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tv   American Artifacts Cold War Museum  CSPAN  September 3, 2019 9:48pm-10:44pm EDT

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tv programs as the future of what is available every weekend on speed -- c-span three. american artifacts, real america, the civil war, oral history, the presidency, and, special event coverage about our nations history. enjoy american history tv now, and every weekend, on c-span three. week nights this week, we are featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what is available every weekend on c-span three. wednesday, we spotlight the 100th anniversary of the 19th amendment, that gave women the right to vote. we include rebecca roberts, author of suffragists in washington dc, the 1913 parade and the fight for the vote. curator karen porter, and her tour of a national art exhibit of the 19th amendment, and historians discussing women's suffragists and abolitionists during the civil war and
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reconstruction eras. american history tv this weekend every weekend on c-span three. each week, american artifact visits museums, archives, and historic places. up next, we travel about 45 miles west of the nation's capital to tour a u.s. army can indications base in warrenton, virginia, which now houses a museum dedicated to remembering the cold war. is is just under an hour. welcome, my name is francie -- francis gary powers junior, i go by gary, i am the founder of the cold war museum at vince hill virginia, about 45 miles northwest of washington dc. i founded the cold war museum in 1996, to honor cold war veterans, preserve cold war history, and educate future generations about this time period. what i realized when i was giving lectures to high school students in this area, nine times out of 10, the students
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would not know anything about the cold war or the u2 incident. they would think the u2 incident would have something to do do with the rock band. a the cold war period. in 1996 we founded the cold war museum which opened here at vint hill farms station, a former army communications base near the washington area. it used to be used by nsa, cia, asa and other groups to monitor communications around the washington, d.c. embassy region and international signals they were able to pick up from the atmosphere. so i'm going to take you on a tour today of the cold war museum. what is the cold war? the cold war was a time period 46 years between 1945, december 26th, 1981 with the collapse of the soviet union. it was a geopolitical standoff
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between the soviets and the americans. each one a super power could have destroyed the world through a nuclear war. but the cold war prevented that. it was mad mutually assured destruction if one side or the other side threw out atomic bombs. there would be no winners. so this cold war was a state of heightened tension that did not have direct military conflict between the soviets and americans. vint hill farms station was functional between world war ii and the mid-'90s. in december of '91 the american government realized there was no need for this facility because there was no more soviet union. the cold war had ended. that as well as with an act
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called base realignment enclosure act. and in the mid-'90s lots of military bases were shot down plus we didn't need as many facilities to monitor the soviet union since it didn't exist. it was closed in the mid-'90s, sat vacant for about ten years, we found out this was available. we pitched the idea to the vint hill economic authority and they said yes we want to talk about negotiating here and we opened in 2011 here at this facility. step this way. with a little over view of vint hill farm station and behind this mannequin is one of the original signs from vint hill farm stations talking about the communication base and that it was monitoring station number one. so in this room here we have items similar to the type that
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would have been used by the military members and the agency members who are monitoring the traffic communications. so there are different radio receivers, transmitters, morse code resepperceptors even some original photos of the barn that i can walk you through right here. back in world war ii or the cold war era women as well as men were serving here as radio operators and receivers. it gives a very good history of the womans role in the military at the time. aevlg from helping to defend our nation to what they do today, flying the planes and doing everything else. right down here is the barn complex. prior to it becoming a listening post, and the story goes that the farmer who owned this farm
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was a ham radio operator. and he would pick up german communications and japanese communications and italian taxi communications broadcasting on this ham radio. so he invited one of his friends over who was in the military, a general at the pentagon. the general was astounded that you could listen to these foreign broadcasts here at this location. so they did some surveys and found out that the top graphical area, the granite, the composition of the soil was such it's a natural receiver. so signals around the world would be funneled here and could be listened to if they had the right devices. so the pentagon ended up buying the farm from the farmer, the farmer went and retired and it farm was turn into the vint hill farm station with squuz an active communications center from world war ii, up through
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the mid-'90s after the cold war. here's a picture of what it looked like and we are basically in this building right now. and then we have more photos of what the barns look like. so then once the listening post was active it turned into a military base and it was called vint hill farm station. this was a sportsman club, one of the original patches that we have from that era. here's a photograph of the fields with some of the attena you can see, some of the people looking at the different equipment and/or teletyping what they're doing. some of the original radio equipment similar to what we have inside on display. and more information over here of their radio antennas, the farm, the military personnel stationed here, the chow line, and this is good photo of them here working and listening to the radios, intercepting and
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taking down notes as to what was being broadcast. over here nice picture of the people working intercepting the radio communications and this a nice picture of what the barn looked like with all the receivers and the men and women stationed there intercepting the radio broadcasts. now, in addition, while we're in this room a different assortment of uniforms we have in our collection, some are from world war ii, so from the cold war era. this is an original coat rack from the civil defense headquarters in washington, d.c. so almost everything in here is original to one extent or another that deals with the cold war. recently this book came out called "code girls." and this talks about what the women in the military and agencies did here at this site during world war ii and the cold
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war to monitor and intercept the radio communications. then again right here as we start to exit you can see what the vint hill base looked like back in the '50s, and it was sigint, stands for signals intelligence. and it was intercepting the signals from the air. these are the type of antenna raies that were on site picking up a variety of signals around the world as well as the embassy communication from washington, d.c. and in world war ii when they first started using this facility as a listening post, they were listening to german, japanese and italian frequencies. some would be cab dispatchers. some would be military communications. some would be normal radio communications to see what they were telling the public at the time. there was a variety of different signals they were intercepting primarily to determine what
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channels were worth listening to that could be a military strengthen and advantage. they would listen to the broadcasts and when they found one that was important they would transcribe it. they would not transcribe every bit of information that came across, only that that was crucial to the wartime effort. the next room here on display it's all about east germany, west germany, the iron curtain, the military liaison mission that was stationed in germany. it was a trench mission, a russian mission, a british mission and an american mission. what we had here was an original license plate from one of the american missions, the cars that would go and do a little espionage activity, original piece of barb wire from the hungarian border. an original sign that basically said halt, prohibited, you
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cannot go past this location. one of the photographs of one of the cars they used to use. a original piece of the berlin wall painted by an artist and donated to the cold war museum. then we go up a little bit, checkpoint charlie, one of the original arm bands used at the guard gate that separated east and west germany there in downtown berlin. and an assortment of east german, west german stamps and books of the era. and on top there are original berlin east german and west german signs basically saying halt at the border, you can't go past this and to let people know it was a no-man's-land zone. here we've got the original border marker that would separate east and west germany. it would give people walking in the area an idea they were
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getting close to a border and to not cross over the border. then down here on the floor one of our signs from east berlin, west berlin saying no photographs were allowed for the united states military liaison mission. they'd always do a cat and mouse game and try to chase them out before they can start to take pictures. the cold war museum back in about 2000-ish or so we saved and salvaged the civil defense headquarters for washington, d.c. this headquarters was located 20 miles outside the washington, d.c. area. in event of a nuclear war with the soviets this would have been a communication headquarter for civil defense. and this is schematic we drew up of the inside of the civil defense headquarters.
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and it has little cubicles here on one of the walls with gsa, with washington gas, with pepco, energy supplier, department of transportation, fire, d.c. fiers, u.s. park service and all of them would have to be coordinating together to broadcast out the signals to their receivers letting people know what's going on, is it safe to come out of your fall out shelters trying to help them in the event of a nuclear war. so this is the schematic for the civil defense headquarters in washington, d.c. located in wharton, virginia, and what we have behind are actual items from this headquarters. we have the geiger counters that would pick up the radiation signals. we have the original crackers and the biscuits that would help you sustain life if you are stuck in a fall out shelter for two or three weeks on end. we have the emergency drinking
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water, nuclear survival kits that were put in shelters so people would know they could survive a short period of time after the fall out. original medical tags, nuclear brochures. one of the original portable phones that is as big as a bread box. these fall out shelter signs were very prevalent during the cold war on most government buildings and school buildings and libraries that had basements. they would automatically be turned into a civil defense shelter. up here very unique, this is fall out shelter chart, and this one was actually used there for civil defense headquarters so if the bomb dropped here and the wind was going this way, this is where the radioactive fall out would trail, and they'd have to then broadcast that out through the radio systems through all their divisions to get the most
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exposure as possible. up here on the right, we have a couple of the civil defense hats and helmets that were worn, a couple of the posters that were utilized at the time. there's even a comic book about civil defense and what you can do to prepare, and then over here we've got a little cartoon character, civil defense guy who would help kids and schools to learn about duck and cover drills, bert the turtle and what to do in the event of a surprise attack. >> be sure and remember what burt the turtle did because every one of us must remember to do the same thing. that's what this film is all about, duck and cover. this is an official civil defense film produced in cooperation with the civil defense administration and in consultation with the safety commission of the national association. >> over here we have a couple of
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museum visitors looking at our displays. thank you for coming by, folks. and a little bit more about civil defense, this film is talking about how to build a bomb shelter in your basement with cinder blocks, and then this is the manual that was used for that. and then inside this is more civil defense items. what do you need in a civil defense fall out shelter? if you're going to be cooped up for two weeks you're going to need food, water, batteries, toiletries. you need to have a way to listen, a radio in case any broadcasts are coming out. so as a result of my father
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being who he was we do have small exhibit on the incident what my father went through. so over here we have a settlement of the u2, a couple of books about the u2 incident, my dad's autobiography produced in 1970. we have james donovan's book "strangers on a bridge" produced in 1965. we have my book published in 2017 called "letters from a soviet prison" that depicts his personal correspondence and his journal he kept in prison. my dad kept a journal and wrote in prison plus a historic account of what he went through while incarcerated. we have a variety of different little things here.
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soviet sa-2 missile, photographs, the type of missile that shot down my father and the type of missiles that were being deployed in cuba in october '62 during the cuban missile crisis. we have this shovel that i brought back in russia from the missile base where my father was shot down. so this is an authentic cold war historic item from the missile base that shot down the u2 on may 1st, 1960. in addition we have this that you kind have to back up to see. it's the booster stage of the sa-2. the actual missile is 80 foot long. this missile is all we can fit at this time. the actual missile is outside in our storage facility next door. it gives you an idea of this model off the sa-2. the booster section is at the end. the fins are not on this particular model but it gives
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you an idea what this particular component is for. the missile is 80 foot long and my father was able to survive being shot down by the soviet sa-2 missile because it was not a direct hit. had it been a direct hit he would have been in little pieces. but because it was a near miss the low end of the right of fuse lodge of the exterior of the airplane, it damaged the tail section, the nose pitches forward, the wings break off, dad falls from 70,000 feet to about 35,000 feet before bailing out of the airplane. he doesn't use the ejection seat. if he did he would have served his legs on the way out. dad basically opened up the canopy, undoes his harness, caught up by his airhose struggling to get free, breaks free of the airhose, falls through the airplane, parachutes opens, parachutes to the ground. as he's parachuting to the
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ground he notices a dark car following his descent. the farmers rush up to him, well, dad doesn't speak russian, shrugs his shoulders, makes one of the farmers a little nervous. who is this guy, falls out of the sky, holds a pitchfork up near him. a few moments ago he communicates in the dirt, usa. they take him to a holding area and then he's turned over to the kgb.
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>> out in the open came the story of the most sensational intelligence stories yet revealed. america officially admits extensive flights over and around russia by unarmed planes during the last five years. states department lincoln white gives the reasons for the flights. >> given the state of the world today intelligence collection activities are practiced by all countries. and post-war history certainly reveals that the soviet union has not been lagging behind in this field. >> they interrogate my father for three months, put him for a trial to embarrass the united states, his sentence is ten years in prison. he serves a total of 21 months before being exchanged and that's a quick condensed version. if you'd like to learn more about the u2 incident and what my father went through google c-span gary powers.
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there's a one hour lecture online that you can watch and get a full detailed account. i'm interested in the cold wartime period and espionage primarily because i grew up in a cold war family. had my father not been shot down, imprisoned by the kgb, ultimately exchanged by a soviet spy. if movies hadn't been written about him i might have a different interest. but my dad died when i was 12 years old. at that time it was too late to ask him any questions. so in high school i was very introverted. i didn't understand the significance of what my father went through or why people wanted to talk to me about it. in college i came out of my shell. i was curious, i started to ask questions and i wasn't starting my research to indivate my father. i knew there was controversy that surrounded him, but i always wanted to find out the truth and so that desire to find out the truth set me on a
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lifelong passion to find out all i could about the u2 incident. i realized i had to understand more about the cold war to understand the u2 incident to learnmore about my father. that's why i started on this path and as i grew and developed and found out more information about the cold war is that there were hundreds, thousands of men and women sacrificed and died during this time period that didn't have any recognition. so we developed the cold war museum to honor our cold war veterans. we also developed the museum to educate our kids so they would understand what this cold wartime period was about. had i not grown up in this powers family i probably would have taken a different career path. back in 2015 two years ago steven spielberg did a movie that depicted the exchange of
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soviet rudolf able for my father. here we have a poster with dad on it holding up a u2. this was during his senate select committee hearing where he appeared before the senators in washington, d.c. to explain to them what happened with the u2 incident and how his plane was shot down. this poster came from an exhibit at the nro, the national reconassance office. and this is the bridge of spies where my father was exchanged. this is dad's tombstone at arlington cemetery, a photograph of rudolf able, a photograph o
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of -- at the u.n. and here we have a partial pressure suit similar to the type the u2 pilots would wear working for the cia at the time. the u2's in order to survive at 70,000 feet had to have a pressure suit in order to sustain their bodily functions and their lives at those altitudes. as we move over here's a piece of the u2 but not my father's. this piece is from major rudolf anderson's u2 shot down 1962 during the cuban missile crisis. as a result of that shoot down he did die in that incident. back about 10 or 15 years ago i was privileged enough to snip off a piece of that plane, mapped it on a plaque and we presented it a the family members of major anderson at the
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air base where he flew out of october 27th for a u2 mission. as we go over here under the airplane of rudolf anderson we have a urkts 2 camera that was functional i want to say in the later dates of the '70s and '80s opposed to the '60s. i can't tell you too much about the camera of what's onboard the assembly here other than it was aboard to u2s. and when you look down here with the mirror you can see the lenses coming out of the bottom. as we go over this is light table justly named because it lit up. what you would do is u2s would take the photos, they would be developed, then the analyst would put them on these tables and they would look for the military industrial complexes,
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the strengths and weaknesses of the soviet union, what type of military hardware, how many planes they had, how many bombers they had, how many missiles they had. and over here was a very unique photo that was interpreted. this was an original photo of an sa-2 base right there blown up. that's what it looks like on film and when you blow it up, you can see the details. and this is the actual base that shot down my dad's u2. this is basically what my father was trying to photograph to confirm it was operational. he found out first-hand it was. some other photos of the type of imagery of that would be taken from the u2. specifically this is cuban missile crisis and u2s were taking these photos to show where construction was going on, where missile trailers as well
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as low lying low level flights and missile shield tents, the moving but this was the proof but i want to say stevenson back in the '60s before the u.n. showed the world to show russia was putting in icbm missiles. >> this resolution calls as an interim measure under article 40 of the charter for the immediate dismantling and withdrawal from cuba of all missile and other offensive weapons. >> this is a photograph of a constellation, a lockheed constellation that was used with an antenna array on the fuse lodge top to help pick up the signals. so during the cold war we were trying to monitor as many of our
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enemies as possible in order to learn their strengths and weaknesses. we were using c130s, constellations, u2s. we were using a variety of different aircraft to flyover and around hostile foreign countries to monitor their activities. and this is type of system that would have been inside one of these aircraft. as a result of this operation there were i want to say 25 to 30 cold war shoot downs between 1950 and 1970. my father was shot down the first of 1960 over the soviet union, and his shoot down was one of the best known. eisenhower got caught lying, dad ended up with two years in a soviet prison. but he was not the only plane shot down. there was some 20 to 25 planes
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shot down during the cold war. i'm going to talk about a few of those shoot downs now. here we had a conference we participated in about cold war overflights. the airplanes would zoom into the border of the soviet union, and at the very last minute they would diverge right or left. but that would allow the soviets to enact their radar system, their missile systems, scramble their jets. it would allow us to figure out how quick they were able to scramble, how quick they were able to turn on their raiders to fire their missiles to get ready for an attack. it gave us an upper hand. we knew we had five minutes to get in and drop bombs. so we were testing their strengths and weaknesses as well as gathering information within their borders. here is another poster on the first cold war shoot down called the baltic sea incident of 1950. this airplane was shot down
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april 8th of 1950. and this is a poster of the 50th anniversary of that shoot down. this person, mrs. reynolds donated her jacket. her husband was one of the crew members that was lost on this mission. and she donated not only the jacket but another personal artifact to us on display. here we've got a piece of a plane that was shot down on january 20, 1964. here is another piece of plane, a c-130 that was shot down september 2, 1958. this was shot down over soviet armenia, and this is one of the piece of the plane donated to the cold war museum. here we have an artwork poster called a hot day during the cold war. it's signed by the crew members of this mission as well as the artist and it depicts a cold war shoot down of july -- i want to say july 1st of 1960 but i'm not
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sure that's the exact date or not but it's a similar incident. this here was called a blood chit. if they were forced down in enemy territory in 14 different languages it would say i am an america and do not speak your language, i need food, shelter and assistance. i will not harm you, i bear no malice towards your people. if you will help me, my government will reward you. and this was in 14 different languages to be used in the event of a shoot down or a forced landing in a hostile cub country. this year we're getting into a u2 display and sr-71 display. they were the best known
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reconsance aircraft of its time. this here des is a display on the u2 and sr-71s. this is an actual and original diagram of the u2, the schematics that were used to build and design the plane. this was presented to the cold war museum by one of the members of who worked on the project in the 1950s. the designer of these planes, a brilliant aeronautical engineer. lockheed martin skunk works was the designer of the yuru2, and sr-71. >> on december 9, 1962, the go ahead was given and called together his 26-men special projects engineer group. here were the problems they faced. to design, build an airplane and fly it in eight months. an airplane that could cruise well above 70,000 feet.
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one that would travel almost as far as a b-52 and remain in the air for ten hours. and plane that would be completely reliable with forced landsings out of the question. a plane that would be the world's most stable aircraft for high altitude photography. >> in the display case here we've got again u2 models, some photographs, u2 shirts, one of the models that was produced in the '50s. the black cat insignia on these two plaques helps to designate the u2 program and the u2s flying over china during the cold war. but a lot of people don't realize that the americans did not only fly the u2 over the soviet union. they flew it over other foreign hostile countries. iraq, iran, middle eastern
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countries, eastern european countries, the middle east, soviet union and other countries as needed. the planes that were flown over china were flown by taiwanese pilots that were trained by the cia to fly these missions over communist china. four or five u2s were shot down over china. not a lot of people realize that. that is declassified. but it is something you can look up and find the very famous photo of the four or five u2s in the square dedisplayed. a very unique yiemt we've got here. the chinese leader had several body doubles and in order for the cia to determine if it was really mao or his body double they made a plaster paris model
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of his ear. ears like fingerprints are unique to every individual. so this model was made by the cia, one of our supporters and advisory board member up until he passed away a few years ago was given this after he left the cia. and then after he passed away his son gave this ear to the museum. it's a very unique piece of cold war history created by the cia to make sure that a foreign leader was identified correctly when he was out in public. we have different exhibits here, a little information on different spies who were scot and what espionage is about and how you're able to communicate secretly, covertly, a little parody on spy versus spy through mad magazine which was a cold war era cartoon that would talk about the black spy and the
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white spy and how'd they'd try to get the bes of each other. and we have more information on espionage, human intelligence and how people would go into countries illegally, setup a foreign cover and extract information to bring back to their country's homeland such as rudolf able. rudolf able was the soviet spy that snuck into america in the '50s, worked with people such as the rosenbergs to find out the strength and weaknesses of america. here we have an exhibit on area 51 and the atomic bomb, what was taking place with nuclear development, nuclear technology. so this is a map that talks about where all the different blasts were done in the nevada desert, here's an original photo of one of the original mushroom clouds from one of these locations. a nuclear device being tested
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and getting ready for a test explosion and other photos here of a mushroom cloud in the desert. as we go up the stairs civil defense, atomic bomb information, a photograph of area 51. area 51 is a top secret nevada base in the nevada desert and no one's allowed to go over there, it doesn't exist and the government recently four years ago finally acknowledged it existed. here are some signs basically saying restricted, you cannot go here, authorized personnel only and eventualhy the government realized people were taking photographs of their secret military base so they ended up acquiring more acreage of land around the test site to prevent these types of photos from
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coming up. here we are on the second floor of the cold war museum and we start off with a little exhibit on area 51, the roswell crash of a ufo in '47 and talked bait about what was taking place at area 51. in addition to the development of the u2 spy plane which is why area 51 was created, they also did testing over thereof other platforms. for example, they used to be a secret mig squadron that would do the i want to say top gun training of the time to train our fighter pilots on the capabilities of the soviet and/or foreign airplanes or fighter planes. and we would pick them apart, reassemble them and then test them against our planes to determine their vulnerabilities so we would have a better
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against them in case of an actual conflick. on the right side so these uniforms along with the other east german items were collected by one individual, gerald wilkerson. he see one of the museum's supporters, he lives in texas now, but he donated these items to us i want to say 15 years ago and it was an incredible collection of the plaques, the signs, wood, metal from stasi headquarters, from east german military units. and one of the largest collections of east german military items in america i think i can say accurately is here at the cold war museum in virginia. so we have if you look down this top floor, the flags from the former soviet union and other eastern european countries, the warsaw pack countries, we have east german phones, radios,
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transmitters, photographs, night vision goggles for tanks and helmets. photographs of one of the people jumping over the berlin wall when it was first being erected to escape. a collection here of soviet propaganda posters that were donated to the cold warm and a variety and these were all used during the cold war. they're being used as propaganda to show how evil the americans were and how great the soviets were. so when school groups come in here you let them go through and talk about -- and we talk to them about the cold war, the propaganda posters and what we were doing to safeguard americans at home throughout the cold war. different eastern european
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cigarettes, models of migs and other types of weapon systems from the soviet union and east berlin and the former eastern bloc countries. here we have one of the original jackets from a crew member. fer mo fermosa turned into taiwan. we have the soviet space race, the american space race, the cosmonauts as well as the astronauts during that time period, movie posters about cold war films and again some of this was just propaganda films to produce how evil the soviets were if we were here, wanted to show how evil the americans were if you were in russia, gas masks, a variety of east german gas masks that would have been used in the event of a cold war.
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different insignia that would go on your shoulders or sleeves of east german uniforms. this here is an authentic soviet major general's winter coat present today the cold war museum by the individual who wore it. as we go along soviet military uniforms, colonel, major, quartermaster. we have types of uniforms that would be used in the field for camouflage. the winter field uniforms that were used. as we make our way around you can look down this next section. more of the flags from the various eastern bloc countries that were part of the soviet union, poster on the type of r
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warsaw pack plane or airplanes being used. a bit information on missile. these are american and soviet missiles, a little plaque that shows you the difference. and we have a plaque, a desk plaque that was was sat on some general's desk during the cold war, naval uniform, dress blues for a sailor. here we have a soviet union naval uniform, an east german sailor's uniform. as we get over here we have a small display on the uss' liberty incident. it took place on june 8, 1967. it was an incident that involved israel and the united states. israel attacked the uss liberty. several crew members died. this is the type of pbattle wounds that was done on the ship. this is one of the original uniforms worn by one of the crew
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members of the uss liberty. and these are one of the photographs given to us so we could promote and showcase this cold war event. and one of the jackets they made during one of the reunions to remember the uss liberty. that event is still controversial. the crew members of it liberty would like congress to reopen the investigation to determine the cause of the attack and whether it was intention al or not. i don't know for sure the behind the scenes dealings as to what took place, but i know that the crew members are adamant as to getting their version of what took place out in the open. and i think that's very important now it's been 50 plus years. over on this side a very unique exhibit on the uss ppueblo.
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it was captured in north korea. the ship was bordered, the sailors were taken prisoner. they served almost one year, maybe a little more in a north korean prison. this is a prisoner's uniform, an original one that was used by a crew member while incarcerated in north korea back in 1968. the commander of the uss pueblo was pete bucher. he wrote this book about his experiences. and dale rigby donated his uniform to the cold war museum. the berlin airlift took place from 1948 to 1949, about 19 months. every 90 seconds during this time period these type of planes would be landing at temple hawk air base in west berlin.
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they would unload fuel, coal, food, water and supplies to keep the west berliners free during this incident that was known as the berlin blockade, the berlin airlift. the soviets were trying to keep the americans out. they were trying to take over west berlin which was surrounded by east germany, but because of the berlin airlift, their efforts were thwarted and as a result west berlin remained free. and this was all about the berlin airlift, the candy bomber, he's about 97 years old now, a friend of mine. we've been on different panels together. he's a pate papateriarch for la
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better term. he was known as uncle wiggly wings to the german kids because he would come in and he would wiggle his wings as he was approaching and the kids would know that that's the plane that had the candy. and in 1948 there was no chocolate in germany. it was war torn ravished, right after world war ii and supplies were very hard to get. so he would drop wriggly spearmint gum and hersheys chocolate and other candies out of the plane to the kids that were watching the planes land there at temple hawk. over here we have information on cuba, again the cuban missile crisis, the bay of pigs and what took place there. hulian decastro, one of our supporters was being trained along with other cubans to invade cuba. what we believe is raul castro's military hack. it's not 100% confirmed it is
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but we are 90% sure it was. but it says here cuban military hat reportedly owned by castro's brother. the hat bears the insignia of the cuban revolution forces. halloween masks of the era, 1962. autograph print of the type of plans flying low level missions over cuba during the cuban missile crisis. and notes made by kennedy october '62, giving a briefing, he was making notes and his i want to say secretary salvaged the paper and then she kept it, and then through some sources we were able to acquire it and now on display at the cold war
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museum. doodles. so here's a piece of paper that kennedy, john f. kennedy was doodling on during the cuban missile crisis briefing missions there at the white house. and there you can see good, good, good, bad, bad, bad. then this is one of my favorite po po posters. it was produced by a gentleman by the name of morrisberg and i had the pribolog of talking to him on the phone prior to his passing. and he told me a story. he was at berkeley, a student there, this was the early 1960s and he would make these parody posters against the soviet union. so he would sell them in the bookstores and berkeley stores and then the counter culture took over berkeley, the peace movement came in, the hippies came in and berkeley transformed
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into a very liberal enclave which didn't appreciate this guy making fun of the soviet union. and what i thought when i first found these posters is, oh, this guy was some berkeley person who was anti-america, who was doing these things. after talking to him it turned out he was a member of the military, he was in the navy, he was a staunch conservative, and he was making fun of soviet union and other eastern bloc countries. so perception is not always correct. i thought if he came from berkeley he had a liberal attitude. turned out he was very, very conservative, and he had this story about how he was run out of town once they turned from conservative to liberal in berkeley. more information on lenin, on stalin, little bit more about the ussr and the banner and the flag and something you don't see much anymore, a map of the
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soviet union but 11 or 12 time zones, and here the berlin wall and the collapse of the soviet wrun. what took place between 18 # and 191 when the cold war was ending. so we've got the picture of gorbachev along with ronald reagan. reagan gets all the credit for ending the cold war, but the cold war actually ended when president bush was in office. so it's important for children and students to know about the cold war. in order to understand the world today, in order to understand this war on terror that we're living in, you have to understand how we got here. and we got here through the cold war. i'm going to give you one example of how this connects.
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in 1979 the soviets invade afghanistan, it's the afghan war. it was the soviets vietnam war. it was an unpopular war during the soviet union and many were being killed by the rebels who were fighting the invaders. one of the rebels who was fighting against the soviets, the cia trained osama bin laden, supplied him with weapons to fight the soviets. well, jump forward to 9/11, osama bin laden uses some of what he's learned to attack america. and here we have this tie in from the cold war to the war on terror. that's why it's so important for students to understand the significance of the cold war to understand how it got us here today. >> all week we're featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what's available
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every weekend on c-span 3. lectures in history, american artifacts, real america, the civil war, oral histories, the presidency, and special event coverage about our nation's history. enjoy american history tv now and every weekend on c-span 3. >> weeknights this week we're featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what's available every weekend on c-span 3. wednesday we spotlight the 100th anniversary of the 19th amendment that gave women the right to vote. we include rebecca roberts author of suffragists in washington, d.c. the 1913 parade and the fight for the vote. curator corin porter and her tour of the national archives exhibit of the 19th amendment and historians discussing women suffragists and american history
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tv this week and every weekend on c-span 3. american history tv products are now available on the c-span store to see what's new for american history tv and check out all the c-span products. on april 4, 1949, the north atlantic treaty was signed in washington, d.c. by the 12 founding members of what came to be known as nato. up next on real america, decades of nato a half-hour film from 1959 narrated celebrating the sengt anniversary of the alliance by profiling the people, geography and resources. nato produced the documentary which was broadcast on the big picture television

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