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tv   Reel America The First Decade - 1968  CSPAN  July 13, 2019 10:12pm-10:43pm EDT

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sample in detail, and a predetermined location some 40, 50, 60 feet away from the lunar module. following this, we will package up these samples, conduct a few core tubes samples, another brief experiment, the solar wind experiment, and then prepare these packages to be transported up into the lunar module. i will enter the lem first and then neil will convey these two sample return containers up on this tether assembly. once they are inside, he will reenter the lunar module, we will pressurize, and that will be the end of our eva. space, the first decade, is a 1968 film reviewing major accomplishments of nasa since it was established in 1958. the documentary culminates with the successful launch of a saturn v rocket anticipating
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launches to the moon. ♪ when did the exploration of space begin? at what time did man first embark upon his journey to the stars? atmitive man gazed in awe the infinite lights of the heavens, and wondered how different they were from his own earth. other men searched the night sky for religious signs or mathematical movements or imaginary inventions. for the earthbound astronomer, space was a lifetime of study beyond the window of his observatory. for countless centuries the exploration of space remained a dream in the mind of man. then, on the fourth day of the month of october 1957, it became a reality.
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the soviet union hurled the first man-made satellite into orbit 558 miles above the earth. the space age had begun. ♪ a year later congress created the national aeronautics and space administration, a new civilian agency with parallel missions, to continue research and improvement in aeronautics, and to build a team and technology capable of sending unmanned and demand craft to explore the new ocean of space. ♪ today, after a decade of research and discovery, america stands ready for the next step, a journey to the moon.
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[jet engines firing] ♪
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this day began on an island of the coast -- off the coast, a place where man explores the realm of space. years, scientific instruments have been carried into the atmosphere, gathering data on high-altitude winds, ultraviolet rays, radiation belts and solar flares. for american and international experimenters have evaluated this data to expand vastly our knowledge of interspace. -- of inner space. [jet engines firing]
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at other nasa centers, scientists, engineers and technicians developed and tested new families of scientific satellites, unmanned spacecraft sensesould extend man's where he could not yet see, hear or touch, spacecraft which took scientific equipment and experiments into the unknown darkness and sent back the light of new knowledge. from these satellites, man has learned the nature of microscopic particles in space. he has measured air density at great altitudes, discovered how electrons deflect radio waves in the ionosphere, and where radiation belts and circle our planet. he has determined the true shape of the earth and mapped it more precisely, made new measurements of solar energy and sent
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telescopes into the night for a first clear look at the stars. ♪ some satellites were joint efforts to add to mann's knowledge, the combined scientific quest of other nations and the launch technology of our own. the early scientific satellites carried only instruments into space. carry life,would plants and animals ranging from microorganisms to primates. these bio satellites told us how weightlessness, radiation, velocity and pressure affected
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life in the new environment called space. as man learns more about the earth and near space, he sought to know about his neighbors in the solar system. probes were hurled through entered planetary space near venus and mars. nearing venus, our spacecraft reported the atmosphere to be very dense, surface, hot enough to melt lead. these investigations told scientists that on venus, there is little likelihood of life as we know it. -- one of the most expect one of the most spectacular feats of the decade, nasa sent a deep space probe across uncharted seas more than 360 miles for a brief but wondrous moment at our nearest planetary neighbor, mars. we learned mars is probably more like the moon than earth, pockmarked with craters with
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little-known magnetic field or gravity. as important as the return of scientific information was the new confidence gained in our technological material, that man could design and control such complex operations across millions of miles of interplanetary space. ♪ over the past decade, scientists also developed complex new instruments to probe the intimate secrets of the long mysterious moon. television cameras took us live" up to the lunar surface. close up toive and
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the lunar surface. our spacecraft landed softly in the lunar seas. they examined the moon's collar and sampled its chemical composition. color and sampled its chemical composition. man witnessed a sunset on the surface of the moon, saw the sun eclipsed by the earth, and looked back at his own planted a quarter of a million miles away. other spacecraft circled the moon, photographing its yawning craters and soaring peaks, mapping more than 95% of its surface. studies proved man could land and walk upon the lunar soil. in this first decade of the space age, the science and
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technology which was used to explore outer space was also applied to practical benefits here on earth. satellites provide a constant watch on the world's weather, serve as beacons for navigation by ship or plane, send voice and pictures from any .oint on earth to any other ♪ in 10 years, we have come from a few experimental weather satellites to an operational system capable of night-and-day observations around the world. today satellites take portraits of storms that spanned half a continent and transmit them to meteorologists in many nations. they have detected hurricanes and given valuable
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hours of warning to those who live and work in their pathways. man has also learned to communicate by satellite, first with a great balloon that served as a reflector in the sky for earthbound transmitters. decade, it the past provided millions around the world with their first glimpse of a man-made star zooming across the sky. ♪ other satellites followed. extremely perform complicated communications tasks. today, the technology from this first family of satellites has been put into commercial use in operational systems not only available to television networks and businesses, but to people
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everywhere. all the world has been united to witness this historic moment. satellites have provided a valuable bridge to scientists working at distance points in the world -- at distant points in the world. but space research was not the only mission of nasa. thisirst a in the name of organization stands for aeronautics. an airplane without wings, the lifting body, and effort to link mann's continuing journey through air and space. someday, such a vehicle may be used to bring man back from space through the fiery rear entry of the earth's atmosphere, to a landing on the runway of
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tomorrow's airport. in 10 years, the field of aeronautics has cap pace with mann's desire to fly ever faster, higher and farther. research has led to the development of aircraft that fly many times the speed of sound. ♪ new planes have been developed that rise vertically and fly at jet speeds. man has attacked the problems of the new age of aeronautics, jet engine noise on the sonic boom. concerned himself with the safety of aircraft and their passengers. in 10 years, man has designed,
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built and tested sleek, new, hypersonic aircraft that today fly to the dark edges of space. [jet engines roaring] ♪ but the journey to the edge of space was not far enough. man long dreamed of bigger rockets and greater power, the ability to cross the threshold of space. in the 1960's, manned space
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travel became a reality. many men on earth helped ready the systems that would take a few men across that frontier. the astronauts, star sailors on a formidable sea, conditioned themselves for the new phenomena of space. then came the day when the first man was ready. three, 2, 1,, ignition. >> the clock has started.
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>> roger. >> reading you loud and clear. narrator: many astronauts would follow, on longer voyages in space. addedperience of each more knowledge to the textbook of all those who would come after them. >> systems go. >> amr telemetry. two.ree, >> you are underway. [jet engines firing] standby for 20 seconds. >> roger. ♪ these firstom
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flights came important information about the men, their spacecraft, and the facilities and personnel who supported them. a force ofithstand gravity many times his own weight. he could live for extended periods weightless in the vacuum of space. ♪ man could maneuver his own spacecraft in orbit, make scientific measurements, take photographs of the space around him and the earth below.
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>> 76, houston is standing by. >> roger. roger, understand, keeping at 120 feet. narrator: man could locate other spacecraft, hundreds of miles across the ocean of space. >> i have a weird-looking machine here. alligator's jaw has fully opened and extended. >> roger. ♪ narrator: man could rendezvous
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and dock with spacecraft sent into orbit ahead of him. man could perform complex scientific and technological experiments in space. man could walk and work outside .is spacecraft the astronauts could meet successfully all their objectives, and safely sail back
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home to the earth below. >> there it is, there it is. that's it. [helicopter flying overhead] >> a bearing of 005 degrees. these first steps into space have taken man 800 miles above the earth, yet he dreams of more distant and demanding voyages, expeditions which would require bigger outfits and more sophisticated spacecraft, larger cruise on longer times. and so man began his rehearsal for the moon, and the nation was ready to meet the challenge. ♪
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facilities of many kinds were constructed throughout our country to support the space program's future. offices, research laboratories, testing chambers, clean rooms, carpentry shops, packing stations, block houses and launch pads. tot were designed and built house the science and technology that did not exist 10 years ago. to meet the new demands of the space program, basic research was expanded and strengthened at institutions throughout the nation. at universities and nasa research centers, space sciences moved forward along a broad front of accomplishment. ♪
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[heavy machinery operating] ♪ menator: behind the space have stood thousands of engineers, scientists and technicians, all part of the team dedicated to building and .esting the many components
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america called upon its industry and institutions, placed new demands and offered new challenges to the establishments of our time. education contribute ideas and experiments, scientific expertise and trained manpower. industry solved thousands of insolvable problems, found new methods and materials when they were needed, achieved new heights of quality control and rates of performance. sometimes there were failures, and accidents that claimed men's lives.
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[jet engines firing] pilot of this research vehicle landed safely. [explosion] but we learned from our failures, corrected the faults, and continued the work to be done.
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witnessing the culmination of a dream. here at cape kennedy, the mighty saturn v rocket is ready. soon, three americans will be thrust to the moon in the greatest voyage of the century. and now, a new rocket is rolled out for another test of our mission capabilities.
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the men who will fly the missions of tomorrow train for .heir challenge in space ♪ >> is that closing velocity about right? >> that is correct. >> are you in the vertical position? >> supercritical. ♪
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in 10 short years, america has come a long way. exploredit has weatherce, developed watches and space communications, establish laboratories to study the sun and the planets, the past decade hisseen man exceed all previous achievements in air and space. it has provided a broad, new technology with spinoff benefits confidence in our ability to explore the solar system as we wish. has has been done and what been learned belongs to all who live now and in the future in this age of space. ready for launch.
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-20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, ignition sequence starts, 5, 4, we have we have, all engines, liftoff. we have liftoff. ]jet engines firing narrator: and now, at the end of the first decade in space, america stands ready. the men are ready, the machines are ready. man is prepared for the next great step in his continuing journey, the exploration of tomorrow. ♪
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> next weekend we mark the 50th anniversary of the apollo 11 moon landing with live coverage from the smithsonian national air and space museum. we will host interviews and take viewer calls on saturday, july 20, beginning at 7:00 a.m. eastern here on american history simulcast on, and c-span's "washington journal." >> on march 17, 1980, president
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jimmy carter signed the refugee of 1980 after it was unanimously passed by the u.s. senate, and had bipartisan support in the house. the act raised the annual ceiling for refugees of 1980 afs unanimously allowed in the united states, established the office of refugee resettlement, and created a process for addressing refugee emergencies. next on american history tv, a group of former government officials and refugee rights advocates discuss the history of refugee policy prior to 1980, and the legacy of the refugee act since 1980. the jimmy carter presidential library and museum and the refugee assistance organization hosted this event.


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