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tv   400th Anniversary of Forced African Migration  CSPAN  February 10, 2019 1:29pm-3:41pm EST

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at 8:00 p.m. eastern. >> it was a tough decision to write this essay because it brought back what was a very troubling and traumatic experience in my own life. a headline int was read in new york times about a man who had committed suicide in a parked car in the west village and had not been found for seven days. , the worstellow moment of his life was when he threw a sandwich at a server at mcdonald's for giving him the wrong order. she turned out to be pregnant and there was a funny story that made the local newspapers. it was at the top of his google search for the rest of his life from then on, after it happened in 2013. he couldn't get a job because anytime anyone googled his name, this story came up. any prospective employer stock, i don't want to hire this guy throwing sandwiches at pregnant service sprint it ruined his life.
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online shaming tonight at 8:00 eastern. in august of 6019, 20 africans would been forced across the atlantic ocean arrived in the virginia colony onboard a dutch ship. next, in commemoration of the 400th anniversary of the beginning of forced migration to north america, the association for the study of african wherein -- african-american life and history hosts a panel discussion on 400 years of perseverance. this is two hours. >> good afternoon. -- >> thank you again for joining us for black history month. carterfounded by dr. woodson.
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o history weeknegr and has been expanded to black history month. we would like to thank our todayrs that include usa and the law and policy group. we would also like to thank all of those people who make black history happen all year round. the year 2019 is special for many reasons. we will explore those reasons in two parts. beingne, we'll talk about for black history month this year and that is black migrations. it also includes a panel of scholars, who will share their expertise on the 400 years of african-american perseverance and resilience triggered by that 1619.l in 6019 --
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she will come to give welcome in a few minutes. we are honored to have the founding director of the museum of african-american culture. [applause] for your ongoing support and your embrace of the legacy of our founder, dr. carter woodson. each year, the president of a the study of black history globally. black history is not just an
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american thing. black history is a study that we have seen actually take place in the u.k., as well as parts of africa and other parts of the world. what dr. woodson started has become a global event. the first african-american chair of the history department at harvard. we are also proud to congratulate her for winning an award. we learned of this last night. [applause] statement on this year's black history theme, black migration, i give you dr. higginbotham. >> thank you and welcome.
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statement i write a for black history month. this one starts off, happy black history month. this year opens with the theme lacked migration. as the founders of black history month, the association for the study of african-american life and history believes that migration represents one of the most important aspects of our nation's past. the very title of the book, a nation of immigrants, written by president john f. kennedy, captures migration to the makeup of the american people. african-americans, the history of migration has a unique meaning. migration in the form of the african slave trade law,erica, each ended by
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but not always in practice by 1808. the domestic human trafficking that we call domestic slave trade that continued until the abolition of slavery in 1865. these are stories of families separated, of children taken from parents and such pain was overwhelming and heartbreaking for families then, as it is now. four children separated from their parents in the hispanic migrants who seek asylum in america. , dr. carter woodson, understood when he wrote a -- negrof negor migration.
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bondage and depression. inquest of a land offering asylum to the oppressed and opportunity to the unfortunate. attention to the many forms of migration over the centuries and also in the present. attention to the when africans arrived on two slave chips -- slave ships in the virginia colony. the first english settlement in north america. say, and thisto is i digression. in what wase understood to be the united states as early as the 1500s because they were slaves of the spanish and they helped to build the city that is the oldest city in the united states in 1565.
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, because it is the year that epitomizes the moment of the unfolding problem of race and slavery in the american past and present. we want to applaud the legislation introduced by congressman bobby scott of virginia and that legislation is titled the 400 years of african american history act. that came out february of 2018. 1619 is important because it is part of the story of the united states revolution, the revolution that created the united states. epitomizesear that
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the moment of the unfolding problem of race and slavery in the american past and present. virginia's lawmakers led the 13 colonies in creating a legal process that gradually structured permanent racial servitude, indeed as a colony, virginia and later as a state, would pass laws on race that would serve as a model for defining the subordinate legal status of persons of african descent. 400 years of perseverance in order to capture history more expensive than enslavement, however. centuries bear witness to migration as countless stories of a past left behind and a future full of hope for a world free from racial discrimination. this long-standing and steady perseverance includes many
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actors, some escaping from slavery, some seeking to immigrate to africa. ,ome moving from farm to city or to the west. others seeking employment in the north in the 20th century are returning to the south in the 21st century. not least of all, those who came to the united states from the caribbean, from south america, from africa and many other places. to make black history toth the best it is in 1619 2019 and throughout this year, come with us on this intellectual journey of black migration. thank you. [applause] you, dr. evelyn brooks higginbotham. our 28th president for the
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association of african-american life and history. my name is gloria brown marshall. i am a legal historian. i also like to put on another hat. who is of legal commentator covers the u.s. supreme court. the study of black history involves many stakeholders. branch members, students, supporters, readers, foundations, scholars and archivists to name a few. researchers of history light on newspapers. they say that journalism has been the first draft of history. we are pleased to present michelle smith. she is a coordinating editor of usa today's investigative team and the leader of several award-winning race and diversity projects. additionally, usa today publishes its its annual african-american history publication ring black history month.
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its 100 commemorative calendar, events are featured in this publication. i give you michelle smith. [applause] thank you, gloria. and thank you members. i am so delighted to be presenting this black history month special addition to you. this is the issue we have for 2019. we have been doing these issues for seven years. this group has been part of the issue since its inception. one thing we want to do with this addition in particular, we had a little bit of freedom of movement to step away from our founding philosophy. we founded this in 2013 to
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celebrate several rights anniversaries and to find a way to talk about those anniversaries. leeway to we had some drill down deeply into black migration. to the point that the group was like, that is so broad, what are we going to do to narrow that down? luckily, we had a reporter for our main story that had been wanting talk about this in motion -- that they set forth. she was able to use it to get into that and tell a story that does not present african-americans post slavery as victims, but rather talks about how we were confronted with the situation for which we had no blueprint and we were able to move through and find our way and use agency and intelligence to build a new life
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for ourselves. this, we knewg at we had to talk about the 400th anniversary of african arrival. in 1619 so ied went into the research with the idea that i would find a precise date. -- as we wentough through, we knew we had to do some debunking instead and returned to darrell scott and gloria brown marshall and other people to help us drill down into the notion and debunk everything. i am tremendously proud of this issue as i am every year. this is our most thoughtful issue and i hope that you guys will go online and maybe get a physical copy for yourself.
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it is on the usa today online store. i will be posting some of the key stories from this addition at our civil rights in america website. i want to let you know that your word and your work travel so much farther than i ever thought it would when we started this. we were able to give away 11,000 copies for free to museums and schools and libraries last year. this year, i am delighted to say we had the hope -- help of a former washington post reporter for getting us to 18,000 distributed around the country. i am hearing lots of positive feedback from all around the country. you how we use this issue to bring things full-circle.
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not only we want to go back to the past but we find things useful in terms of going back and getting what we need as we push forward into the future. with black panther being the phenomenon it was last year, i found that the theme was a perfect device to talk about it in terms of our ancestors must have felt the same way in the search for their promised land as we did. we started searching for that somewhere. i know i did. for providinguch a mechanism to talk not just about america, but the haitian revolution. about the islands and so much more that we weren't able to get to in this issue but we hope to be able to and the future. i really appreciate the work. [applause] i want to give a shout out to
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the black press, as well. [applause] without news service, the informer, other newspapers, in addition to the historians gathered here today that are listening. i would not be as informed as i need to be to this work. i appreciate you. [applause] >> thank you. a national calendar of events for the 400th. it is a clearinghouse of events and activities taking place not just across the united states and around the world. it provides organizations and individuals with a free platform to tell the world about their for hundredth related event.
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for example, on our calendar, if online andchance, go you will see our 400 calendar has a group from wichita, kansas traveling to africa. we have dozens of conferences taking place, including a conference in hampton, virginia, which is the site of the arrival of 20 africans in 1619. we have concerts in prince georges county. we have film screenings in chicago. events that are 400th related. onget to know what is going in committees across the country. aboute been contacted
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black history month being celebrated in scotland. connections. those 400 years of perseverance and the 1619 arrival of africans in virginia begins a journey that included overcoming unspeakable obstacles. because we overcame those opticals, we are allowed to be in this room today. glory of honor and the that resilience, that perseverance that makes this 400th commemoration so important. african-american resilience, perseverance, love, family and cultural pride brought us through so much. here we are today, having gone through all of that, understanding that 400 years of perseverance is represented in
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summary different ways. before we go to part two of our panels, i would like to have a welcome from the national press club itself, thank you so much. [applause] >> thank you, gloria. so great to see you and all of you here today. i am bill, i am the executive director of the national press club. we are honored to have you for this important occasion and see your smiling faces and to know there is so much to celebrate and you enjoy this great program. i want to touch on a couple of aspects of our history that we think are important and have to do with progress and participation of the african-american community and the press club together. recently, -- two presidents ago,
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he is a producer. he happens to be african-american. it is our first african-american male president at the press club. we have had african-american female presidents, but this is our first african-american male and a jeff did a tremendous job. you go to our ballroom, which is the biggest room around the corner on that side, there is a plaque and a plaque commemorates the first african-american speaker at the national press club. this was 1962, it was dr. martin luther king, he was 33 years old then. he was a terrific speaker for us. it is meaningful for people when they enter that room and they know that dr. king spoke there. we don't have full video of the event. we have audio of the event, which is on the library of
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congress website. he was terrific, of course. there are notes of his i have a dream speech. an interesting historical document. i can literally go on like this forever, but i know gloria has great stuff. one or two other things i find placeating -- the last that louis armstrong played trumpet in public was here at the national press club. he had beene year, holding the horn and singing. andad a heart condition wasn't up to the force that you need to play the trumpet. januaryoming up here in of 1970 want to see us and his 1971 to see us.
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his doctor said let your own conscience be a guide. if you want to play, you are well enough. people came there expecting to see him and hear him saying, but not expecting him to play the trumpet. he was great. and he said iudio have heard him play that run from hello dolly like hundreds of times, but i have never heard that improvisation. what it tells us about the human condition is at the end of life, the artist is still inventing. that music became the lead selling thing -- my kids would know these terms -- on apple, on itunes jazz and one of the other ones, digital ones, for like two
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weeks. this music was years old. but in a way, we hadn't heard before. that is one of the things that happen at press club is stuff that is important to our history but we haven't listened to it the right way or heard it recently, it helps inform us about the world we are in and the public. so much of that we find is the richness and art, and policy and culture that is brought forward from some of our visitors who are in the african-american community. it is a wonderful thing. if you really want to know about that, go to that wonderful museum across the street. [laughter] >> i am grateful for now pretty to see all of you. thank you for being here and thank you for what you do. i am grateful for you to be here. [applause] >> thank you.
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i am also a member of the national press club. [laughter] two, we areo part going to be led by our president, dr. higginbotham, who will moderate the scholars will discuss 400 years of perseverance from their perspective. >> we have a distinguished panel today. director of the african-american cultural heritage action fund. $25 million fundraising and and campaign at the national trust for historic preservation. universityvard fellow and author of preserving african-american history.
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he has led efforts to create the birmingham civil rights museum monument in alabama, which president barack obama designated in 2007. he is the recipient of the 2018 robert g stanton national preservation award. includer projects preserving iconic spaces like the estate of madame walker in new york, or joe frazier's jim in philadelphia, pennsylvania. and many more places. he is also a assistant clinical professor at the university of maryland -- university of maryland's graduate program. spencer is a robinson professor of history at george mason university. his research interests and publications focus on african-american migration,
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slavery and the underground railroad. he has been a leader in public history for several decades. presidentrmally mr. of the national underground railroad freedom center in cincinnati, ohio, and later working at the national museum of american history smithsonian institution for 20 years. he brought their the integrative exhibits and the creative exhibits, which have been important and memorable. the one that people probably remember best from field to factory, african-american migration 1915 to 1940. he also co-curated the exhibit. the american presidency, which is one of the smithsonian's most popular exhibitions. it is also published books with
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the same titles and many more publications. he is working on a biography of thurgood marshall. gloria is a professor of constitutional law at john jay college of criminal justice. she has authored many books and articles. two books that have really made a mark are the voting rights for search the naacp ongoing for justice. i chose that book because it is a groundbreaking work, connecting racial justice over 400 years in the area of education, voting rights, property rights, criminal justice, a host of themes that involve african-americans, latin americans and native americans. books almost done with a that is coming out called she
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took justice about black women and the law. she is also working on a documentary of the same title that will accompany the book. as she has already told you, she is a u.s. supreme court correspondent. she is a member of the national press club and is also on television. you might have seen her as an analyst for msnbc, cbs, abc. she is a member of the 400 committee. astly, roger fairfax is senior associate dean for acumen andcademic affairs professor of law at george washington university law school. he teaches and writes in the areas of criminal law, procedure and policy and his scholarship appears in numerous books and journals, such as the boston
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college law review, cornell law review,florida law harvard civil rights, civil liberties law review and i can't list all of them. school, the harvard law where he received his law degree, he was one of the editors of the harvard law review and later a senior fellow at the charles hamilton institute for race and justice. he is also an elected member of the american law institute. youre very pleased to have and i look forward to this conversation. nationalork with the
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trust for historic preservation gives history a tangible form. i like to tell my students that you can learn history in books but you can also learn history museums. there is something really special standing in standing in those places where history was made. please talk about why it is so important to preserve sites of slavery and why your action fund is so crucial for capturing 400 years of perseverance. >> i want to thank you for having me here today. trust natural -- national for his torque preservation, we preserve places where history happened. we believe every american, including african-americans,
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should be able to see themselves in the historic places that surround us. the national trust chartered by congress in 1949, today, we are a national nonprofit organization and are the leaders reserving african-american historic places. we believe that preserving both the places of injustice, difficult histories and slavery, is critical to understanding the black experience of america. but we don't stop there. we believe it is our social responsibility to reconstruct national identity, allen's public memory and to tell the full history of our nation by women and menlack and entrepreneurship and activism, education, law, science, and all of the ways that we have contributed to the development of the united
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states. i wanted to highlight a couple of our projects to give you a sense of the work we do. has anyone toward fort monroe? toured 14 monroe? monroe?t obama -- fort president, we got involved because we wanted to ensure that weretory of the towns brought to light. these three enslaved africans, they organized themselves, and would be considered contraband -- contraband of war by butler. unknown, a catalyst, for emancipation one 5000 -- 500,000 followed in their footsteps. we believe as we recognize and
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honor, that there is no greater story of black perseverance than those free men. we want to make sure all americans understand that history. jamess a place called madison's in virginia. have been working at this historic's death historic site to expand the narrative. toyou have the opportunity tour the new exhibition, was beautiful about it is the enslaved workers literally are working in the basement and on this plantation. haves hidden in the way we been interpreting the story. about visitors will learn those workers but also the legacy of slavery. they talk about police brutality, they talk about the aspirations of president obama becoming the first black
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president, and it really speaks to the span of 400 years. and the last slavery site i want in richmond, virginia. this nine acre archaeological site, if you see it today, it is nothing more than pavement and driveways and streets. if you were able to pull back the history, you begin to understand this was the --ond-largest slave owner slaveholding site in america. the city proposed a $9 million redevelopment to build in minor league baseball stadium, we thought this was an injustice. organized with local advocates, grassroots organizations, and our preservation partners to mitigate that. mayor working with the and the community to develop a community driven vision for memorializing that historic space, again, when i talk about balancing public memory and
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reconstructing national identity, it is also to preserve activism, achievement, and community. we are doing that through our new initiative called the african-american cultural heritage action fund. this was birthed in the aftermath of charlottesville. you all remember those events were cultural heritage, public spaces collided in this way. they want to grow up to provide national leadership. in response, we've created a social impact community leaders. i found their institutions among the advisory council. raising $25 million to help reserve places in average american sites in the united
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states. [applause] places like the birthplace of nina simone in north carolina, or southside community arts where arts,icago and historic reservation practices being leveraged as a form of community revitalization and economic development. -- to acquire and create a center for female entrepreneurship for the new foundation that they created new voices. and john's home in new york, we are so happy to be working there. john composed his masterpiece in a bedroom in that space. realizericans do not alex cole train record her first four or five albums there.
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it provided an opportunity to create a greater recognition for aftermarket women in spirit -- civil rights. minef the goals create and dollar national program. we received 830 proposals. nearly $91 million. last year the festival in july, from losd 16 projects angeles to atlanta in new york and invested $1.1 million. places like a ladies club in los angeles. the wilson house in pittsburg and beyond. we closed our second year proposals and received 462 this year.
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nearly $30 million. this year, we will award nearly $2 million, hoping to invest in 20 preservation projects. 150e looking to support projects across the country because we want to find the stories of african-american struggle and achievement. we want to foster education, truth, healing, and reconciliation and reconciliation. most importantly, through the action fund, we want to highlight and share full contributions of african americans to this. from 6019 two today, we are celebrating black perseverance. thank you. [applause] >> spencer. 1903, the great scholar and , spoket, w.e.b. dubois
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prophetically that the color line would be the problem of the 20th century. migrations of after americans during the 20 century contribute to making the statement true? >> as we listen to and read about the boys, we have to keep in mind he is a scholar, a sociologist and observer of american society. i believe he was observing a time important transit -- changes taking place in the african american community. he did a study in philadelphia and seen what was taking place and changing. while he -- why he believed the color line would be important how that impacts it, he was beginning to see a new generation of african americans. generation not born in slavery, who let out then chaired by that but saw themselves in their place much different way.
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much less willing to accommodate. they did not believe they were not equal. and as you get beat -- as he began to see the aftermath of construction, jim crow, you have who try to navigate this. is newgins to happen opportunities present themselves are probably the most important one is the start of world war i, with the recruiting of white to go off and fight in europe and other prices -- places. before that, african-americans were looking at other opportunities. moving from rural areas in the south, and now they begin to
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move to rural areas in the north. placeggest change to take is the fact that we are shifting the center of the african american community. earliest 20 -- early 20th century, 19% with general areas and the south there by the time we get to 1920, they were still mostly in the south and much more northern in the way we operate. ishink what w.e.b. dubois beginning to talk about is what we see largely as a southern issue, it's that we know best how to take care of the african-american committee. we have been around them for a long time and we understand it is not connected to you. happened as you get close
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to world war i, is the after american community gets much more northern. what you see happening is an theosion on a side of african american population in northern cities. places like new york and cleveland where i grew up and newark where other people grew up. seeing the population double and triple in size, what this means this issue of african americans and their place in society, the impact on society is no one to this question. becomes a national question. for northern cities to have to toust to how we accommodate our city and how we provide facilities and support in order to, a them, what we see having the conclave in many northern cities. south side said -- chicago. cleveland and other commonplaces.
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areas of african-american life. it the issue of african-americans concerned more to the forefront. they don't just go there quietly and accept this. issues aboutte what life was like, what concentrate they deserve at a citizens and what will the nation do about it. there is a decision to say we have a place in the nation and we have made important contributions. the we will not allow treatment to continue to be the way we operate. this push of african-americans the impact wast, not only a concern of the growth of publishers of cities and the
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pressure they were bringing. also, contributions and culturally and otherwise as well. we talk about the negro renaissance. that is the importance of the influence. bc jazz coming to the north. someone was talking about -- i just point in his name. armstrong. yes. these things come and go. they become more part of , i think the face of african-americans becomes much more national and its orientation.
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the migration takes place roughly round world war i. there's another great push of african-americans that happened around world war ii. push a slightly different. it doesn't go more than self. many come to world war i. back to north carolina. the patent still goes somewhat northward and much were -- much more westward. we's see people moving to midwest california. is available in terms of military, things going on there, what we see happening is as after americans relocate themselves into different parts of the nation, they have an
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impact on the places that really cause a change in how they are perceived. think in terms of the car, now there issues of race. much more consequential, much more important in terms of how we focus as a nation. also our influence upon the political system. you see the shift taking place when you look at the arrival of frankland eleanor roosevelt into office. while he may not be the most supportive president, his wife spokesman.becomes a those kinds of things raise the issue to the forefront. i have been doing some work with thurgood marshall and watching him operate. part of what he does is begin to this growing desire for change in the african-american community. except i think that they are. through his work and court cases, his support the afghan american community and you begin
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to see change. these thurgood marshall who begins to change bullying laws and alaskaon americans to vote. that is a huge shift. we often focus on brown versus board of education cases. , even morecase but important was that primary. because until then, african-americans had been excluded from voting and as a consequence, had little impact on the political systems. by breaking through to say that is illegal and afghan americans need to be allowed to be registered to vote, it changes the nature of how politics has to be thought about. it changes the way politicians have to be in the aftermarket community. northern places like that.
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they can be a swing vote in a tight election. the becomes more and more case to have a chance to vote. impact ono have an how people think about these kinds of issues. is talking about this shift in the migration of after americans from in some ways lost rulers of the south because they are so isolated, becoming much more in the forefront of american society and color and race becomes a key issue. you do not have a shift in this growing sense of importance
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without this shift taking place. when you talk about w.e.b. dubois and the issue of color line, the location of african-americans in larger parts of the country north and south and west, really helps to push forward civil rights , and inheritance of it today. [applause] >> member -- many of the earliest statutes denied what we would consider fundamental civil rights. 1560's, and in the and also mesting
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that illegal. we also know it was not until the 1960's. the loving case comes out of based on thosee same laws. in a broader sense, discuss the from ations of 400 years civil rights perspective. since i have plenty of time to do that -- [laughter] >> i'm going to. i will go through 400 years of civil rights history in the time allotted. because the oval -- overarching issue is that african-americans follow the laws and then the lawless would change. that takes place for 400 years.
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let us begin with the arrival of 20 africans. those hostages who had been taken, arrive on the shores of the virginia colony. there are no slave laws. there are no slave laws in the colony. you have european indentured servants who are operating under a contract for a certain number of years of servitude, where they have to work for free. and they're paying back the cost of travel to this new world, and the room and board, etc., they are doing that to you there -- through their only able -- labor. they are basically white slaves under contract but there are no slave laws. they are contracted work when they arrive in the colony, it is unknown exactly what the status is. because there are no slave laws, we know they are not slaves at the time. they were not enslaved. there is an becomes,
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cause i legal status of indentured african servants. they could not automatically have been slave -- slaves. this is a controversial point. very juicy because that means those europeans in the virginia colony created slave laws that would introduce them to perpetual servitude based on greed. if i might ask this question, for anyone working, if your employer could work you for free for life, would they? now, you know what slavery is spirit the ability to work one for free for life and you take away race and every thing else and you see that is with us slavery. land owners were also law makers. 1619 was the beginning of the house of burgess.
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this gave local control to those members. to go too difficult england and have the information and travel back by see every time a decision had to be made of legal consequence. still, in 1619, they were given lawmaking ability. the lawmakers were land owners. just like today. people who own property, a little more steak is considered and they are therefore given benefits. we have these 20 africans arrive . what is in those 20 -- within those 20 africans, we have johnson we are assuming that are in their, and many africans we do not know by name. were enslaved in the beginning, they were not have had the opportunity to rise up and own property of their own. johnson owned property of their own.
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they had service of their own. in the 1600's. werefore, those people able to have political role and control and make laws coast they only and. so now we have to change the rules. i can give you 400 years of civil rights history because all of a sudden, laws change. send theuld commonwealth and aliens with the colony had to leave and had to be pushed off their land. each time, they would rise to a particular level of power in the loss would change. lawmakers and i still believe a lot of civil rights anti-civil rights opposition or anti-civil rights undermining the african-americans, is doing a competition. competing africans
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assist people in long-standing positions, that they should be the lawmakers alone and controllers of the county or the the laws changed to undermine the progress of the competition. that is the other overarching 400 your thing. you look at civil rights, you will find an ongoing struggle and that is what each generation of laws then finds a counter change to those laws as soon as progress has been made. each time a generation believes that they have ended slavery, that they have ended jim crow, that they have ended segregation, you see a morphing of the change laws that undermine civil rights again. if we go through, and i will give one for each century, one that is very pivotal, they change the law that said that the status of the child of an african would be that of the mother and that child would not inherit from the european father.
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can you imagine if this were a financial issue where the european father had to pay our give part of the inheritance to the after child, slavery would have ended in the 1600's were never really started. they changed the law ending heritage writes that her -- that are part of european history -- history for centuries, that no longer were any african child inherit from a father, that allow the father to have free reign and go back to the fact that you don't have managed tween the two, there has always been, as long as two races have been in the same place, you have nine months later, this has been standards ofhe that child, an ongoing struggle. the is why as we go through 1700's, we see a perpetual servitude. the land owners who are lawmakers decided i can best
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optimize my process if the workers are not paid at all. paid at all,ot then i have fewer profits. so racism becomes the stigma that allows for the guilt free oppression of a group of people. if you decide there outside of upgrade -- embrace of god, museum, in the bible that is called the slaveholder passes bible. they would use excerpts from the slaveholder passes bible to -- to tell the enslaved person why god decided they should be in perpetual servitude. there outside of the abrasive of god and law and society, and we can do with you what we well, because it is god's will and we are just putting into law was necessary for god's well.
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the 1700's, there are now laws of oppression because people are now sitting back in deciding this somewhat god said or any other person, i will not be oppressed in this way. the number of laws we see our crushing and preventing people from interacting. they have to have a letter in the pocket to indicate any point , any place outside of the control of the slave master. these pocket laws, these groups were created. made to enforce any sort of runaway slave's punishment. you had bounty hunters. and that was not enough. the u.s. constitution had in it a fugitive slave clause in the constitution has extraditions with fugitive slave clause that put in place that said the property must be brought back.
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because in 1787 when the thetitution was drafted, idea was this fear that if the property left, and the property holder would be left with nothing and property was very expensive. we get into the 1800's, we have once again to push and pull in civil rights. the dred scott decision of 1827, though we have been here since 1619, we were not citizens of the country and could not for our own freedom. we get through the civil war and have the 13th amendment abolishing slavery except for punishment of a crime. we have the 14th amendment that gives citizens the birth. also, due process. within the 15th amendment, black men are given the right to vote,
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tricking once again what took place in the 1600's limit -- with mary anthony johnson. one black men and the right to vote, we have the backlash or , and theall black lash ku klux klan, all of these others -- >> and this legal story is important, because
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whyounding, i think is so important to us before, these are the laws that are put in place at the that america as a nation is declaring its calls itself metaphorically slaves to iii and so we have this paradox where are going three steps forward and blacks are going backward by law. and that brings me to you, because inax virginia, when we think about these laws for racial subordination, it's really not justt it's simply that these laws are whog broken, but those break those laws are criminals. ofre's a whole process
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criminalization. >> i think about martin luther king. i like to tell my students sometimes that you have to understand that rosa parks broke the law. she was actually the one the role ofhat is the the criminal system, the criminal justice system as it relates to the arc of in which wetory see how unjust on many levels the system of criminal justice has been? >> well, first of all, ellen, i want to thank you for allowing me to be a part of this wonderful event and on thisgratulations terrific kickoff to what will be a year-long andbration commemoration of the 400th anniversary. miriam websters defines perseverance as and i'll quote the continued effort achieve something, despite difficulties, failure, or opposition. and when the professor asked me to think about the role
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law in fournal centuries of african-american perseverance i decided to go often go for commemoration, i'm looking here at the front row is the national museum for african-american culture, our wonderful institution, which ishink it is fair to say indeed, a monument to .erseverance indeed, emblazoned on one of the interior walls of the the words of dr. maya angelou and those bringing the gifts that my ancestors gave, i am hope ofm and the the slave. and those words from still i rise speak powerfully to the perseverance displayed by african-americans throughout these four centuries we're and i visited the museum probably a dozen times now on various occasions and as is the experience of others with
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whom i've spoken about their visits, i experience it differently every time i go preparation for today's panel, i thought it would be worth going back, i tot earlier this week help me situate my thoughts about the role of the criminal law and the 400 years of perseverance and you know what? it probably should not be surprising that there is scarcely an exhibit in that does not bring into sharp relief the intimate nexus between the criminal law and the 400 plus year struggle of in thisamericans country and whether that's the criminal law being used a tool of, as social or racial control or to crystallize racial and professor brown marshall talked about this a little bit in terms of the laws thatt of the the designed to cement
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racial subjugation after the civil war, forcing african-americans into labor contracts, restricting their freedom of movement, denying them the franchise, prohibiting them from serving on criminal and juries, criminal crow laws regulating their access to public accommodations and transportation and recreation and education, marriage between individuals of different races and as professor higgenbotham pointed out, sose were criminal laws failing to adhere to these discriminatory prohibitions meant you would be prosecuted and convicted and incarcerated as a result of resistance to these laws and so again, the usednal law was being as a blunt tool to enforce an unjust racial and social order. we also see in the museum stories of the failure of
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the criminal justice system provide equal protection of african-americans. sad history of racial violence and state actors who were often at best and complicit at worst in this violence, the many horrifying images of african-americans hanging from bridgesd as a result of this violence. young vibrant his disfigured face and the moving exhibit with the casket in the museum and descriptions of the rape or torture of countless african-americans, often any subsequent serious effort to apprehend the wrongdoers and when they apprehended with no justice being served, no or nojury indictment conviction at trial. and we also see in the museum stories, the use of the criminal justice civiltus to frustrate
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rights advocacy. the coordinated relationship between racial terror organisms and law enforcement meant that these hadal terror groups carte blanche to use violence and intimidation and murder to frustrate african-americans and their attempts to exercise their civil rights or pursue theomic advancement and museum depicts the phenomenon of the criminalization of the civil rights advocates. mugshot of now iconic and lesser known civil rights activists who were arrested and brought into justice system simply for asserting their rights under the constitution. and so we see in the museum criminalgain, the justice system's impact on to persevere despite all that stood in
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the way of african-americans this time and one theg that struck me was set of museum stories about the criminal justice system's warehousing of bodies. the vivid descriptions and depictions of convict exploiting that loophole in the 13th amendment and that ban on allow private parties to continue to profit from the unpaid labor of african-americans and i could go on and on with of how theles museum chronicles these intersections of the criminal law with the african-american history of perseverance, but we should be reminded that this is not history.t i mean, many daunting challenges remain and the chronicles this unfortunate history of brutality within the african-american community, but today, we see instance after instance of unarmed losing-americans their lives at the hands of
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law enforcement and too with justice being persevere.yet we we see the different more public health response to the opioid sweepingthat is majority communities and rightly so, that's the response we should have, but countless numbers of african-american families are still feeling the effects of ill-conceived policies associated with the on drugs and that led to the mass incarceration that suffer from today. but yet we persevere. illuminated the criminal justice system's ile in profiting as mentioned from the exploitation of black bodies through practices, such as leasing, but today, we have a proliferation of prisons here and the criminalization of poverty
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through criminal andice-related fines fees and penalties that were brought to light in the wake ferguson, and the dysfunctional cash bail have that was illuminated with the tragic of kalif browder so again, we're persevering as deal withe to these issues. another story the museum the long andf enduring struggle for educational equality for today,-americans and we're still grappling with that at the same time that thee confronting realities of the school to prison pipeline, so still we persevere and really in quite moving fashion, the story oflls the the racial violence fueled by hate, such as the 1963 of those four little girls in the 16th street church in birmingham and today, we mourn in the
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mass shootings at an african-american church in charleston, at a synagogue in pittsburgh, and the hate-fueled violence that display in charlottesville, but yet we persevere. you know, i mentioned earlier dr. angelou's words on one wall of the museum, baldwin's adorned another wall there and just before ik aside close i commend to you the film jenkins wastation of -- i blessed to be decided to a ncaa legal defense fund 62 screening of that film and by a q&afollowed with the brilliant director, jenkins, and the equally brilliant president council ofr of the ncaa legal defense fund and it was a wonderful baldwin'son and text to which jenkins does
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great justice, in my explores a number of the themes of the intersections of race and criminal justice that we've here. about baldwin's words on the museum wall are the great force of history comes from fact that we carry it within us. unconsciously controlled by it, history is literally present in all that we do. that whatk baldwin said is true and i think it's a fitting commenceon as we this year long commemoration of the 400th anniversary and as the anthem commands we sing a song full of the faith that the dark past that'sght us, but also a song full of the hope that the present has brought us so we can, we will and we persevere. thank you. [applause] >> i'm curious. i'm really interested in -- you has a mission, a
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project work that you're doing related to these topics and you've talked about it so well but i'm if you've ever been surprised or shocked or inspired, give me an example of something crossed your path that really moved you. youi just want all of to just speak. >> a moment that has inspired me. the first time that i of race andsues place was when i was in the 3rd grade. mom as a lesson for helping us to feel empowered registering for school, went up, i
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myself, and the woman asked what is your address? said 741 mcgwire avenue. and he said what apartment number? said 741. and she said no what apartment number? and he said 741. so i'm looking at my mom who's standing there and the frustration that she has, give you some context. mcgwire avenue is a long street. at the end of the street was housingcome project. where we lived, in the red myck ranch house that parents built in 1972, that they were very proud of rural kentucky. and that literally was the where iment understood that race and create a false perception about my identity. good chancehe to go to grad school at the university of kentucky, i
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random conversation with the dean of the graduate preservation program, i was searching for my professional identity, convinced me to go into that togram and they asked me conduct a stateioid inventory of historic rosen a massivels, funded and literally the preservation spaces is the physical manifestation of a social movement in response blackrisis in education. during this process i learned that my mom and dad schools,osenwald right? and i remembered standing at thisool having multisensory experience and interaction with this physical history, i could and hear the creaking floorboards as i and forhat space, me, it really started to speak to the power of historic preservation and power of place to remind
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us of our great potential and our potential responsibility as a community to continue to fight for justice and equality. so today, i stand here as a professional, first generation academically trained and we ae committed to building pipeline in diversifying the field of preservation because we want other diverse voices and professionals to stand up black culture. [applause] >> as evelyn mentioned earlier, earlier in my life work on annce to exhibition, i showed up at the american history museum and i think for me what was most inspiring was the chance to travel around the country and we tried to figure out about this exhibition, part of the mantra at the american history museum, well, we can't do exhibitions on
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african-americans because we materiale a culture. and so the idea of doing this exhibition was to begin things andse make them part of the story, very essential to the african-american community, probably aion is part of all of us in one way or another. my wife remind me when she would hear, she her parents talking to people and people would say well where are you from and say we'res would from d.c. and they would say where are your people from? carolina, south carolina and places like that, but even more importantly working with the exhibition, it was the to talk with people about their stories and to have them understand that their story was part of a larger context. a larger flow of the history of this country that was important and even more importantly, that the material culture that was of their lives, that they thought was unimportant, that were in inements, that were attics, that were in trunks around the house were really
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harbingers and symbols of african-american and contributions to this country so for me, it's moment, but a series of moments of beginning to thatto people and have light go on that their stories were important and that their stories were important enough to have culture,erial their objects, their clothing, their papers, their bibles come to the smithsonian and to be a part of it at the national museum of american history and that for me was very important and inspiring. and it reminded all of us about the kind of contributions we had to make and how important saving making them and available were to ensuring that our place in this was neverhistory lost. so it was for me, the chance people, that with to have realize that, and then to share that fact to that our stories are never lost. for me to make sure the most
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-- that wehing i capture our heritage and that our stories are never lost, either. if we can do that, we'll never be forgotten as important contributors to the history of this country. [applause] >> when i was working as a civil rights attorney full-time, i would be in small towns in alabama and not callnd i would them hotels, they were definitely motels, where i be by myself and i started thinking how long have we been doing this, advocating for our rights in court? and that's when i started inting my book race, law american society and i thought it would go back back to the 1950s, 1906, the red
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summer, 1919 had another feature which was the cofax massacre in the 1800s, and would go back and find so that's why my book in 1607 and goes forward. found myi also place. i put a picture of my family front of that book because they were -- and i found the term later, we just always told the story of coming up from kentucky in the 1800s and then it's was a word, called exodusters that we from five families, the bradshaw line side tother's kansas, and in kansas we and fivermers families, five brothers started their farming communities and we still farmerssins who are and at one point had the largest black farm in kansas. what also got me about this was this idea of free
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cases i ran into when i was doing my research was opinion dexter versus this case,in from 1850s, we had a slave master who, of course, would have these enslaved human beings and then right before wanted toefore he go to the rotten place in hell, he would manument them when he did this, he put in his will that once he enslavedn this person could either choose to stay with his wife as an be free.person or the court then says no, this has no right of free will. to determine if he can even be a slave, he has no human right because humans have a of free will. human,rson is not it's property and you don't chair goes. the you decide, the chair does not so that always stayed
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that my the idea ancestors traveled to kansas will, that i travel where a job takes me or that i need to go, we're here today based on free will, and it's so important to understand that been oppositions, groups, and certain people nothilosophy who do want us to exercise free will. clansman actually said after the 1964 civil rights act was passed now they're inch to work for every they get. so if you feel you've been in a battle, you have been. fore been battling every inch we get each time we get it and the battle is free will because it was determined that we were here for a particular would benefit others, not ourselves. so this is all quite unusual, isn't it? we actually get to have our choices, choose our partners, choose where we live, what type of work we do, all this is relatively
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time period between 1619 to present. about wanted to talk this one thing that happened was bust under missouri versus jenkins, i city,nto kansas missouri and busting came very late so when i was bust was this old new phenomenon. remember people walking in looking in the doors as we were at the time about 20 african-american students in a school of hundreds upon hundreds of white students, and you n. word and you had things written on your locker and you had all these alwayshappen, and i say i'm still -- to me, the jury is still out on the benefit of busting, the benefit of this forced integration, but itologist me the it also gave power to say that i can look anyone in the eye and be in what i have to of to them without fear
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favor, but i also realize those people who would come in with their charts and they would look and they person inine each the room and where they were seated and how many people were there and i always were, theyo they were civil rights attorneys, yearstle did i know later, that i would become a civil rights attorney. my area would be education and i would be the one opening the doors, peeking in, seeing what the racial was in the particular classrooms and how many books were in the library, all of these things going full circle, and i think about our ancestors and how proud they must be and concerned at the same time that we move forward, that we're here in this room, would be great pride, but then at the same time do we still have the fire and of free will that we want to carve out a place the nextorld for generation to be freer than we are today? >> thank you. [applause]
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>> so it's interesting, my fairfax, sr. has been involved in a pretty intense effort over really two decades now to uncover our family history. phenomenalome work, aided by people like harmine powell who's a friend of professor crew and uncoveredlly branches of our family tree and traces them back to the early 19th century right around 800, but we hit a roadblock then because of the documentation, we ancestorsind our prior to about that turn of point and the trail really went cold for a few years. had a breakthrough fairly recently and thanks of another phenomenal genealogist,
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theie mccoy from virginia slavery inventory database, we were able to discover my great-great-great-grandfathe r simon fairfax who was enslaved in fairfax county manumission his in circuit court. i think that's extraordinary enough. could saylot i about this and if you want to learn more the washington storyas covered this quite extensively, some other outlets, but the media that these outlets were interested in this story is because our literally 48e uprs before -- i called my youngest brother, was sworn in as lieutenant governor of the commonwealth
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and my father and maddie came up with this document 48 hours before the swearing in and i mentioned being in the green room right before we walked out steps of the capitol to witness him be sworn in ad my father handed him copy of the document. he did not know what it was. he had been obviously consumed by the events leading up to the swearing-in and my father said just put it in your pocket, don't ask me questions, when you take the oath i want you to have that. so he did it, and he took the oath of office, it was a morning, january, richmond, and he was sworn in as only the second african-american elected official since reconstruction with his great-great-grandfather's in his breast pocket, so perseverance indeed. [applause]
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wonderful. been now, we would like to hear from you. do you have questions for panelists? so many -- i see bob first, back.en i'll just go [inaudible question] >> former president, i know this butknow dubois when he talked about problem of the color line he was looking at this domestically, but internationally and this 100th pan, the
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congress after world something wes need to be aware of and think about especially when have a president of the united states who can so flippantly talk about nigerians not wanting to go back to their huts in africa and who can also make denigrating the african continent. some people who see africa not being a continent of nations and they see it, you as being one undifferentiated mass. that because next week i'll be going to paris a delegation from alpha alpha fraternity to commemorate the centennial
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pan-african conference and that meeting was extremely important, dubois, rayford logan played an important role and ida gibbs hunt an important role in the organization of the african congress and of pan africanism so i think we need to keep this in mind. woodsone, carter g. also saw the relationship between africa and african-americans with publications, i wanted to mention that. >> thank you. >> my name is howard moreland. husband of the woman who's passing the mike around. to give a shout-out to gerald horn who introduced me to the case of
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somerset versus stewart, and i think it was 1774. the case of a man who was enslaved in virginia and manservant by his owner to england and when he got to england he emancipated himself and sued for his freedom and the chief judge of the entire empire, moree powerful than the supreme the rulingave that there is not now and never has been a law in slavery.uthorizing therefore, there is no slavery in england. go.rset is free to and two years later, when thomas jefferson wrote that are created equal, according to gerald horn he his minde back of this idea we have to get out of the british empire in to escape the looming fate of emancipation.
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so one of the cornerstones of the foundation of this ofntry was fear emancipation. >> my name is a. peter inley and i was just ghana last -- i'm a member calledw organization pan african-american federalist movement and our theme is africa must unite had a conference in ghana, celebrating the anniversary of the inst conference called 1958. but i would like -- i'm of we as aef that people put much too much time on electoral politics enough on economics. and is there any historian, anyone exploring how we have used our collective economics to advance and
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promote our interests in society? give our children the -- it was won because the bus were losing thousands of dollars monthly had -- they said we've got to do something about this. we just simply -- it's so find anyone who talks in the black community about economics and the use of collective economics as a means of promoting our society. in this i mean, professor james clingman wrote about it all column, he his got a book called black matters. but we seem to on every totally ignore how our collective economics can be to promotepon and protect our interest in society. >> i would like to speak to that for just very briefly.
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collectivenot economics, but from the civil rights standpoint once was two steps forward, you know, and then being pushed back. why.'ll tell you it goes back to this issue of competition. when those principles got middle passage and rose on those shores of virginia and were able to when nott a time only was there cannibalism being practiced in the and if youlony visit jamestown you'll see, prostratethe remains of evidence of this cannibalism that is there wasyou to witness, this a very devastating place, indenturede european servant and so they navigated the culture, the conditions, and the economics. i say anthony johnson had property of their own and why do i know this? when it was time for them to pay their taxes, there was a
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fire on the farm that was probably the neighbors of these africans who had this property, had development, had this financial power and they burned their farm down. again, this is the overarching story. we make economic progress, is that progress undermined through terrorism, through murder, fires, through the killing of the cattle, these things have been happening time and time again. it's not that we haven't had the economic push. we have had economic unity, but as we go through even after slavery ended, there was this push, there was economic development, there farming, and then there was backlash of terrorism and the ku klux klan. the jim crowe era same thing, the reason famous iscomes because she sees these inthers who own a store tennessee and then the store is doing well in the black
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community. the white store owner who treating us horribly gets upset and decides to the charges, go after the black store owners, say there's some rape involved and there's the next thing when we defend ourselves, there's a slaughter, and when these men who own the grocery store are put in jail, they're drawn out and lynched. this is ongoing, we are for economic development and the last point i'll make is this, the wecott was a tool that used. not goingyou're to serve us, if you're not going to treat us fairly, if you're not going to hire us, buy your going to merchandise and unfortunately, this case went to the u.s. supreme court and the u.s. supreme court ruled against the naacp's use of an economic boycott. when we talk about the browder case, the browder the montgomery bus boycott, the browder
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that case so it went the protests that ended the case. it was the browder case the u.s. supreme court so i just want you to know that the economic push beenull and what we've through, talking about perseverance, and even starting a business is so the point to thee we know now that bank of america, countrywide and other banks during the obama administration under attorney general eric holder uponpaid millions millions of dollars of fines because as soon as we bought weree, we found out we given these horrible rates, payments,ooned and then ended up in foreclosure, they found out discrimination that led to the horrible terms that were given to us and we had the same credit,al, the same even more in the bank than other people, but each time progress,onomic that progress is undermined by people who cannot imagine
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to free will and ability rise up and not just be on the same level economically, educationally, etc., but better in be certain areas. [inaudible question] several books on economics, you read her books. malveau. >> the national urban league has the studies on the state and theyamerica will bring those topics up. i just want to also point aboute the browder case because three other women, not including rowa parks are the ones who took that case to shows that we need the protests, we need the boycotts, but we also
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cases toake our court and this is also why do agree with you that economics is important, but please know politics is important. we have got to vote. i'm asking this question from a free lance standpoint. we witnessed the attack of a black openly lgbtq actor this week. crime, bothe from a racist standpoint and ophobe -- homophobic we're alsoand facing many challenges in lgbtq community and criminalization of and being are hiv able to divulge your status.
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and i was wondering when we about perseverance and when you talk about visibility of groups, what we doing in order to groups in the conversation and preserving let'sical places like say a building or preserving or working together to expand the conversation around civil rights with intersections between race and lgbtqia? start.right, i'll thank you for that question and we were all saddened by violence that happened to our brother and are him well. i want to start off by giving you a stat. register of historic places which is the national inventory of the places that we deem significant in the united states has an inventory of places.000 less than 10% reflect a full
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diversity of america including underrepresented andunities, women lgbtq. at the national trust we have been committed it to equitable more interpretation and vision by advocating for the preservation of in new york city, which is a national monument declared by president obama of our national treasurer campaigns is the mary inpaulie durham, north carolina and when you speak to interactionality, cofounder of the national organization of wimp, first african-american episcopal saint. she was an activist and scholar against gender inequity, against racial injustice and we're looking anddentify and honor recognize more places like that.
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>> part of our push all along has been to have the placesgation of worth preserving, thought about in much larger terms because previously i think the idea has been who famous has lived there? and so the push all along been more about who are the people they are connected to in different kinds of ways? out and look at a house, the question is who built the house? there?ved who was the gardener? thatid all the things kept that thing functioning and making it viable and if we continue to do that, we'rei think continuing to do, it allows the intersections to come forward, and it's broadening people think about what makes these places important and if you do that, then i aink it allows you to see much bigger picture than you might eyes. read an article title men.d, gay black and the reason i wrote it is
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i think that the civil rights movement has always included all of us in some form or other and i use the prime example of james baldwin. and so the sense -- and ton, and when you start going through the names and you'll see in the artists and activists and lawyers and that's always been a part of our community. becausethat article i wanted the black gay activists to come forward use that energy and creativity and courage in overarching issue of justice for our community toause we can't afford leave anybody alone in a silo. our community needs all hands on deck. we needed it before and we especially need it now so i think we need each other and if nothing else the
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circumstances today are showing more than ever how need each other. >> i'm from mississippi, we defer. [laughter] >> it's a respect thing. is pamela bingham and honestly, i'm so full and overwhelmed by this discussion. i didn't know if i was going tomake it because i had drive from petersburg today and my mother has alzheimer's so getting up a struggle.ys there's so much to say, but i alwaysncerity, give a thank you in these environments to the people me,made it possible for us, to be here at the press i am actually an environmental engineer, i am in his chapter of asala in
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washington, d.c., but like i living in petersburg and i grew up in jackson, mississippi. always thought i was free. my family made that possible for me. my mother1964, went through that pregnancy, that was a pretty bad summer of youson for those who know. so i feel very blessed to be here. but god has taken me through some changes from mississippi to florida to the dmv, and now, he is petersburg, virginia, and i am like what is wrong here? seriously came today. i am the great-great-great-granddaugh ter of gabriel. my father has worked on this his death,til 1950s to 2014. i am trying to finish his book, which is one of my questions for you. so i felt free all my life,
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got to central virginia and people are not free in petersburg. it, i praylain for your brother every day, when he sat down on lee day i said ooh, they really wanted to run him out on a rail. believe there is a lee jackson day, but it is the friday before the king holiday in the state of those of you who do not know. it was accommodation made to have the king holiday. so coming from this havelious family, i three questions and it pretty much relates to everybody so i'll just direct them. genealogistly now and that day is passing. so first of all, in petersburg i have made lackf the chair due to of anything happening. this is a community that is so focused on the confederacy and the petersonbering national battlefield, even though were u.s. colored troops, even it was the first free black community
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pocahontas island, i am refighting the civil war so asala to help me. i met the city manager. she's from baton rouge so we have a common background about these things. timeew up in the same and we know what our folks have gone through for us to be free now and for us to tell history completely. they do not want to do that in petersburg so i made an economic development argument, cultural tourism. i'm still being fought. so i need asala, i need us to confab later, i need us to meet afterwards to really talk about this plan. i'm meeting the superintendent of the petersburg national battlefield is african-american, but he is is inained because he the national parks system. so i understand everybody's they gave us the economic and the political lessons growing up in questiono that's one for asala. national trust person
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totally needs you. melissa is a good friend of mine. and there's a gentleman who -- the word preservation to me didn't it now means growing up in missouri. it had a whole different context. it made me nervous. the firsted me to meeting because they thought i was that negro. they found out i am not that negro. so i need the trust. they want to throw out some markers, i want a museum. and that's at the beginning. i want to change curriculum, we finally got the names at a.p. hill, black students in robert e. lee school. i'm going to wrap this up. mynt two, great-grandfather, we have a family lawyer who told me and story two years ago he's 90 something so i'm running out of time. my great-grandfather helped grant get around vicksburg. we know this, we can't prove
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parks service, they won't put it in the display, but they do acknowledge a slave helped vicksburg ind the civil war. what we need is the court case that this white lawyer took to the mississippi myrt to get great-grandfather's freedom. i need a student. all you law people to help me find that and remember the courthouse is burned so it's difficult. question for anybody in the room can talk to me outside, i now have names ofs relatives from my dad's 50 years of work. visually display that so that people can see connectivity? right now, it's on 50 sheets paper. so -- [applause] >> all right, so i'll respond to your first two questions. and we funded an equitable
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plan through preservation virginia to assess the economic impact both inage tourism richmond and across the state of virginia for the of equipping the advocatesother with financial indicators to be able to advocate for increased public and private investment. so it's supporting richmond, but it's looking at the state cultural tourism economy as well and that will be a great resource for's and then your second question about museum versus marker or trail. tot newcomers preservation always advance an idea of a museum. it's one of the most difficult and financially sustainable business models there is and i would suggest start with ad historic marker program icause -- okay and what love about markers is it
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even ife history it's absent and it's a low-cost solution for being expand interpretation and when i heard you speak about, a conflict between the histories and it sounds like advocating for being able to tell the full history about virginia so to talk to you about strategies for building some preservation infrastructure. >> thank you. and understand preservation -- [inaudible question] >> so i'll be really quick. publisher of the washington informer newspaper, thank you for the shout-out to the black press. and two years ago, i knocked thehe door of preservation office about trying to get our archives and realized that was knocking on the wrong door, but i will say that the informer which is 55 years old this year, hundreds, a couple hundreds of black-owned
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newspapers whose archives in basements and storage fores and we're looking resources to get those ourications digitized, photo galleries digitized so we can help to contribute to areresearch that people looking for and so any recommendations you might have, i'm the former chair nnpa so i would love to share that with the organization, national newspaper publishers association. the other one is a flip it question, but i want to ask anyway. heard a lot about african, black nationalism, all that today. and it's just interesting we piece in the paper this week that the recent friend of the arrested who was this week has on more than wouldcasion say he not seek -- what's the word,
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pardon for himself. he would seek a pardon for marcus garvey. than once.t more does anybody have any idea what that's all about? >> the only thing i know is years, people may know marcus garvey was a phenomenon, he was a nationalist who decided there would be a to africa movement and linethe black star would be the ship that would take people back and the was unseaworthy unbeknownst to him, but he vision of self-actualization within african-american community and he believed strongly in his philosophy
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writings that there was enough talent within the african-american community bet we could self-actualized people and defend ourselves, feed be there ford ourselves as independent people. marcus garvey, i've met a garveyite and i'm a member the negroer of improvement association in city.rk so the garveyites continue. of not the deep history it, it's in my book, that's the reason why i'm familiar with this, but i also know kis casee was this conflictse were within the african-american community that led to non-support when he was attacked by the fbi and others within the federal government to undermine his ability to bring -- and the bring thead to african-american community together and what really saidned was that they because he sold the shares to the ship and that the
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unseaworthy that this was fraud and so therefore, this fraudulent action, he was accused and convicted of, led to prison time, and then deportment and so i've met his son and his son has been seeking garvey's pardon and garvey's marcus pardon during the obama administration so i'm only assuming that's what they're referring to, that the pardon of marcus garvey posthumously because they feel it was not his intent to defraud anyone, but the him the shipld and said they were captain and the ship could do what do were tricking him so i'm just going to notion. once again, each time we go two steps forward, and the man to for this bring together globally descentf african and then -- there are people i met later in life who
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thel mourned deportation of marcus garvey. so i'm thinking that that might be it. now, that part -- that part might involve other outside stimulants but -- [inaudible] [laughter] say reallyant to briefly, there are -- there are legal scholars who are on this issue about that case and the problems with that case. the other point i wanted to make about marcus garvey, which i've only learned in the last 10 years or so is great a global phenomenon the garvey movement was. i have a student who wrote his dissertation under me and the book is called the .ge of garvey and he's seeing garvey's africa, in cuba, just all over.
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and other people have this, too, but it's just pretty phenomenal because we for so long was a new this york movement, and then it a new a detroit and orleans movement, and then it became a rural southern movement, and then it became cuban movement and in england and in africa. it's amazing. i think he was seen as a -- as a threat because it simply that he was asking people to go back to africa. that wasn't the biggest part. my mother's people came from jamaica so they weren't back anywhere, but hering in harlem, but godfather was one of lieutenants and it's interesting because his main goal remember was the andmption of africa this was when africa is being colonized and carved up by the european powers. was his biggest threat to the world.
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>> and rosa parks was a garveyite. i mean, it really was a during itsment time period. [inaudible] >> this has been tremendous, you.a and all of thank you very much. but my question is to ms. smith. [laughter] i want to bring us back to special edition. i'm just very excited that here and you're with us all and you're talking to us. i first saw one of those editions about four or five years ago, i don't remember. well, i just happened to see it on the news stand and i was excited about it and i
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actually brought it to an executive council meeting and i said well you know, do this?w anything about did they reach out to us or any of that? sorry. and so now, you know, to short iong story heard you talk about the papers that you're going to be circulating and so might asala look forward to some of those papers on this issue now? can move forward -- [inaudible]
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[inaudible] personal. was it was a mission for me i did not know i was would eons. was going to be on. [laughter] i am.w, here my mission is, first, to tell
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the truth about who we are and not us warts and all and leave our definition to other people. .t's very easy to do so, that is my charge. thing, how we distribute across the country ,nd this particular publication it's very different. so, getting to the core audience, children's schools and different populations. i basically have told -- filled
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this. my desire would be to get to this. thethen you can hear conversation back and forth to have a better understanding of where we need to go and a way to voices.ntegrate so -- [laughter] now i have more of an investigative focus and really trying to get the data around politics. i really want to begin bringing .ore voices this is what we do.
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this is about beginning to tell everybody is stories. >> thank you. [applause] >> thank you. unfortunately, we are out of time. this has been a tremendous location. we want to thank our panelists and -- and to think our president, the vision of black migration, forced migration, just to think of the wisdom that goes into making the selection for the black history thing for the year -- theme for the year. foruld like to thank you being with us for the first day thisack history month in crucial year and hope you will
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go forward with your own commemorative activity, that you would think what you can do in your community to celebrate the essential journey of 400 years of perseverance and consider the resilience necessary to overcome , that theytacles would allow you to have your friends, your family, your education and whatever obstacles we have today cannot compare to what our child -- and we have to think about aslah. it's on the website, mentoring.nd family you will find a list of books. you will also find at some point events on our challenger.
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and you will see on february 16, we are having a luncheon. and there are still tickets available. even further into 400 years of perseverance with an entirely different panel. time, as was pointed out, we said that journalism is the first draft of history. 400 years ago what was taking place then is something we would be talking about today. as we go forward, we say though
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out and make good history. thank you so much. thank you for joining us. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> today on american history tv, votereaty of versailles, suppression in the 1960's. at 4 p.m. eastern on "reel america," the 1963 film "we'll never turn back." to -- are people go free to go and register our boats because they are afraid of being killed. >> killed by a state
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from mississippi after he, himself, tried to vote. artifacts,"american the synagogue in washington, d.c. second was the congregation washington and the first to build from the ground up. on june 9.ted this and then 8:00 on "the presidency," a look back at the 1989 joint session of congress speech by president h.w. bush. president bush: they did not talk about themselves. they talked about posterity. they talked about the future.
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and we, too, must think in terms bigger than ourselves. and at 9 p.m. eastern, margaret mcmillan on the to be a versailles its impact on world war ii. old and new states struggled to grab territory and establish themselves. ofchurchill says, the war the giants has ended. the civil war of the pygmies is starting. sunday on c-span3. >> monday night on "the discussators," we will internet regulations and monitoring with rebecca's lottery -- rebecca slaughter. >> the fcc has rulemaking authority that is much more expensive than the ftc
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rulemaking authority. they can say to industry, here are the rules of the road. this is how you treat trapped on the internet. this is how you to the proper -- privacy. we do not have the ability to do that across the board when it comes to consumer protections. we have much more limited rulemaking authority and we have specter specific laws that will -- sector specific laws that will protect some data some of the time. but it is not housed in sector specific silos anymore. hard to see how congress does anything specific because people have not yet agreed on what the problem is. i think there's a lot of areas people could agree on, that these are the types of injuries we are trying to stop injuries from suffering. i think we could get there. right now the conversation is very big and it talks about privacy is a general idea.
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communicators, monday night on c-span two at 8 p.m. eastern. today, five spanish missions make up the san antonio missions national historical park, a unesco world heritage site. next, texas a&m community -- joeln jolt kitchens kitchens talks about history and the process of preserving missions about 300 years old. american history tv recorded the interview at the western history associations annual meeting in san antonio, texas. >> joining us from san antonio, we have joel kitchens, the humanities librarian at texas a&m university where he earned his doctorate. we wanted to focus on the missions and san antonio in particular and across texas. what are they and what were they?


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