tv 400th Anniversary of Virginia General Assembly - Part 3 CSPAN September 2, 2019 1:31pm-2:35pm EDT
next, president trump headlines remarks delivered on the 400th anniversary of the first virginia general assembly. this is the final part of a three-part ceremony. >> the joint assembly will come to order. the members will rise and be led in prayer by the right reverend susan goff, ecclesiastical authority, episcopal diocese of
virginia. remain standing for the pledge of allegiance to the flag of the united states of america by the senator from james city county, senator norman, the national anthem performed by larry j.giddens. >> great is your name in all the world. great is your presence in this land. you were here when native peoples first lived and loved and governed themselves. you were here when the first englishman emigrated to these shores and when they held their first legislative assembly 400 years ago. you were here when the first english women chose to come and
join the men in establishing settled communities. and when the first african people were brought here in harrowing circumstances against their will. you were with our ancestors, men and women of diverse races and cultures through triumph and adversity, through hope and fear. in the same way that you were with your people then, be with us now while we remember the relationships and legacyies tha have shaped us as americans today. forgive us the ways that we have hurt and exploited one another. give us the courage to do the hard work of real
reconciliation. and bless our continued efforts for justice, freedom and peace for everyone in this land. everyone. everyone, everyone without exception. for you are a god who does wonders, and in your name, we see wonders. may it be so, and may we be partners with you in making it show. amen. >> please remain standing. in these days of sometimes strident and conflicting political views, there's one thing that all americans can remain united on. if you would please join me in pledging the aplellegiance to o flag of the united states of america. >> i pledge allegiance to the
flag of the united states of america and to the republic for which it stands. one nation, under god, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. ♪ o say, can you see by the dawn's early light ♪ ♪ what so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? ♪ ♪ whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight ♪ ♪ o'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? ♪ ♪ and the rockets'
>> please be seated. >> if everyone would please be seated. what a perfectly moving way to get our session under way. earlier today, governor northam and others observed this important occasion with a program in the 1907 reconstructed memorial church in historic jamestown. then, just a few moments ago, many of us sat nearby in a more primitive structure re-created to replicate the church in james fort around 1614. the structures and conditions under which the virginia general
assembly first met may have been primitive to our standards, but the dynamic model of democratic government that began here at jamestown 400 years ago on this very day was anything but. for the first time in virginia, free englishmen brought their concerns to a gathering of their peers. the first representative legislative assembly in the western hemisphere. and it all began right here in jamestown, virginia, the first capital. in 1699, the first capital moved from jamestown to middle plantation, or williamsburg it is known today. then in 1780, the state capital moved to richmond. today, the virginia house of delegates and the senate of virginia continue working to improve both the lives and livelihoods of all virginians
and thomas jefferson's beautiful capital building. the logo behind us and above us underscores that continuity. in 2007, america's 400th anniversary, we worked to focus national and international attention on jamestown. it's the first permanent english settlement in the new world. and on the convergence of cultures, it would shape our country. now in this commemorative year of 2019, we have been drawing more heavily from archaeological and cultural research. we have broadened our perspective. the result? a far more diverse, comprehensive and compelling picture of events has emerged. and we are determined to continue that story and bring to light other seminal events. commemoration 2019, american
evolution, spotlights the genesis of american democracy, american slavely, american diversity and opportunity. american survival and american genius. we are resolved to tell the story. today we are gathered on a momentous occasion for the virginia general assembly which had been serving the people of virginia on this very day beginning in 1619. we are delighted by the presence of each of you here and those watching. and we are truly honored to be joined at the joint assembly by so many distinguished guests. and if i could, before i recognize some of those distinguished guests, i ask that we pause and remember a great leader of our commonwealth who passed away this week.
president harrison wilson was a true pioneer in higher education, ably led norfolk state university, one of virginia's historically black universities through more than two decades of progress and growth. please join me in a moment of silence in his memory. we are truly honored to be joined at this joint assembly by so many distinguished guests. deputy secretary of the interior, kate mcgregor. ambassador of portugal, counselor of defense, embassy of the uk, edward ferguson, former clerk of the british house of commons, sir david nasler. our congressional
representatives, the honorable jennifer wexton. the honoral elaine loria, honorable robert wittman, former congressional representatives, barbara comstock, virgil goo, robert goodlatte, robert hurt, the honorable thelma drake, the honorable scott taylor. statewide elected officials, the honorable justin fairfax, the honorable mark herring, the honorable john hager, former lieutenant governor. we also want to certainly welcome members of the governor's cabinet. our former governors, the honorable george allen. the honorable gerald l. balals, the honorable james s. gilmore, the honorable robert f. mcdonald.
we also want to welcome our members of the supreme court. state legislators, the honorable jordan harris, pennsylvania, the honorable tori hutchinson, illinois. and, of course, our tribal ch f chiefs, chief linnet alston, chief w. frank adams, indian chief, chief emeritus ken adams, chief steven r. atkins, chief john lightner. chief ann richardson. we also want to welcome our local officials and the honorable andrew h. carr jr., the chairman of the national endowment of democracy and james e. ryan, the president of the
university of virginia. on behalf of the entire joint assembly, we are thankful you are all here to be a part of this commemoration with us. [ applause ] the clerk will report a resolution. >> commemorative session joint resolution, commemorating the first representative legislative assembly in the western hemisphere whereas 2019 marks the 400th anniversary of the first and oldest continuous representative legislative assembly in the western hemisphere, when the general assembly met july 30th, 1619 at jamestown in virginia. and whereas in 1619, members of
the virginia company implemented a series of reforms that resulted in the great charter which directed incoming colonial governor george yeardley to over see the selection of male settlers from each of the major settlement areas who would attend a general assembly and whereas the members of the general assembly called burgesses shared power with the governor and a council appointed by the virginia company in the first meeting that took place from july 30th to august 4th, 1619. and whereas, at that first meeting of the general assembly, the burgesses formed several committees to review the great charter, develop just laws for the happy guiding of the people, and address concerns from the major settlement areas to improve the overall management of the colony. in its early years, as well as acting as a legislative body, the general assembly functioned as a high court of justice whereas charles i of england
recognized the general assembly in 1627 and while the virginia company continued to appoint governors and issue instructions, the seeds of self-determination and democratic rule had been planted in the fertile soil of virginia. whereas after the concept of parliamentary government was introduced to virginia, the general assembly created the house of burgesses in the early 1640s. the result in bicameral legislature which included the house of burgesses and the council of state. it is now the oldest continuous law making body in the western hemisphere and has become a model for governments of other english colonies, the united states congress, the other 49 state legislatures and countless local and representative bodies across our country. and whereas american evolution and other organizations are hosting a variety of programs and special events throughout 2019 to commemorate this historic milestone and unique contributions of 1619 formation of the virginia general assembly
to the democratic process and the heritage of the nation. and whereas the story of virginia is the story of america. and the commonwealth continues to influence history with its citizens serving as leaders in their community at hom and throughout the united states and the world. now, therefore, be it resolved that the house of delegates and senate concurring, they hereby commemorate the 400th anniversary this very day of the establishment of the first representative legislative assembly in the western hemisphere and be it resolved further that the clerk of the house, delegates shall enter into the proceedings of the commemorative joint assembly in a special edition journal and certify a kaucopy of the same t the clerk of the senate. >> the delegate from fairfax? delegate hugo. >> speaker, on behalf of the general is sassembly, i -- >> those in favor say aye.
>> aye. >> those opposed no. the resolution is agreed to. now greetings on behalf of other sister state legislatures throughout the united states. we are honored to have with us the very accomplished illinois state senator toi hutchinson, president of the national conference of state legislators, madam president. [ applause ] >> good afternoon. distinguished guests, general assembly and state of virginia, speaker cox, my ncsl family. when the group of 20 burgesses convened here in jamestown on this day in 1619, little did they know that they were establishing a template for self-governance that would endure for 400 years. a form of representative democracy practiced by billions of people worldwide. what a privilege it is for us to
be on these very grounds to mark this monumental moment in political history. to honor that moment in time and celebrate the legacy that their experiment left behind and to affirm the enormous potential that representative democracy still provides for our future. generations have passed since that midsummer day. a day i imagine was probably just as hot and humid as this one. from that humble beginning inn evolved a system of which it is the cornerstone. in 1619 it marks the first time africans were brought to the colonies and laid groundwork in 1662 for the house of burgesses' law that created a system where children were either born free or bond. determined by the status of their mothers which laid the cornerstone for that peculiar institution of slavery itself in these united states. that evolution is breathtaking.
from that rudimentary gathering of land-owning white men to professional legislative bodies filled with the best and brightest of every race, every creed and every race, every creed and every gender, legislatives serve as the place where ordinary ambassadors can strive to secure the blessings of liberty. legislatures are where innovation flourishes. where the voice of the people is expressed in self-governance. i'm here today as the president of the national conference of state legislatures, representing over 7,500 american state legislatures and more than 30,000 legislative staff. it is a tremendous honor to be here. it began as an experiment nearly 45 years ago. our formation was the product of
intensive study, debate and compromise. and the members and staff of this organization remain as committed to its founding today as they were then. we were founded on the belief that a powerful cohesive voice representing legislatures is essentially to shaping federal policy. we are founded on the principle that the bonds that united states unit us are strong. and the conviction of legislature service is one of democracies worthiest pursuits. i'm proud to stand here with you today. i'm proud that in 2009 at the age of 36 i was dually elect ed to represent my district in the great state of illinois in a country where my grandparents didn't have a constitutionally protected right to vote until they were 34 and 35. i'm proud that as a woman of color, a mother, and an american. i'm proud because we as a people
fought for and died for, protected and nurtured the nascent idea born in this place so many years ago and have worked tirelessly to ensure the survival and further its success. i am proud because despite the many challenges and set backs this country has faced, american is still a place where our right to self-governance is not taken for granted. where we can challenge our government and debate our principles and the institutions which provide for that right are held dear, and most of all, i am proud because our state legislatures remain places where we come together even in the most divisive of times to find solutions to the problems that plague us and serve the people of the united states. so on behalf of the nearly 7,500 state legislators across this country who understand that our service is our legacy, who understand that legacy as described in the amazing
american broadway play "hamilton," legacy are the seeds planted in a garden you may never get to see. the institution of the legislature, the article 1 branch of our three coequal branches of government, needs to be protected, for it is as strong and as fragile as democracy itself and absolutely worth fighting for. thank you. [ applause ] [ applause ]
hutchinson, for your strong leadership on behalf of state legislators, lawmakers and staff. now for the purpose of welcoming today's keynote speaker, we are pleased to have with us a former capitol square colleague who presently serves in washington, d.c., in the united states congress representing america's first district, the honorable robert j. whitman, the united states house of representatives first congressional district of virginia. congressman whitman. [ applause ]
>> thank you, folks, and good morning. and welcome to america's first district and welcome to jamestown, the locust of so much of your history. it was here where a small group of adventurers established the very foundation of this nation, a nation built on democracy and the rule of law. mr. president, you made all americans proud earlier this summer when you traveled to normandy to recall and honor the sacrifices made there by so many young american patriots, many from right here in virginia. your eloquent words touched us all and what you said there has such resonance for our anniversary gathering today that i want to read a passage from
your remarks, speaking of the d day heroes, you said, more powerful than the strength of american arms was the strength of american hearts. these men ran through the fires of hell, moved by a force no weapon could destroy. the fierce patriotism of a free, proud, and sovereign people. they battled not for control in domination, but for liberty, democracy, and self-rule. they pressed on for love of home and country, the main streets, the schoolyards, the churches, the neighborhoods, the families in community that gave us men such as these. they were sustained by the confidence that america can do anything because we are a noble nation with a virtuous people, praying to a righteous god. mr. president, liberty, democracy, and self-rule to
which you paid such tribute, the cause for which so many made profound sacrifice traces its roots here to this place. it was here in a little church, in a little fort, in a struggling colony that the light of the liberty was first lit on these american shores. it was here that representatives first gathered to give voice to the will of the people. a government deriving its power from the governed. on this day 400 years ago, governor yardly called for the first representative legislative assembly marking the beginning of representative democracy that is now the great united states of america. they did not know that they would succeed in this great experiment of democracy, but through ingenuity, perseverance, and idealism, the founders of
jamestown created a movement, the one that has brought us here today. all that we have become and aspired to be today in this great and diverse american democracy could not even have been contemplated on that hot summer day. but what was unleashed was a powerful idea, the idea that freed people can governor themselves. the idea that created a great nation and it changed the world. mr. president, your presence today as a leader of your great nation says something profound and powerful about the importance of this place, about the national and international significance of this anniversary. we are grateful that you have come to help us tell that story to a listening world.
reflecting on the birth of our nation allows us to see how far we have come as a nation and as a commonwealth. when the small group of british settlers landed in this place, they could not have imagined what they were about to set in motion. just in this area, we have the second oldest university in the country that educated the founding fathers of this nation. we have the largest naval base in the world and oldest nasa field center. we are so blessed to call this place home. as a former member of the house of delegates, the chamber that is the direct descendent of that first legislative gathering, i'm especially grateful to be on this stage here this morning. when the speaker of the house formally presents you to this body in a few moments, you will become the first president of
the united states to address this virginia general assembly in its entire illustrious 400-year history. [ applause ] >> this is the highest of honors and a singular distinction that will live on in history. but we too are honored. we are honored by your presence and we are honored by your recognition of this 400th anniversary. it is is worthy moment that stands in significance and remembrance by all americans, all who live in this land of freedom and enjoy its blessings because of four centuries of service and sacrifice. mr. president, welcome, thank you so much for your leadership, and for taking the time to be here with us today. [ applause ]
♪ [ cheers and applause ] >> thank you, very much. please, make yourselves comfortable. i want to thank you, speaker cox, it's a true privilege to be back in the great commonwealth of virginia and it's a tremendous honor to stand on these historic grounds as the first president to address a joint session of the oldest lawmaking body in all of the western hemisphere, the virginia general assembly.
congratulations. [ cheers and applause ] >> on this day 400 years ago, here on the shores of the james river, the first representative legislative assembly in the new world convened. by the devotion of generations of patriots it has flourished throughout the ages and now that proud tradition continues with all of you, to every virginian and every legislator with us today, congratulations on four incredible centuries of history, heritage and commitment to the righteous cause of american self-government. this is truly a momentous occasion. [ applause ] >> i want to thank the governor of virginia for inviting me to speak at this very important event.
and with us this morning are many distinguished guests and officials from across the commonwealth including lieutenant governor justin fairfax. [ applause ] >> speaker kirk cox. thank you, kirk. [ applause ]akuq >> senate majority leader tommy norment. [ applause ] >> thank you. and members of the host and other federal state, local and tribal leaders all with us today. thank you very much. [ applause ] we're also very thankful as well to have with us secretary ben carson. ben, thank you very much, wherever you may be.
and acting director, person that you know very well, acting director ken cuccinelli. [ applause ] >> spent a lot of time with you folks and has a lot of respect for you. and the terrific people at the department of the interior and the national parks service. i want to thank you all for being here with us. it's a great honor. [ applause ] i also want to recognize everyone at american evolution and the jamestown settlement, the jamestown yorktown preservation. the fact is that each of you has helped protect and preserve our national treasures here at jamestown and it's a great debt.
we owe you a great, great debt. thank you. what a job. on this day in 1619, just a mile south of where we are gathered now, 22 newly elected members of the house of burgesses assembled in a small church, they were soldiers, scholars and clergymen. all had struggled, all had suffered, and was in pursuit of one wild dream. they called that dream virginia. [ applause ] it had been only 13 years since three small ships, the susan constant, the god speed, and the
discovery, set sail across a vast ocean. they carried 104 settlers to carve out a home on this edge of this unchartered continent. they came from god and country. they came in search of opportunity and fortune, and they journeyed into the unknown with only meager supplies, long odds, and the power of their christian faith. upon reaching cape henry, at the mouth of the chesapeake bay a long time ago, the first men of the virginia company erected a cross upon the shore. they gave thanks to god and asked his blessing for their great undertaking. in the months and years ahead, they would dearly need it.
the dangers were unperiled. the jamestown settlers arrived in america amid one of the worst droughts in over seven centuries, of 104 original konlists, 66 died by the year's end. during the third winter known as the starving time, a politicipu of up to 500 settlers was reduced to 60. by spring, those who remained were in search of whatever they could get to survive, and they were in dire trouble. they left jamestown deserted. they sailed away, never to come back, but they had not gone far down the james river when they encountiered the answer to their prays. ships bearing a year's worth of
supplies and 300 new settlers. as we can see today on this great saranniversary, it would be the last time that god looked out for virginia. together, the settlers forged what would become the timeless traits of the american character. they worked hard. they had courage and abundance and a wealth of self-reliance. they strived to turn a profit. they experimented with producing silk, corn, tobacco and the very first virginia wines. at a prior settlement there had been no survivors, none at all. but where others had typically perished, the virginians were determined to succeed. they endured by the sweat of their labor, the aid of the
indians and the leadership of captain john smith. as the year's passed, ships brought a culture and a way of life. in time, many made the journey and joined the colony and in 1618, the great charter and other reforms established a system based on english common law. for the first time, virginia allowed private land ownership. it created a basic judicial system. finally it gave the colonists a say in their own future, the right to elect representatives by popular vote. with us today in tribute to that english legal inheritance is the former clerk of the british
house of commons sir david natsler. thank you, david. [ applause ] we're thrilled to have you with us. thank you very much for being here. thank you very much, david. at that first american assembly in 1619, the weather was so hot that one legislator actually died. but before adjourning, the assembly passed laws on taxation, agriculture and trade with the indians. with true american optimism, they planned to build a world-class university in the rugged wilderness. it was a vision that would be fulfilled just miles from here
as one of america's early's educational institutions. [ applause ] as we mark the first representative legislature at jamestown, our nation reflects upon an anniversary from that same summer four centuries ago. in august 1619, the first enslaved africans in the english colonyin colonies arrived in virginia. it was the beginning of a barbaric trade in human lives. today in honor we remember every sacred soul who suffered slavery. more than 150 years later, at
america's founding, our declaration of independence recognized the immortal truth that all men are created equal. [ applause ] yet it would ultimately take a civil war, 85 years after that document was signed, to abolish the evil of slavery. it would take more than another century for our nation, in the words of reverend martin luther king jr., to extend the blessings of freedom to all americans. [ applause ] in the face of grave oppression and grave injustice, african-americans have built,
strengthened, inspired, uplifted, protected, defended and sustained our nation from its very earliest days. last year, i was privileged to sign the law establishing a commission to commemorate the arrival of the first africans to the english colonies and the 400 years of african-american history that have followed. that was an incredible day. that was an incredible event. today we are grateful to be joined by that commission's chairman, dr. joseph greene. thank you, dr. greene. please. [ applause ] thank you. thank you very much, dr. greene. in the decades that followed that first legislative assembly, the democratic tradition established here laid deep roots
>> thank you, very much. thank you. right here in virginia, your predecessors came to willamsburg from places you all know very well. they were names such as george washington from fairfax county, thomas jefferson, james madison from orange county, james monroe, patrick henry, george mason from fairfax county, george with, it's a great name, from willamsburg, and richard henry lee, incredible names. [ applause ] >> incredible names. [ applause ]
>> self-government in virginia did not just give us a state we love, in a very true sense, it gave us the country we love, the united states of america. so true. thank you very much. [ applause ] >> when madison drafted the first amendment to our constitution, he drew inspiration in virginia's statute for religious freedom. as john adams wrote, we all look up to virginia for examples, right? it's great. [ applause ] and when patrick henry rose to speak his famous words at st. john's church, give me liberty
or give me death, he spoke in defense of a tradition that began more than 150 years before at jamestown, right here. [ applause ] >> it was a heritage, those patriots, would fight a long war of independence to defend, and it is a heritage that countless americans have fought and died for to secure, in all of those centuries since. in our time, we must defend those cherished democratic traditions that have made our beloved republic the envy of the entire world and it still is as much as ever before and maybe more. our cultural of self-government, must be nourished, protected and
preserved. that is why we must speak out strongly against anyone who would take power away from citizens, state governments such as yours. [ applause ] >> in america, the people will forever rule, the people will forever reign, and the people will forever be sovereign. [ applause ] >> from the first legislative assembly down to today, america has been the story of citizens who take ownership of their future and their control of their destiny. that is what self-rule is all about. every day americans coming together to take action, to build, to create, to seize opportunities, to pursue the
common good and to never stop striving for greatness. [ applause ] four centuries ago, one early voyagerer to jamestown captured the spirit that has always powered our great experiment in self-government. he wrote, we hope to plant a nation where none before have stood. that was something. in that hope, the men and women of jamestown achieved success beyond anything they could have possibly imagined. they started the nation that settled the wilderness, tamed the wild west, ended slavery, secured civil rights, invented the airplane, brought communism to its knees and placed our
american flag on the face of the moon. [ cheers and applause ] >> and in a program that's just started, someday have soon, american astronauts will plant our beautiful stars and stripes on the surface of mars. [ applause ] >> but among all of america's towering achievements, none exceeds the triumph that we are here to celebrate, our nation's culture of freedom, independence, equality, and self-determination under god. [ applause ] >> that culture is the source of who we are, it is our prized
inheritance, it is our proudest legacy, it's among the greatest human accomplishments in the history of the world. what you have done is the greatest accomplishment in the history of the world and i congratulate you. it started right here. [ applause ] >> now we must go bravely into the future, just as those bold explorers first ventured into this majestic land. we must call upon the same scale of imagination, the same thirst for knowledge, the same love of adventure, the same unrelenting courage and the same determination to prevail. we are filled with confidence in our shared, great, great, great
american destiny. [ applause ] >> in america, no challenge is too great, no journey is too tough. no task is too large, no dream is beyond our reach. when we set our sight on the summit, nothing can stand in our way. america always gets the job done, america always wins. [ applause ] >> that is why after 400 years of glorious american democracy, we have returned here to this place to declare to all the world that the united states of america and the great commonwealth of virginia are just getting started. [ cheers and applause ]
president for attending our 400th anniversary and his remarks, especially emphasizing our tremendous ideals and freedoms and i think he said it well when he said nothing can get in america's way if we appeal to higher instincts. the members will rise for the benediction offered by steven h. atkinson. [ applause ] >> mr. speaker, i'm proud to be an american. [ applause ] >> i start my prayer in tongue.
great spirit, loving father of all nations, our father god in heaven, we come today speaking the benediction of your love and wisdom on this historic gathering of elected officials, friends and guests as we adjourn this general assembly session. we seek your guidance as we continue our journey toward a more perfect union through principles of represented governor espoused in a similar gathering 400 years today. our prayers for transparency, we pray for genuineness and authenticity as we work through ideological differences and disagreements toward a shared consensus, a place where blurred lines around political parties
involve discussions without ill will. a place where principles and ideolo ideologies are not compromised but are clearly understood. it causes us to lift up the downtrodden, love the unlovely, give voice to if voiceless and reach out to the needy. empower these leaders and friends to approach your throne of grace and seek your guidance on ever decision made and every initiative undertaken. bless our president who's actions and decisions have worldwide implications. let us move forward with optimism, enabling to embrace the impossible to we establish a foundation up on which the next 400 years can stand. as we stand amidst a world
filled with turmoil and strife, let us be the beacon of light and hope as was that assembly four centuries ago. finally, cause us to recognize that even as you did with esther in the old testament, that perhaps you have placed us here at this time and in this place for such a time as this. amen. [ applause ] >> thank you so much. senator peek? [ inaudible ] >> the senator peek moves the joint assembly adjourn. those opposed say no.
on the presidency. the civil war and more. here's a clip from a recent program. >> so what about lincoln? what are we to make of him? he has left posterity with a troubling legacy and i'll admit, if -- historians often get asked, who is the best president. i perhaps would say abraham lincoln because his determination to preserve the union and that he oversaw the end of slavery. but when we look at this through the lens of indigenous history, lincoln is perhaps no different from any other president in the 19th century, someone who was in favor of westward expansion and believed in manifest destiny. perhaps it is hard to say that
the buck should stop with him. he was very busy fighting the civil war. there was a lot going on. but i suppose to those thousands of dakotas who were forced from their homelands, the buck should perhaps stop with him. i suppose for those thousands of indians who had to endure the long walk and the conditions, the buck should stop with him. and i suppose for those hundreds of cheyenne who were murdered by forces, lincoln should come under more scrutiny. >> you can watch this and other american history programs on our website where all of our video is archived. that's c-span.org/history. >> next on "american history
tv," historian gordon wood delivers a talk entitled revolutionary roots of the civil war. he discusses the founders' views on slavery and argues that the civil war was inevitable. the james madison memorial foundation hosted this event. we are privileged to have gordon s. wood with us for this 2019 james madison lecture. professor wood is, i think it is fair to say, the dean of early american historians. he is the alva o. way professor emeritus at brown university. born in concord, massachusetts, where the revolutionary war began, he was raised in that commonwealth and graduated summa cum laude from tufts university. he then earned an ma and phd from harvard university, where he studied under bernard bailyn.