tv Reel America The Year 1945 United Newsreel CSPAN April 25, 2020 11:50pm-12:01am EDT
>> one year ago the entire world awaited the fateful outcome as the armies of nazi germany lashed outs in the counteroffensive. this was the battle of the bulge, the battle that came so dangerously close to crushing allied hopes for early victory. this was the 11th hour of the counterattack on which germany gambled everything. equipment littered the road. the year 1944 was dying. the year 1945 was beginning in an atmosphere of doubt, cruel anxiety, and cold, and hunger and death. he then coming back from the punch in the west, the yanks and british moved forward to the fighting. they had landed in norm did. they have slashed their way to germany's quarters. they absorbed the roughest punishment the germans could dish out. they moved against a common enemy. now with air power in the lead, they were started on the last
long drive to victory. american forses on the west and south of the bulge carved up elite units. montgomery's british on the north were immovable. together they crushed the final german bid for victory and moved steadily to a meeting with their demrant russian ally in the east. berlin, city of naziism, fell. early in january, franklin roosevelt was inaugurated as president of the united states, his fourth term. the ceremony took place on the white house porch. almost immediately the president went to the altar, confered with joseph stalin and churchill on final steps to
crush the axis and establish peace. it was the originalal meeting of the big theo. franklin roosevelt looked tired and old. in april, a great man was dead. the loss of franklin roosevelt was deeply felt by people all-around the world. ♪ >> in the cabinet room of the white house, harry s. truman was sworn in as president. on the each of victory and its disturbing aftermath, his was
the duty of carrying on with he leaders of america's allies . 25 days later on may the 7th in a little school house in france came the unconditional urnedser of germany. the nazi chief of staff signed the document formally ending all german resistance as drawn by the representatives of russia, britain, france and the united states. general smith signed for the supreme commend of command. and the end of one of history's most massive and brilliant campaigns bright a well earned victory to a soldier known as ke eisenhower. in the pacific, in mortal combat against a frenetic foe, the army, navy and mariners were driving to a finish fight.
the philippines had been won back. so had a score of other vital islands, large and small, including one called okinawa. but the kamikaze corps, the japanese pilots who rode winds to certain suicide and devastation of our ships were taking a heavy toll. on easter sunday following the pattern of invasion unleashed a half a hundred times on japanese bases, u.s. forces assaulted the island of okinawa. first the bombardment. [explosion] >> then from the fleet standing offshore, the landing craft went in.
the mighty pageant of assault rolled ahead again, this time less than 400 miles from japan itself. this was the island that the japanese simply could not afford to lose. for four months they fought a desperate battle that cost them 90,000 lives. the island was save in u.s. hands in july. a test in new mexico, then 5,000 miles away at hiroshima and nafasaki came the world shaking events of the tomic bomb. japan asked for piece. aboard the u.s.s. missouri in tokyo boy on sunday, seven 2, 1945, the most horrible war in history came to its complete and formal end. the foreign minister siberia
signed no japan. douglas mack arthur, supreme commander. eneral chang signed for china. but the world could not forget or excuse the savage crimes of those who had opened that war, who had deliberately and willfully brought death and suffering to millions. to the innocent tortured civilians of manila. or these atrocities, japan's leaders would be held responsible and stand trial. one commander in the philippines has already been sentenced to death. tojo, japanese war premier, faced trial as the year ended. his suicide attempt would not prevent the carrying out of justice.
behind bars were others. , koma, shimota, koruda, and hasimoto. across the earth, the vehicle toler record that the world had seen of german death camps would not be foregeten. is not eichel joseph kramer, they have already paid with their lives for the crimes they committed against innocent men, omen and children. >> in italy after two decades of swaggering, the inventor of fascism, musolini lay dead at people s of the italian with his heavenmen and his
mistress. , -- his henchmen and his mistress. ♪ >> adolph hitler, who had survived a bomb planted by one of his own officers in 1944 was presumably alive until the last days of berlin. by the best evidence, he is now dead. at nurmburg, the hitler gang has gone on trial. for the first time, criminal war leaders are being judged by an international court, by nkind, gering and 17 others, men who had planned world conquest and the death and envillanuevament of millions are now tried under law. and the law of all nations have rules for dealing with criminals. peace and decency were assured as the representatives of the united nations signed the san francisco charter. the lessons learned in 1945, if man dined would remember them, could make the world a better
place for all men forever. ♪ >> american history tv is on social media. follow us at c-span history. >> on lectures in history, baylor university professor david smith teaches a class about the growth of the internationalist world view in 190's america. he argues that economic, moral and political impulses caused americans to consider a larger role in the world for their nation. professor smith then details the actions they took, such as pursuing missionaries work, arguing for the expansion of the navy and searching for new economic markets. >> what we are going to do
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