tv Remembering the Holocaust CSPAN February 1, 2020 4:59pm-5:46pm EST
liberalism works." other titles include "the rhetoric of economics," and the burj law era trilogy eastern on "afterwards," andrea bernstein chronicles the trump and kershner families in her latest book "american oligarchs." >> when the president as a private businessman was extremely adept at fending off criminal investigations, he made sure he understood who his friends were and they understood who he was. to make it work for him. he was never charged in any criminal case. it is interesting to have that background in the rearview mirror as we go into this impeachment situation, where he is being called to account, and where there is a public reckoning, and in some ways, even though he's president, he
is not able to make things go away as he once could. >> watch featured authors this weekend and every weekend on book tv on c-span2. next on american history tv, the u.s. holocaust memorial museum in washington, d.c. hosts the commemorative ceremony to remember those who perished and to mark international holocaust remembrance day, observed every january 27 on the anniversary of the auschwitz birkenau concentration camp liberation during world war ii. among the speakers, we hear from 2 survivors who offered their memories and a prayer. ♪ >> on behalf of the museum leadership, i want to welcome the many ambassadors, diplomats, representatives from the u.s.
state department, other u.s. government agencies, will members of our holocaust memorial council, and national jewish organization. most importantly, i want to give a special warm welcome to the many holocaust survivors with us today. inhas been their honor, and memory of the victims, that we are dedicated to making the world a better place for ourselves and future generations. commemorated international holocaust remembrance day being streamed live. i also want to welcome those watching from across the u.s. and across the world. wherever you may be, we hope you share your reflections of the day on social media, and tag with #weremember. in 2005, the united nations
established this day to honor the memory of the victims of the holocaust, to educate ourselves about that history, and draw from it lessons so that we may prevent future genocide. today, we mark the 75th anniversary of the day that the soviet army liberated auschwitz-birkenau. more than 1.1 million people were murdered there, most of them jews. millions more were murdered and other -- in other death camps. many others were killed in their own villages or nearby. millions of non-jews were also persecuted and killed by the nazis and their collaborators. all ofer -- we remember them. all around the world, many governments, many u.n. offices are remembering the victims of the holocaust. the director of our museum is not here with us, because she is in poland, where she will join
world leaders at a commemoration on monday at the site of auschwitz-birkenau. the u.n.y a word about choice of today of our day to remember this tragedy. which sovietday on troops liberated auschwitz as our day of remembrance would seem to lend itself to a particular type of commemoration. one that would focus on the glorious deeds of the liberating army. communityhe world has, from the very first, made a different choice. while we recognize there would have been no end to the suffering had it not been for the heroic deeds of the allied we nevertheless put our focus today on remembering the victims of the nazi onslaught. following in the tradition of the early memory it's, like primo levy, we shone the light
on those persecuted. we remember how they fought to retain their dignity in suffering, and we honor those who, by some miracle, were able to make it to the day of liberation and reclaim their humanity. fact that we focus on the victims and survivors rather than just the liberators today is important. it is in honoring them that we come to understand the fragility of human civilization, and through that, understand how much depends on us. when we truly listened to the voices of the persecuted rather than the perpetrator, it gives us the understanding we need to create the world in which what happened to the jews of europe should never again happen to any people anywhere. say nevercan we truly again.
we hope all of you will join us in our pledge to learn from the stories of the victims and survivors of the holocaust, and from that, do more so that the next generations will not grow up in a world where mass violence is accepted as the normal course of events. now, i'm very pleased and honored to have with us the ambassador of sweden to the u.s. please join me in welcoming her to the podium. [applause] >> survivors of the holocaust, families, and friends of .urvivors can only once a when things begin. a grain of sand is laid to another grain of sand. before you know it, you have a mountain of sand in front of
you. these are the words of haiti freed. she was a swedish hungarian, she is a swedish hungarian. who fought survivor tireless efforts to -- continue to touch generations in my country. she recalls how lives changed during her up inking in romania -- upbringing in romania. step-by-step, probably unnoticeable for most people in the beginning. we must never be immune to the sites. our planet is under pressure. fundamental human rights values are being challenged. tolerance, equality, freedom of expression, social and economic rights are threatened in many parts of the world. with climate change, we experience a next essential threat to all of us. we cannot take anything for granted. governments and leaders carry a
great responsibility to protect our rights. we must never stop reminding them. it really all begins with you and me. with the ability to see a grain of sand. and our actions matter every day. 75 years ago, one of the darkest chapters in human history came to an end. as we turn new pages in the book of mankind, we must never forget the past. anti-semitism, xenophobia, intolerance, and racism . in the u.s., in sweden, and elsewhere. in the rhetoric of extremist groups to the right and to the left, in conspiracy theories on the internet, in fundamentalist environments, but also among ordinary men and women who cannot tell right and wrong and recognize the true face of prejudice and
propaganda. emptiness,uation, no no moral vacuum can be allowed to exist. with unhesitating clarity, we must expose, confront, and combat anti-semitism wherever it may appear, and no matter who expresses it. education is key. fading collecting memories, 20 years ago, the swedish government established a living history forum in sweden. an agency dedicated to preserving and telling the stories of holocaust survivors. his children passed through and listen to the voices. the have been given opportunity to travel to concentration temp sites to see for themselves what horror mankind is capable of if not stopped in time. in 2018, the swedish government
decided a holocaust museum will be established in sweden. it will remind you generations of the values of tolerance. it will remind us of human dignity. and it will strengthen the link to the global community of remembrance. in this context, i am particularly pleased with the collaboration between sweden and the holocaust museum here in washington, d.c. together, they have collected over 20 new testimonies from swedish jews, and european jews, all of them survivors who came to sweden after the war. and the files are stored safeguarded for future generations. years is both a very long time, but at the very same time, a very short time. we must take over the torch from the voices that go silent one by one. therefore, the swedish prime
minister has invited heads of state and government, researchers, experts in civil satiety from about 50 countries ina high level conference october. it will be an opportunity to take concrete steps in the fight for holocaust remembrance and against anti-semitism. one starting point of the forum on the stockholm declaration education, remembrance, and research about the holocaust from the year 2000. the working definition on anti-semitism by the international holocaust remembrance alliance. sweden endorses the working definition and the list of examples of anti-semitism that serve as illustrations. jewishmitism is not a problem, it's a problem for all of us. this, he has
deeply affected my own life and worldview. when i served as ambassador to hungary, i constantly came across places and people who had been saved by him, and where he had spent time. they bore witness of his life and his deeds. as a 32-year-old swedish businessman, he took on the risky mission to travel to the swedish legation in budapest majorer to come -- the rescue operation of jews threatened by persecution. by issuing passports, and hiring over 30 buildings in budapest, which he declared as swedish territory, and where jews could seek shelter, he saved thousands of lives. many think even as many as 100,000 lives. he did not use traditional diplomacy, and he would have gotten nowhere. everything from bribery to
threats and blackmail. he took great personal risks. even if we peel off some of the ith around this person, remains a remarkable symbol of personal courage in the fight against atrocities of the second world war. it is very clear the swedish government could have done much from theemand answers soviet union and their leadership. in 1945,th of january he did appear. today, we must honor his life by never forgetting his deeds. belief in every human being's right to life and dignity is reflected in sweden's commitment to the defense of human rights principles throughout the world. it includes equal opportunities abolition oftotal
all forms of torture, and freedom of thought and expression, just to mention a few. it includes the fight against anti-semitism, racism, and intolerance, whatever shape they take. it begins at home and stretches beyond all borders. to greet are gathered ive with all of those who still mourn family members and loved ones. your losses hours. the holocaust inflicted a wound on humanity that changed us forever. above all, we have gathered to celebrate bravery, perseverance, and the resistance of the human spirit. the strength of freedom and love. it all begins with individual courage. every day, every hour, we must be able to recognize a grain of sand. we must stand ready to act. now it is my great honor to hand over to ms. ruth cohen, survivor
of the holocaust. thank you so much for sharing this stage with me. it is truly an honor. thank you. [applause] thank you madam ambassador. inas born in czechoslovakia 1930 two a warm and loving family. my sister was seven years older was 1.5and my brother years younger. filled with extended family, many friends, and the opportunity to go to a great school. 1938, czechoslovakia was partitioned. the next morning, my mother told
us she spent the night worrying about the future. in fact, that day, my life again to change. my town became a part of hungary, and boys and girls could no longer study in the same classrooms. instead of check number we learned hungarian. my father's business was taken away immediately, and our nanny had to leave because she was no longer allowed to work for a jewish family. we learneder, members of my mother's family had been taken and murdered. my family officially went into morning. march 1944, hit lamarche into hungry -- hitler's march into hungry. we had to wear yellow stars. we were forced to move into a ghetto. days, the man who had
previously tried to buy our house was allowed to just go in and empty it of all its contents. y, more jews were marched to the brick factory, where the railroad was lined with cattle cars. we were ordered into the cars, my 83-year-old grandmother in a aeelchair was taken onto special car for invalids. that was the last time i saw her. my biology teacher, who i admired and adored, refused to climb the steps and was shot in front of everyone, and was there for all of us to see. it was horrific. my next memory is entering the baruch in houston which -- auschwitz. was our blockiend
out sister. she informed us our mother, brother, and little cousin who had come with us had already been murdered. who could believe something so outrageous? but it was true. miriam helped me get a job as a messenger girl. my sister became her assistant. fever, peoplehoid i had met as a messenger saved my life by hiding the when the nazis came to the infirmary to conduct selections. july, we got a message to be at a specific place where we might see our father. we went, saw him carrying blankets. andaived to each other laughed with joy. we received the message from our uncle, who had come to auschwitz
. we went to meet him at 4:00 at a spot near the barb wire fence. we met him that day, and on several more days. he informed us that soon he would be taken to the gas chambers. >> indeed in a few days, a friend of us came to our meeting spot and told us that uncle had been killed. there are no words to adequate describe the horror of that moment. the 500nd of october, women, including my sister and i, were taken to nierenberg to work at the plant. a great deal of pain and unable to work.
shortly after, the factory was bombed and we were sent to another camp and another cement factory. due to my severe back pain, i could not work anymore, and just stayed in my bed. two days before the end of the and we were in our baruch, suddenly saw men running down the hill with bayonets. it was a group of white russian protestants. i remember our excitement and how we jumped up on the bids to see the man running toward the camp. most of the germans did not resist arrest by the partisans. but one officer tried to flee on his motorbike. he was shot in front of us. most of us were shocked to see such cruelty. our humanity was still intact. the protestants invited everyone who wanted to come to join them.
be told to stay in the camp to wait for the americans who were close by. 100 women left with the protestants. several hours later, the jewish women came back to the camp. werehad been told the jews not welcome by the protestants. anti-semitism was still alive and well. a month after liberation, my sister and i went back home, where our dad was waiting for anyone who survived. what a glorious reunion that was. however, i was quite sick. six months later, i went to a hospital, where i spent a year being treated for tuberculosis of the spine. including nine months during which i was immobile. yet, how lucky i was again. most people die from their ailment.
infather and sister now live prague and visited at least once a month. other survivors from the jewish ,ommunity also visited me giving me renewed hope in humanity. a year after leaving the hospital, in april, 1944, my dad and i arrived at new york harbor . on the first night of passover, which also was making birthday. liberty wasdoes there to greet us. even now as i passively b -- past lady liberty, i feel emotional, always believing her message and hope. holocaust teaches us about human nature. for there is great capacity good as well as for people. when one group in a society is singled out for persecution,
other groups are likely to be targeted, too. ways, eachand large individual has the capacity to hurt or to heal, to savage or to save. perhaps most important lessons to note at today's commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the liberation of auschwitz is the holocaust did not begin with auschwitz, nor should it be solely defined by it. it began with words and a small largerhen infinitely ones that resulted in the murder of 6 million jews. for so many, auschwitz is a and thef expression, expression of hatred and inhumanity. for me, it isn't this symbol, it was and is my reality. as i look around our world, i beingoups like these
persecuted and subject to incarceration, violence, even genocide. i'm scared of the alarming rise in anti-semitism, violence, and deadly attacks on jews in the u.s. and elsewhere. it is appalling to see this stunning denial of the holocaust and how the experience of the survivors and victims are being distorted in the very places it happened. i am so disheartened and sadly convinced that we have not learned the lessons that this history, my history, teaches. especiallyveryone, those in leadership positions, to be motivated by this history. use your authority and influence to push back against those who inpetrate the worst instance human behavior. ensure thatcan to
[applause] >> good morning. i am a member of the metropolitan police department in the nation's capital where i lead our liaison branch and among my duties, serve as liaison to our jewish community. i am joined by my brothers in service to this nation, colonel cap williams -- colonel kenneth , all three of us have been participants in this museum's leadership program and training and in those programs members of law enforcement, the judiciary, and military, all organizations met to protect our
democratic institutions, examined the will of those professionals had during the holocaust. -- the role of those professionals had during the holocaust. case studies were explored to examine where professionals make choices that resulted in complicity to commit a genocide. examining the history helps members today look at their own roles and responsibilities. numberard to imagine the 6 million, but harder to imagine that that number represents individuals, not just an individual number. that, we today those 6 million as individuals and as a group. so they will not be lost to history. we remember them for their sake,
weembrance, the words, affirm our faith in a higher power, the power that endows us with the ability to learn from the past and choose good over evil. please rise if you are able and remain standing following it for a moment of silence as we remember all victims of the holocaust and all victims of bigotry and hate. [speaking foreign language]
>> with the upcoming iowa caucuses and new hampshire primary, sunday at 2:00 eastern, american history tv looks back at presidential candidates bill clinton and towards w bush's visits to the granite state. >> there are too many students and parents that believe that how much you learn in school is determined by what iq you were born with and what your family income is. , thesaid, it is clear people still love you here and so do i, but you are still telling me what to do. at a bigtrue story cowboy hat and strode out of the , someone texas screams, you better listen to her. >> at 8:00, president clinton's 1999 state of the union address,
given during his senate impeachment trial. >> we must be grateful for the magnificent achievements of our forbearers in this century. perhaps in the daily press of events, in the clash of controversy, we do not see our own time for what it truly is. a new dawn for america. everylore our past weekend on american history tv on c-span3. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2020] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> howard lee was the first african-american elected mayor in a majority white southern city. coming up, we sit down with mr. lee to talk about serving as the chapel hill's mayor and the challenges he faced while in office. >> mayor, why did you decide to run for mayor of chapel hill? >> well, it was probably more of