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tv   Reel America Victory Garden - 1942  CSPAN  April 30, 2020 7:39pm-8:02pm EDT

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>> next, on reel america, from 1942, victory garden.
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this u.s. department of agriculture film provides instructions to help citizens grow their own fruits and vegetables during world war >> on this farm in the rolling hill country of northern maryland, the holders rallying to the call for more food, join the growing army of victory gardeners. this is dad holder. he helps with the heavy work. mother, well, she helps with most everything. grandpa holder, he says the only honest way to get a mess of peas or a crown of glory is to work for it. brother bill is in the army. but dick, 14, takes his place. and this is jane, just 16. grandpa and dad always garden plans in their heads but victory garden plans should be on paper.
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so they will study state and federal bulletins, which have been written to serve as guides in victory gardens. now let's see on this (inaudible) little model of their quarter acre garden the plan they work out. here's the early garden. here, potatoes. then two double rows of peas early, medium and late. one row of cabbage. double row of carrots and beets. half a row of each. one double row of greens, spinach, mustard and chard. tomatoes.
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peppers, half a roll. radishes, lettuce and asparagus and rhubarb. beans. four rows of sweet corn along the fence. and finally, two rows of lima beans complete the early garden. now for the late garden. after each of the early crops is harvested, a planting of another crop is to be made so as to have a succession. for convenience of illustration, all early crops except tomatoes and chard are removed from the model. here are the later crops. four rows of u.s. number five beans. two rows of squash along the fence. three rows of late potatoes. late cabbage. carrots and beets, half double row of each. three rows of turnips. a row of spinach.
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kale and collards, here they have a garden plan that will serve the family plan this year. in succeeding years, they will want to rotate crops within the plot. now for the real garden. when the maples are in bloom, it's time to begin planting. when the moisture is just right, the soil won't ball or be sticky. it holds its shape when pressed but crumbles easily when broken. then it's ripe for working and planting. the garden is sunny, has good soil and drainage and is well fenced. it was manured and plowed last fall. now after lining and harrowing, it is ready to plant. grandpa knows how to cut potatoes. he makes good-sized chunky pieces about the size of a hen's egg, each with at least
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one eye. certified seed gives best results. look for the blue tag. potato rolls are three feet apart. four inches deep. a complete commercial fertilizer like 5-10-5 is spread and mixed with the soil before planting. the seed is dropped one piece to a hill, evenly spaced about one foot apart. covering may be done with plow or hoe. in running furrows for peas, a line or stakes are used to space them in double rows, three feet apart. treatment of peas and other vegetables with dust disinfectant helps to prevent
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seed rot and blights. a level teaspoon full of powder, to four pounds of speed, well mixed until each seed is coated. young cabbage and tomato plants are coming along well. being hardy, cabbages are planted early. dick sets the roots deep and presses the soil firmly around them. if the ground is dry, he pours a little water into each hole before covering. a piece of tar paper, two inches square, with a slit through the hole in the center, will keep maggots away. the holders have best results with onion sets grown the previous year, though they could use seedlings or seeds.
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the corner or handle of the hoe is used to make furrows for small seeds like lettuce, about a half inch deep. jane shakes the seed out evenly but not too thickly. carrot seeds are also planted about a half inch deep. beet seeds, larger, are planted one inch deep, one inch apart. spinach seeds are planted like carrots. the young plants are thinned four inches apart. the holders have selected vegetables that are grown easily, good yielders, rich in vitamins and can be canned or stored for winter use. plum trees are in bloom. time to plant sweet corn. this is the golden one, resistant to disease. three kernels are enough. almost summer now and the
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garden is coming along. a garden that will furnish plenty of nutritious vitamin-packed vegetables for the family table. that is, if they ever reach the table. the paper still keeps the maggots away from the cabbage. tomatoes are a must in every victory garden and lots of them. plant are set out when danger of frost is over.
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they are protected from cut worms by paper collars, fastened at the top with a paper clip for a pin. at the bottom, by pulling the soil around them. a few peppers are desirable. the holders started these hot weather plants seven weeks ago in the kitchen window. lima beans are planted two to the hill inch and a half deep. pole limas complete the early
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garden planting. some vegetables need thinning. dick uses a garden hoe for that part. but finishing is done by hand. the chard is being thinned to six to eight inches apart. the only way to get weeds out of a row of carrots is by hand. right now, when they are small. pig weed is a common fast-growing weed. another is lam's quarter. they will quickly crowd out vegetables if not pulled. thinning carrots is a pain in the back, but these young folks have keen eyes and nimble fingers. weeds grow fast. and as grandpa says, there's no tool that gets them all but the hoe makes the job easier between the rows. careful! not too close or too deep. you might cut the outer root. a horse cultivator may do the
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job much faster. this implement has attachments that will plant seeds of almost any size in rows or in hills. now the pests begin to work. beetles, bugs, hoppers. who said gardening was just pleasant exercise? here's the first pest. the common cabbage worm, eating holes in the newest cabbage leaves. like a good gardener, dick is on the job to protect the crop from all these pests and diseases. the cabbage worm's mama, a small white butterfly, lays its eggs in the seeds. a serving of stomach poison
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should finish mr. cabbage worm. they have been made scarce by the war, so dust is used. dick does a good job of it. this cabbage is sick with the yellows, or wilt. once the fungus that causes wilt gets into the soil, it takes years to get rid of it. next time, dick will use wilt-resistant varieties like jersey queen. the easy way to control insects and diseases is to attack them before they become too numerous. flea beetles eat holes in potato leaves. calcium arsenic is the remedy. to make two and a half gallons, dick dissolves three ounces
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powdered sulfate in water. then he makes a thin paste of three ounces of lime and water. this is put into the pail, stirred, and the mixture is made. to this may be added two tablespoons full of calcium arsenate to kill potato bugs. easy, isn't it? this is also a good spray for grapes, tomatoes, and roses. dick sprays potatoes about once every two weeks. late potatoes need more sprayings than early ones. now the peas are ready. excellent source of vitamin c! cabbage too is ready to eat. another excellent source of vitamin c, especially raw. it should be grown in every
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victory garden. a solid four-pound head, good for -- or for storing. cabbage is available in the garden over a long period. carrots are rich in vitamin a, needed for night vision and building up resistance to disease. luscious raspberries are ripening, a delicious fruit that should be in every garden. uh-oh. those pesky bugs again. this time, it's the mexican bean beetle. the young beetles may strip a plant completely in a week or
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two. a complete generation occurs in 35 days. cryaliet dust is the remedy. one of the common causes of failure of lima and green and wax snap beans is bacterial blight. the leaves are blighted. pods and seeds are spotted. this disease is carried with the seed. western grown seed from reliable firms is recommended. tomatoes are troubled by wilt, caused by a fungus that lives in the soil and attacks through the roots. getting into the sap-carrying tubes and shutting off the water supply. the plants die. this blackened woody tissue is the sign of wilt. only resistant varieties should be grown on wilt-infested land.
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the fungus does not damage seriously resistant varieties like rutgers, and pan-america. a similar disease effects eggplant. note the darkened tissue in the cut stem. the remedy is rotation of crops. the clean, white appearance of this stem indicates a healthy plant. here's the pesky old worm. eggs are laid and hatched. a mixture of white mineral oil, at the right time, helps to control them. , another corn enemy, attacks all parts of the plant. it does not lower yields much but on or below the ear, it is
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damaging. leaf blights also affect corn. sprays do not control these diseases but resistant varieties of corn are being developed. mildew is one of several leaf diseases that interfere with successful production of cucumber and related crops. another is anthracnose. it spots and blights watermelons. decreasing yields and reducing quality of fruit. the dust is used for these diseases. the garden pest is easier to stop. just keep the gate closed and the fence tight! no holes. zinnias are in bloom. and the crops are beginning to roll out. the last of the early irish cobblers.
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certified seed help to make a good yield. good quality too, free from scab and uniform in shape. the nutritional value of beets is in the tops. so it's wise to use them young when the tops are edible. perhaps the number one garden crop, they keep ripening over a long period and are an important source of vitamin c, often deficient in our diets. when properly cooked or canned, there is not much loss of this vitamin. tomatoes are easily canned. one bushel will fill 12 quart jars. at least 20 quarters per person should be put up.
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corn tops against the sky. the yellow varieties of corn contain vitamin a. both white and yellow contain small amounts of minerals an vitamins as well as starch and sugar. green peppers, rich in vitamin c and a. pole beans, green, dried or canned. and swiss chard. chard can be used throughout the summer. the holder garden has plenty of such green, leafy vegetables, turnip greens, mustard greens, spinach, all for winter use. that just about covers the holder victory garden.
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just one of thousands of such farm gardens. just a sample that you can match in most any community in america. each, a health insurance policy, a savings bank. each a vitamin mine from which you can take stuff more precious than silver or gold. but remember what grandpa says. no work, no garden. get what that means. no work, no spuds. no work, no turnip, no tank, no flying fortress, no victory. bear that in mind, all you victory gardeners, and work for victory! ♪ ♪
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ladies and gentlemen, the vice president of the united states, richard nixon. >> how do you do? in a few moments, you will see a march of medicine program entitled empty international. i am pleased with this opportunity to introduce it because i believe wholeheartedly and what it has to say. president eisenhower in his state of the union message of january 9th stated the only answer to a regime that wages total cold war is to wage total peace.

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