tv Oak Ridge Tennessee After the Manhattan Project CSPAN September 15, 2019 2:49pm-4:00pm EDT
coal from not only the immigration standpoint, -- not only the economic and industrial might that it had provided the county. announcer: our cities to her staff recently traveled to sheridan, wyoming to learn about its rich history. to watch more video from sheridan and other stops on our tour, visit c-span.org/cities to her. you're watching american
history tv, all weekend every weekend on c-span3. tour.n.org/cities projectr: the manhattan was a research and a belt and project conducted in world war ii. it was disbanded one year after the wars and. next on american history tv, oak alge national lab veteran
ekkebus talked about the world war ii nuclear weapons program known as the manhattan project, the program's aftermath and the impact on the main development facility in oak ridge, tennessee he focused on the years 1945 to 1950. the american museum of science and energy and oak ridge hosted this event. >> thank you very much. please to be here in the american museum of science and energy. the talk tonight is focusing on the first five
years after the war. a great many changes have occurred. i'm including what i consider some of the less frequent he mentions topics of this. . there we have images of the beta cal you trond and the top, jackson square, a great high and the sppy valley 50 plant and steam plant at the kate when he five site.
k 25 site. the theme of this time is change. there was a change from the army corps of engineers to the atomic energy commission both leaders and goals. there was change in the town. and labor, congress, the atomic energy act, there is the search for spies that came to oak ridge. facility missions changed. the war ends. you can see the bottom these are articles, titles of articles in the national tennessean. do 14th, 1946. two big things happened that day. we'll get into that just a minute. of edry appreciative wescott and others involved in recording history but also writing about it so we can learn about our past. thank you, ed. harry go.
this is an eye chart. -- here we go. this is an eye chart. this is manhattan project employment. at any given time. the peak of employment for the manhattan project, 124,000 in june of 1944. construction, less than 90,000. total operations and research, on this curve. less than 70,000 at the peak. this is cw, clinton engineer in may orch peaked june of 19 45. construction peaked in the mid 40's. in 1944. operations peaked at 46,000 in august of 19 for the five. already 6000 and operations,
construction to 5000 part in december of 1946 at the end of the chart, big changes. construction, 2000. 25,000hange from torations from 46,000 down 25,000. at the peak 69,000 in operations. 47000 and clumps auction. -- in construction. a big change instruction construction from 47,000 in march of 1944 to 1946, 2 thousand people. a lot of folks are here. big changes. 25% or 20,000 of the workforce of 80,000 in may of 1945. that's when production was at its peak. as of november of 19 for the five, the women employed
decreased to 15,000. but the percentage of total employees increased to 30%. women employedof by the contractor was greatest in areas such as concessions and the tennessee eastman company. 45%. to manhattan project hires through december of 1946. you can see 400,000 people were here in cw at the clinton engineer works through december of 1946. 400,000. 380,000, in, december of 1946 were still employed. late construction turnover was 17% per month. throughout the construction. . a month. operations turnover was 6% per month.
the registration to discharge ratio, 40% of those who left the payroll were fired. is that unusual? probably not considering people in construction could not live in what is now the city of oak ridge. where did they live? wherever they could find a bed. , alllived south of here the way down to chattanooga perhaps. and they were brought here on a bus. some folks who worked at x 10, or clinton, later would be called clinton labs, actually warehouse in scarborough school by dupont, who got permission to use that to house the folks so they would not have to commute so far. here ago -- here we go. after victory here is a statement by harry truman on a day when he announced the manhattan project.
to the general public. three bombs were made but one was used at trinity, two were used in japan. $2 billion was spent by the end of that year. six to 4% of that in oak ridge. -- 64% in oak ridge. graphite piles stopped sending plutonium to loss alamosa. y 12alpha particles of were shut down. sentocessing of y 12 were down. both nationally and locally. who should control the bomb? what is the difference between the bomb and atomic energy? there were budget issues, contractor issues, mission changes for the facilities that served our nation is part of the manhattan project. and congress was also involved in the search for spies.
looking at our friends. i got to enthusiastic. we're looking at the trinity cattle. i heard up hereford as large as 350 head was close to the explosion, 35 to 50 miles per way -- a way to receive radiation damage. havingecognize that white spots on hereford's was not usual. so they said, the government must be something wrong or going on here. the black skinas sloughed off, white spots remained. head where the most severely burned or damaged.
17 were sent to loss alamosa, seven caps on normal. scientist at los alamos came to see them as a nuisance. 58 of the original 75 head were shipped to oak ridge. and given to the care and feeding and gentle understanding roan anderson company. to take care of and they did. 1940 eight,g of they asked the university of tennessee to develop a management program for that cattle. that in the do field of radioisotopes and agriculture. the result was the ut agricultural research lab. a year later, the aec reported that cattle are normal in every way. and everyone but he was happy. all the cattle were happy. there were postwar concerns over atomic energy r&d. the summit -- senate committee on our atomic energy visited oak
ridge in november of 1945. the bomb was a terrifying weapon. discernment about what to do about the bomb from democrats or republicans together. loyalty,ross party everyone was confused. they cannot see the difference between the two are the difference was difficult to imagine. so this isn't needed to be made on the agency overseeing this. who was to be in control, what is the role of the military? what is the role of international organizations? should there be industrial use? guzengo. hes igor always worked that back in interviews to conceal his identity. he was born in russia, 1919. he was a cipher clerk for the soviet embassy in ontario canada. he defected in early september, 1945. days before he was scheduled to
leave to return to russia. with 109 documents on soviet espionage activities in the west. this is september, 19 for five. exposed talons effort the expose the efforts of russian government to plant sleeper agents in various organizations. drew pearson broke the story. a role commission was formed in canada to handle the affair. defection led to the subsequent arrest of 22 people. this is early 1946. say, wow, starting to what is going on with russia. how did our secrets go there? our boys are dying overseas people are working on the manhattan project. i worked on that project, my
uncle, my cousin, my aunt, i worked on that project. and here's what happened to some of the secrets. member's of congress debating the bill, feared that atomic secrets were being systematically stolen by atomic soviet spies. senator mcmahon who was chairman of the senate committee on atomic energy and the sponsor of bill.mahon bell, -- he convened an exec of session and his committee and which he requested the presence of the fbi director, jagger hoover, -- j edgar hoover, the secretary of state groves. groves revealed the british physicist alan mae had passed information about the manhattan project to soviet agents while he was in canada. to also sent samples of you of u233 and30 - --
courier who is not warned about the precautions for transport material like that and later required led transitions. canada and the u.k. were part of our wartime project. some of the projects that the u.s. and canada and u.k. funded jointly were in canada and were in britain. provided many vital leads which assisted ongoing ask and investigations in britain and eventually led to the arrest rosenberg, and related parties. now you get to get atomic energy act of 1946. this looks like a couple of interesting photographs. there were two bills introduced. , senator maeill and represented of johnson introduced in october of 1945.
at a storm of criticism from scientists particularly those at argonne national labs including leo szilard and harold yearling. there were critics of this because it called for a powerful administrator. a deputy admin stated they might be members of the military. it was feared they would dominate the part-time commissioners were then empowered also to be part of this organization. bill emphasizehe the administrator had to keep anddeputy fully informed, gendered suspicion that the ministry are would be an army officer, and the deputy in the officer. and the deputy a navy officer. in the history of the country there has was in civilian control of civilian -- of situations like this. secrecy provisions also frightened many scientists as they contained severe penalties
for imprisonment up to 10 years and $10,000 in fines for security breaches. the chicago shun -- sun headline accused the war department of railroading legislation through congress. mcmahon's senate committee visited oak ridge on thanksgiving of 19 for the five. -- 1945. grant introduced his bill. -- mcmahon introduced his bill. dissemination of information became control of information. it contained the doctrine of classified at birth or born secret. categoriese in some as still exist to this day.
the wall of secrecy set up by the act meant atomic energy and veltman had to be conducted totally under the auspices of the atomic energy commission. -- energy research and develop meant has been conducted. it omitted any mention of nongovernmental use of atomic energy since military applications overshadowed all others at the time. there's no member -- no mention of private ownership of anything atomic. there were restrictions on ownership of patents. and control of fissile material. and operationrecy of production facilities pre-all those were restricted. and restricted data prevented sharing information with canada and britain. until 1954 --alt that was not salt until 1954, 8 years later. solved. bill august 1,he
1946. that is a good day for the second photo here. bill, of thef the law, indicates the commission is authorized to distribute with or without charge, byproduct materials to applicants seeking such materials for research and develop it. -- and development. medical therapy, industrial uses or other such useful applications as may be developed. the very next day, eugene figure presented radioisotopes to a stateless hospital. he was there selling the stuff to st. louis. signed an executor order transferring assets of them at patton engineer district to the of 1946.tive the end on aec went into effect
january 1, 1947. what else is going on in the area? let's look at sayings, what people were talking about at the time. you can read these. be afraid neutrons will not of any use to anyone, according to chadwick. he could not run a hamburg stand. rome was not built in a day, but then dupont did not have that job. there were issues in oak ridge. so yeare is no war on after the war, the war has ended, where we living in such dilapidated housing? why aren't our streets paved?
mud, isn't that beautiful? guess where the photograph is taken? this is tucker street, tucker road on the east end of oak ridge, just off of florida between florida-the intersection of florida and tennessee avenue. look at all that much. -- look at all that mud. the national labor relations board and the opening of the gates of oak ridge. the lack of shopping. little control over your home life in oak ridge. every thing was governed by the army. their world every aspect of town life. if you do not work here, you and your family cannot live here. and if you decided to leave you cannot come back. there is for electricity, free coal, was that nice? free bus service. homes were restricted to
families of men making more than $60 per week. women could not be heads of household. recruitment pitches were emeritus promises. gates were opened in march of 1949 -- pitches were remembered as promises. wasate ownership of land required for oak ridge to become a city. discrimination was a fact of life. this was the south. 1947opulation in january was under 40,000. 2018, it about 29,000. has not changed much since then. were no unione representations here during the manhattan project, during the work. there were some union members, but no collective bargaining.
the manhattan engineer district used the unions to solicit workers, electricians, plumbers, torque on big projects like k 25 and y 12 you needed skilled craftsmen. they needed to attract skilled and usen -- craftsmen the recording because of the union to do that. the nationalter 1946 relations board in were hazardous materials exposure, over time, time off, access to housing, payment for protection gear. organizers couched demands in terms of entitlement because of several, local and labor rights associated with their patriotic sacrifices that they made during the war. patriotism to them meant working overtime, coming in on premium days, 54 hours per week. living in horrible conditions, armyg poor food, although could defer draft notices.
readrs from things i've and later discoveries, were routinely placed in situations where exposure to hazardous wet substances was possible. there were not given a chance to refuse an assignment or learn about the materials and chemicals they were working with. little information was available on safety. for example material safety data sheets did not come into existence then. health effects are classified. ducts,ter equipment and that was a nice thought. but where they changed? where they maintained effectively? again, something that was not assured at the time. there was uncertainty of missions and working conditions. that led to the departure of many professionals, scientists included, to universities. that is where many came from before they came here. or back to the industrial companies where they had
resigned or taken tempora relief before their journey to oak ridge. few scientists wanted to work for any doctoral contractor. industrial contractor. there was oversight by the army. the town had nicknames. according to monsanto, and some of their lower is called dogpatch. labrding to metallurgical athena receives the cargo and argon it was down under. and dupont had gopher training school. has anyone heard others? if you do, we can talk about it.
what was the status in july, 1945? contractors at kate when he five. carbide was there. at y 12, tennessee eastman was there. later carbide took that over. echlin labs, university of chicago was the contractor -- at clinton labs. they gave up the contract after the war. monsanto came in and tried to give it up. diversity of chicago tried to be enticed to come back. -- university of chicago. but they cannot hire a lab director. then union carbide came in. contracts usually expired six month after the war ended. but general groves extended many contract holders as long as he could because they were the industry leaders in getting the job done. they had managed that portion of the project during the war. they succeeded in delivering the products needed.
and were required for success and victory during the manhattan project. there were changes. atomic weapons production had to continue. process treatment improvements were required. the contractors viewed army and government oversight as excessive now that war was over. let's talk about the individual facilities. kate when he five began steady-state operation in february, 1945. wartime employment peaked at 11,000. for operations. had ufuary, 1945 they six was generated by the f 50 plant for effective operation that was then given over to this plant, the kate when he five plant -- the k 25 plant. that was sent to why 12. there was converted from uranium
hexafluoride to uranium tetrachloride. s 50 plant1945, the was not needed anymore because of greater efficiencies here at the front end of kate when he five. so kate when he five enriched -- 25% and thed to project was sent over to why 12 for the beta kalyutrons. end of december everything was done at k 25, because they could enrich to the weapons grade level at 95% as was required. maximum at kate when he five was 90,000 but more than 125,000 were hired. happy valley was across the street. you can see beautiful happy valley. much.ame engenders so
enjoyed entering quality. -- enjoy in tranquility. was not the last building built. k-29.came online, come online in 1954. those provided millions of additional square feet. we saw the s 50 plant. the provided headquarters in the experiment site for nuclear energy for propulsion of aircraft, the dnieper project. that began at kate when he five in the s 50 building in 1946.
-- at k 25. now onto why 12. y12. in september, 1945, the alpha shut down as the army corps of engineers initiated stable isotope production later with the atomic energy commission. in december of 1946, most of the were shuttrons down. employment dropped from 8000 down to 2500. in 18 months it went from to 2500.t, 22,000 down alamos, 94 he seven, los was reluctant to get involved
with postwar weapon production. the actual production as opposed to the research. so adc headquarters said we have that began the role in this activity. they thought their excess capacity would be useful for that machining of precision and otherranium components. produce stableto isotopes of significant value the buildings began to be used for the biology division. the mission of oak ridge, it was still clinton labs, were changing. included a biology division and health and safety research. some of those required large structures. where are large building? right here in beautiful y12. can you imagine being a realtor at y12? have we got a deal for you.
today s for coming in the door you get this deal. produce they began to fuel slugs for the graphite reactor. in 1950, the first precision manufacturing of verrilli him - beryllium for a neutron reflector for a test reactor was done here at y 12. according to bill cox, employees were down to less than 2000. a big change. labs -- here we are at clinton labs. implement for all of clinton labs, for dupont, 1947, that includes some of the dupont people stationed there, special engineer detachment, included 2000 staff, 1947. dupont was a designer.
diversity chicago the manager. the implement total during the manhattan project was 1500. -- university of chicago the manager. that included people who came from hanford for training. total people that were part of the actual clinton engineer works program for that time was about 1250. the universe he of chicago withdrew before the end of the , and dupont. the announcement of june,sotopes appeared in -- the june 14, 1946 issue of science. saying there great things being developed at the graphite pile, here's how you can get a hold of them. so dupont decided to leave. the university of chicago was interested, sort of. it became clinton national lab early in 1947 heard that oak
ridge national lab in 1948. they used a lot of buildings at y 12. aec wanted to get they reactor work to argon. but there were protests by lab staff and the oak ridge institute of nuclear studies. orins. we will talk about them. the reactor work did not leave ornl. it got bigger and got better. ellen weinberg was there. -- alan weinberg was there. the sweet talking genius. work continued on the high flux reactor renames the materials reactor and completed at idaho. 12began moving into why fillings in mid 1948. some why 12 divisions merged in 1950,l -- ornl.
ornl staff level was 3600. walkinge girl scouts behind the graphite reactor. you can see the water tower, the tank,imneys, the water the graphite pile, 1951. girl scouts coming into use it. but, hold onto your seats. there was bureaucracy. know, toks everyone, i think there was bureaucracy with the army. notes, they even
reviewed book titles added by the library. by monsanto as interfering with contractual resource abilities. in march, 1947 were deemed dangerous, as the army and aec required strict adherence to safety rules. that required a two-week postponement because a general gross had rules regarding u235 experiments that wigner was proposing. they proceeded when the atomic energy commission had come in. but the army's on-site representative said the order was not superseded, and wigner had to terminate his extremity even know he said it was not related to what happened elsewhere and what caused relations to be written. returned1947, wegener to university life. are, develop and have
national laboratories. how did this start? in 1944, people were already thinking, what is going to happen after the war? around this time, gross had conversations with folks at the metallurgical laboratories at the university of chicago. they said, what can we do with this stuff? they began the idea of talking about, are there some expense that could be done? we really ought to try to think of broadening this to include universities. set up an advisory committee on r&d in march, 1946. for the aec budgeting. in 1947. he proposed an expansion of r&d for the production of fissionable materials and to look at nuclear power. and they proposed to universities for unclassified research.
the national labs should assume responsys it he this group thought for classified research attics permits requiring equipment to expensive or projects to dangerous or hazardous for university to manage. this began the emphasis on big was codified in a science article by alvin weinberg in science in 19 one. here you have the graphite pile -- graphite reactor at the time that graphite pile at the time. budgets, big laboratories, big staff, big machines. this was the big machinist time. machines do not get any bigger than this. and this was responding to a national need. not only for production of radioisotopes. new uses were being discovered all the time. but also neutron scattering and other activities dealing with physics and biology and throughout the realm of science. that was being done by using the
graphite pile. this led to the formation of the national science foundation. that was created eventually in 1950. currently the department of energy is our nation's largest sponsor of physical science research. all, yes. science -- scientists voice their opinion and discover the house un-american activity committee. 4000 civilian and 18,000 contractor staff. the conner intelligence efforts during the manhattan project was chiefly harming counterintelligence as hoover and general gross agreed that the manhattan project was an army concern and that the fbi need not worry about it. requiredc energy act that the fbi reinvestigate everyone who transferred to the
atomic energy commission. so congratulations, you have 40,000 people. by the way your clearances are spec to last week. expectedlearances are last week. allegations were rampant. imagine what would happen if somebody interviewed folks saying, these are some examples. one reported that in 1943, after you moved, here it is five years later, certain magazines and pamphlets may have been left on premises. after you had gone. that included the socialist pamphlet, new masses. a neighbor stated she believed you are, well a close relative of yours perhaps by marriage, is a communist. at a person with whom you associated closely during that time. was very enthusiastic about russia. and appeared to be pro-russian
in her point of view. no identities of these informants were ever provided to employees. no employees allowed to access the fbi dossiers prepared on them. the house un-american activities committee though was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities. -- excuse me, on the part of private citizens or government employees or organizations suspected of having commonest ties. housei assisted the un-american activities committee by providing information on the oak ridge scientists who had called -- who it called gullible and naive. actual article in the national tennessee and it 1946.
identified two oak ridge chemists who lost their clearances in 1947 but later regained them. there were questions about friends who might be communists. attitudes toward the soviet union, at summit energy, security and the nero question. there were not asked about how any of those are identified might affect their loyalty to the united states. no isolation was given and why the charges might lead to future violations of security. ate at oak ridge were identified as security risks by the atomic energy commission or the joint committee on atomic energy, part congress. in april of 1947. in september of 1948, president truman delivered a keynote address. meeting, in which he condemned loyalty attacks on scientists. he said enough is enough, let's get on with what we are doing.
the questioning style and examination techniques employed by house un-american activities to many later served as a model by which senator mccarthy gained fame. however the committee lost considerable prestige in the 1960's, was renamed late in the 60's and totally dissolved in 19 some five. -- in 1975. the gentleman here thomas samil dickstein had an unusual role. in 1945the committee and died in 19 city for peer he left congress in 1945 to become a justice of the new york state supreme court. according to document identified in moscow, in the 1990's, he was $1250 per month by soviet spy agency from 1937 to 1940, to arrange visas for soviet operatives. codename crooke
by his handlers because of his love of money. he died in 19 city for. you cannot make this stuff up. its too good. -- he died in 19 624. what about -- 1964. there is the chair, jay parnell thomas, who sent investigators .o oak ridge they talked to dozens of folks. ewac held a hearing that claimed a six-month investigation found security problems in oak ridge. that scientists were against army supervision. that oak ridge security officers thought peace and tranquility and this curative united states was definitely in danger. and that scientists were working to form a union. all claims were refuted by everyone.
officers,security many of the scientists claims were identical to views expressed by either the army secretary, congress, or the president. see, reds in our atom bomb plant, appeared in the issue of liberty, the hammer and sickle was imposed on an aerial the early oak ridge hospital. as thes regarded by some most productive facility in oak ridge. because during the three years after it was built, from 1943 to 1946, over 2000 babies were born there.
general grove stayed there frequently when he did not want to be disturbed. he stayed in the maternity ward, saying he was going to look for me there. he got a lot of work done. [laughter] huac railed against lacks security in oak ridge and other manhattan labs. -- lax security. there are hundreds of thousands of document missing. when you shred documents they disappear. trying to backtrack all the document activities, there were lots of stories going on. good.r, not all was he was convicted of salary fraud by requiring kickbacks of his .ecretary's knees and made
after citing the fifth amendment, he was imprisoned for 18 months after being convicted. he was parted by truman after complaining his jail sentence on christmas eve, 1952. question whose answer is ut? , classes were held at the university of tennessee for some staff of tennessee eastman for training. general groves mentioned it in his book. in september, 1845, clinton labs director martin where to occur -- martin whitaker, had discussions with dena smith of ut and the physics department chair. the result was monsanto and the manhattan engineer district arrange for ut to conduct graduate classes at clinton labs with lab staff with classes
beginning in october, 1945. and to share coronation of the joint activity. william pollard of ut was a physics professor in the early war and -- prior to the in the early warriors. he went to columbia. he had a party after his return. he heard from a colleague at the metallurgical lab in chicago who mentioned universities were interested in collaborating with the lab. she thought for sure eastern universities would be very interested. pollard was aware of interest in columbia in developing arrangements with northeast -- universities.
upton on long island, would later be called brookhaven national lab. ut president hoskins received educational proposals from william per pollard in the physics department and robert bo arts of chemical engineering who had worked as part of the manhattan project in clinton labs. appointed hertell to chair a committee that included andboartz. the got to interviewing some oneuential folks at ut. was a trustee and finance chair. withcourage participation other institutions and thought the plug power and academic knowledge would be -- political power and academic knowledge would be better served by broadening the approach rather than ut going it alone.
that echoed the response that kenneth hertell received from correspondence with vannevar bush. early october, 19.5, what is going on? -- 1945. the main johnson bill was introduced for a type of atomic energy act. the first piece of legislation. everybody knows there's no agreement. but what is going to happen? who will take over? where are the lines in the sand going to be? who is doing what to whom? all that is up in the air because there's no agreement in congress on what to do. smithnovember, 1945, dean hosted an exploratory dinner meeting, let's get folks to dinner together over dinner at the andrew johnson hotel where
the hertel committee could meet clinton labs staff including neutron scatter staff. both groups were enthusiastic after this meeting saying, we can work together, we can be a team. their benefits for everyone. less than three weeks later, the senate committee on atomic --rgy, after thanksgiving around things giving visited oak ridge. general groves in. tow. two weeks later another event was organized by pollard at ut, called a conference on reacher's at southeastern universities. to consider the potential of working with the clinton engineer works and 20
universities who had expected interest to be plus -- present at the meeting. formedrim committee was to say let's meet again soon. put together a plan of action because we have to get this going. it is early december. three weeks later after christmas they got together for three days at clinton labs. they invited folks in from the outside. the scientists said let's get together organized by subject. they're able to do that and as a result after three days they elected an executive committee. pollard was chair. they agreed to call the organization the oak ridge institute of nuclear studies. (orins). so this is present.
i typed in oak ridge institute of. a popped the stuff about nuclear studies and to variance. his papers in danville, kentucky and fayetteville, arkansas said the organization was called the oak ridge institute of nucleonics. who can figure? anyway oak ridge institute of nuclear studies. they were able to identify short-term and long-term goals. to provide graduate level .ducation parallel graduate programs at clinton laboratories. they were able to identify opportunities for students. they offered a graduate program.
166 students in the spring quarter, in march of 1946. gonne activity developed the model that some of the orins was able to work with in developing bylaws and an arrangement, how the universities would play nice with each other. that served as a roadmap. article.d an the page following that isotope announcement. an article entitled nuclear research institute at oak ridge. june 14, 1946. was incorporated under tennessee law in october, 1946. here the founding members. they offer the first formalized training program that involved the radioactive isotope handling course, later torsos included isotope technology, radiation
technology, radiation biology, training for firefighting personnel, handling of radio isotopes by physicians and radiation protection. assumes response billy for the clinical research activities -- assumed responsibility. they began the museum of atomic energy, the predecessor to this fine institution. they became oak ridge associated universities in 1966. here we go. and cyril kept feeding the pig. photo. an actual ornl through frank monger. research involved gallium 72. it had a 14 hour half-life.
there were to study bones and kidneys, the presence of the isotope in there. the facility had was asked to get a piglet and feed him to a hundred pounds. so this is february, he got a piglet. give to folks and said make sure it is well fed. to do the experiment they had to determine processing and efficacious methods. and cyril kept feeding the pig. that it was scientific meeting time. cyril kept feeding the pig. vacation time. cyril kept feeding the pig. dry runs. cyril kept feeding the pig. the whole experiment came together. and serial cap feeding the pig. the bigarrived of event. that a team of internists,
nurses, medical x-ray and radio as a technician, anesthesiologist. where's the pig? the pig is found and brought to the lab large truck. it took five farmhands to get him down the ramp. he barely fit in through the lab door. this was not a piglet. it took fivethe goal of feedings in overachievement. originally they were going to have a child's mask fitting over the sound of the pig. and 12 drops of ether per minute were planned. that went out the window. can you imagine trying to hold the pig down? give it either? -- ether. they wrapped a lab coat around the head shielding the eyes and started pouring ether down there. a whole can of ether was used,
followed by a second. cyril komar caplets the rate of ether evaporation and realizes many people there would be unconscious and seven minutes. he gets a fan and opens the doors and windows. expertsiologist, and i on birds uses a scalpel and tries to expose the jugular vein for insertion of an iv. it barely got into the subcutaneous fat. knifeled for a butcher but in looking for the vessel realized it was not colored like in the textbooks. the team is now ready for the gallium 72. in,chemists bring it running to the lab. they ran out of gas. a truck was dispatched with us bearcat of gas -- a spare can of
gas to bring the bdellium in. gallium.ng me the pig calmed down. the pig released its sphincters. before the experiment could continue, they had to clean everything up. in sermon three sterilize, ether supply restart last in plan list . instruments re-sterilized. i hope you enjoyed the talk, i certainly enjoyed preparing it for you. [laughter] [applause] , i would like to thank historical resources of the oak ridge community including the american museum of science and energy, the oak ridge public
library, the oak ridge history museum, the u.s. department of energy, the national park service. also thank the colleagues involved in many activities at these organizations. riordanl thanks to deck who encouraged my historical efforts. also thanks to lee reading her who asked me to join him and his colleagues writing about the history of ut and oak ridge collaborations. i'm happy to take questions. what happened to the pig? aided science. the story of the pig was presented at a science conference in the early 1950's. and it is in the book all around from the beginning written by william pollard. you cannot make it up. it is a beautiful story. evolvedancer hospital
from, was part of the oak ridge institute of nuclear studies? >> yes, they were the ones that took care of that. initially. that is correct. and i'm not sure about the history of that, that is one part of the history i have not built -- delved into yet. the question was, what about the oak ridge cancer hospital, was networkt of the mentioned. with that taken over by orins. yes, that was one and where some of the early work on bidding realogy studies took place -- on epidemiology studies took place. aboutyour early slides employment at the manhattan project, did that represent the entire manhattan project including hanford and los alamos? >> yes it did.
the entire manhattan project had 600,000.mployment of not all at one time. 70% turnover at least in oak ridge per month. 17% turnover per month. the biggest reason for turnover was the quality of life and the commuting distance. if you're traveling for an hour or hour and a half each way every day, that is tough duty. and you are not getting paid for your transportation time. how longe any idea happy valley lasted? latethink it lasted until in 1946 or early 1947. k27?
>> when they completed k27, that part of the construction activity ended. it was completed in december, 1945. another six month after that for the jones camp also probably one array -- went away at that time. >> that population includes industry? >> know that was direct employees of the folks responding that were employed direct. i will call it direct employees of the manhattan engineers. you're talking about the prime dupont at hanford eastman andnnessee carbide here, also ron anderson.
>> i wondered about the picture of the girl scout troop right behind the reactor. i would've thought there would've been restrictions. >> not at that point. .hey may have been escorted i'm sure was a beautiful moment. they looked young enough that they could not drive there. [laughter] i'm sure there was adult supervision. wescott was there taking the picture, i'm sure every thing was beautiful. and all the safety and security precautions were followed about their. do you volunteer for the bus tours? >> yes. >> what is the most common
misperception of tourists who come here? >> how big this places. i did not realize it was this big. 000 hear a number like 59, acres. and that this wasn't done at one time. done. there are 10 declaration of takings filed in federal court, in knoxville for the spirit the biggest was the first one, 53,000 acres. may,ast one was done in 1945, a few thousand acres. that is a lot of land. this is a big place. what does it mean to build a town of 75,000 people were
85,000 people worked? you have to put in sewers, sidewalks, roads, electricity you have to house these people. infrastructure. and you're talking yesterday, 13,000 people in six months. forral groves was in charge a reason. he built the pentagon. in record time. a big facility. he knew people to contact. he went right to the top for many of these chemical industry contractors to get them to convince them to come to oak ridge, to hanford, to the university of chicago, to work on projects for the manhattan engineer district. he knew how to get things done. certainly a great leader. >> is a known how much the
graphite reactor cost? the x10 tal cost of facility was $25 million through the end of 1946. that was the big thing. they had chemical processing activity. there theyo housing had to build waste tanks, laboratories. there were 1200 people there. so they needed change houses. there were over 100 buildings. they had to develop a steam plant. you had to have electricity, that was brought in. big things like that. big doings.
announcer: this weekend on american history tv. shakespeare enthusiast michael evans discusses how the bard has been invoked in historic congressional debates, and the political lessons that might be learned from his plays, especially the tragedies. here's a preview. we may be tempted to think that fate is on our side. that our constitutional checks and balances will counteract any serious threats to our system of government. that it cannot happen here. but tragedy teaches otherwise. liberal democracy is not guaranteed, it is fragile. without constant attention, including from those of us privileged to work in and around congress. we can lose every thing. that is why it is important that
shakespeare is in our midst. while we should read or even better watch king lear, richard the second, or macbeth. conclusionings me in fact to the folder library. in the west garden is a statue of puck. the mischievous spirit from a midsummer nights dream. he is facing the capital. at the base of the statue is a quote from the play. oh, what fools these mortals be. it is a reminder by way of shakespeare, that our status here is precarious and requires humility. we are in the capital of a great nation. but even so, we are just a few steps away from a tragic mistake.
that makes our work all the more important. announcer: learn more about william shakespeare and u.s. politics sunday at 5:00 p.m. eastern. this is american history tv. only on c-span3. announcer: is american history tv, exploring our nation's past every weekend on c-span3. next, real america winds back the clock to feature archival films about historic campaigns. 19 72 presidential nominee george mcgovern on the campaign trail. followed by profile of california governor ronald reagan who ran for the 1968 replicant party nomination. at 5:00 p.m. shakespeare enthusiast michael evans discussed how the bard has been invoked in historic congressional debate in the political lessons that might be learned from his plays. at 6:30 p.m. eastern, cynthia press get talks about her book,
pioneer mother monuments. she highlights the statues and bond mints of the kansas city area. it is our weekly series on the presidency. tonight we hear about president franklin d roosevelt and his relationship with robert jackson, who served during his administration as solicitor general, attorney general, and as a supreme court justice. that is what is coming up here on american history tv. >> this fall, american history tv's reel america is winding back the clock. next, from 1972, candidates journal paid for by the mcgovern for president committee. it follows the south dakota and senator and democratic nominee as he meets a variety of voters across the united states struggling with economic problems. he hears from a baltimore
steelworker, senior citizen, wisconsin farmer, unemployed engineer and wheelchair-bound vietnam veteran. mcgovern lost to richard nixon in a landslide that year, winning only the district of columbia and massachusetts. [film begins] >> waves of planes and helicopters, both american and south vietnamese, have made thousands of sorties. senator mcgovern: during the years, i have found that campaigning can be a lonely business, a succession of airports, motels, not seeing my family for weeks at a time. but the rewards of staying in touch with this country have been more than worth the cost. [applause]
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