews with senator farewell speeches from long serving members, and take a tour of the chamber, the old senate chamber, and other exclusive locations. 14one of george's
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congressional districts will the new representation to congress. elected to the six states are -- six this dirt. district. she talked about how the shooting death of one of her sons spur her to run for office. can --012 my son was killed in what is called the loud music case. i was asking legislators why this was happening. why were our legislators not willing to keep our families safe? there was silence. complicity. what i began to understand was that no one would be able to do anything. that is what i stood up and why i am taking action. what i have noticed a for and
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over before -- again is that republican legislators refused to do anything about this unnecessary gun violence. they will not take action. district are the people that i talk to every single day and my son's legacy. i am running because i am a mother on a michigan in marietta to represent everyone. >> new congress, new leaders, watch it all on c-span. announcer 2: "american history tv" from our turmoil1968, america in ", looking at the vietnam war with diplomatic developments that year. our guests are vietnam veteran and former navy secretary jim maraniss.uthor david we begin with a video on the state of the war in 1967


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