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tv   American Artifacts Cold War Museum  CSPAN  May 6, 2020 8:57am-9:54am EDT

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to december 26th, 1991 with the collapse of the soviet union. it was a geopolitical standoff. each one could have destroyed the world through a nuclear war but the cold war do d that. there will be no winners, so this cold war was a state of heightened tension that did not have direct conflict between the soviets and the americans. vietnam, korea, gulf war, afghan war. vint hill farms station was
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functional between world war two and the 90s. after the cold war, the american government realized there was no need for this facility because there was no more soviet union. the cold war ended. that as well as, there was an act called base realignment and closure act. in the mid 90s, a lot of military bases were shut down for cost savings, financial reasons, and we didn't need as much facilities to monitor the sol soviet union. it vacant for about ten years. we found it was available. they said yes we would love to talk to you about locating here. of negotiations we opened up in 2011 at this facility.
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behind the mannequin was a sign from station number one. in this room here we have items similar to the type that would have been used by the military members and the agency members monitoring the traffic and the communications. so there are different radio receivers, transmitters, morse code receptors, even some original photos of the barn and the listening post that i can walk you through right here. there is a very good history of the woman's role at the time everything from helping to defend our nation to what they do today, flying the playing and
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doing everything else on an as need basis to protect american homes. down here is the barn complexion. they say the person that owned this farm was a hand radio operator. and would pick up german communications, japanese communications, broadcasts on his hand radio. the general was astounded that you could listen to these foreign broadcasts here at this location. so they did some surveys and they found out that the topographical area, the granite, it was all a natural receiver. so they would be funneled here and they could be listened to
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with the right devices. so the pentagon bought the farm from the farmer and it turned into a station that was an active radio communication center from world war two up to the mid 90s after the end of the cold war. here is the original picture of the barn and what it looks like and we're basically in this building right now. and then we have -- once the post was active it turned into a military base. this was a sports man club. one of the original patches from that area. here is a forecast of the fields with some of the antenna rays you can see. some people looking at the different equipment that are teletyping what they're do. some of the original radio equipment similar to what we
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have in here on display. the farm, the military personnel stationed here, the chow line, and this is a photo of them working and listening to the radio and taking notes of what was being broadcast. this is a nice picture of people the receivers and the men and women stationed there intercepting the radio broadcast. now in addition in this room, a different assortment of uniforms, some are from world war two, some from the world war era.
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recently a book came out called code girls. then again as we start to exit you can see what it looked like in the 50s. this is the type of intelligence they were doing here. these are the type of things picking up a variety of signals around the world. they were listening to german
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and imagination trips. some were cab dispatchers, some were military communications. some were in the public at the time. so there was a variety of signals they were interceptioning to determine what could be a big military strength and advantage. they would listen to the broadcast and when they found one that was important they would transcribe it. they would only translate what was critical to the wartime effort. the military liason mission. a russian mission. this is a lins plate from one f
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one of the american missions. it was a original piece of art, and there is an arm band that was used at the guard gate. an assortment of east and west stamped. on top there are berlin east and west german signs. they said halt, it is a border, you can't go past this and
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letting them know it was a dangerous area. here we have an original border marker. they are close to a border and they're not dropping over the border. down here on the floor is one of our signs from east berlin, west berlin, saying no photographs were allowed for the united states military liason mission. back in 2000ish. we saved and salvaged the civil defense head quarters in washington dc. it was 20 miles outside of the
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washington dc area. in the event of a fair lar area, there was four civil defense. this is a keymatic that we drew up of the inside of the defense head quarters, and there was some with washington gsa, pepco energy supplier, the department of transportation. fire dc, letting people know what is going on. is it safe to come out of your fallout shelters, trying to help them in the event of a nuclear war. what we have behind are actual items from these headquarters.
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it is picking up the radiation signals. the crackers and the biscuits that would help sustain life for two orb three weeks on end. we have the nuclear survival kits put in shelters so people would know they would survive. original medical tags. nuclear brochures. one of the original portable phones which is as big as a bread box. in the cold war, most government buildings, school buildings, and basements could automatically be turned into a civil defense shelter. appear very unique. this is a fallout forecast chart. this was used at the civil
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defense head quarters, if the wind was going this trail and broadcast that out through the radio system through all of their divisions to get as much expoture as possible. >> up here on the right we have there was some posters not use liezed at the time. there was a comic book about civil defense, over here we have a little them help kids know about what to do in the event of a surprise attack with burt the turtle. >> make sure to remember what burt the turtle just did,
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friends. we all must remember to the do the same thing. this is a civil defense film produced with the civil defense commission. >> so right over here we have a couple museum victors looking at our displaying, thank you for coming by, folks. this film is talking about how to bald bo-- build a bomb shelt with cinder blocks. this is more civil defense items. if you're going to do it what do you need, a battery, toiletries.
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you need light for lanterns, a way to get fresh oxygen into the facility. this is a hand crank pump that would suck air in through filters. duo have a small exhibit on the u 2 incident that my father went through. it was produced in 1970. we have james donovan's book, "strangers on a bridge" produced in 1965, and this is about the soviet spy route footbaable tha father was exchanged for. we have a book called "letters
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from a soviet prison." my dad kept a journal in prison and wrote letters and this is a historic account of what he went through while incarcerated. we have and being deployed in cuba in the cuban missile crisis. we have this shovel i brought back in from russia at the missile base where my father was shot down. so this is a historic item, in addition we have this, you have to kind of back up to see it. the booster stage of the sa 2. the actual missile is 80 foot long. this booster is all we can fit
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in the few semuseum at this par. it gives you an idea of this model, the booster section is at the end, the fins are not on this model. my father was able to survive wing shot down be the sa 2 missile, it was not a direct hit. if it had been a direct hit he would have been in pieces, but because it was below and to the right, the damage of the tail section, the nose pitches forward, dad falls from 70,000 to about 30,000 before bailing out of the airport. he didn't use the ejection seat. he opened up the canopy, undoes
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his harness, caught up by his air hose, struggling to get free, falls free, he is very lucky to have lived through the shoot down. so as he is parachuting to the ground, she noticing the dark car following his decent. he lands on the outskirts of a farm. the farmers rush up to him, ask him questions in russian. dad doesn't speak russian. makes the farmers nervous. who is this guy, falls out of the sky, doesn't speak our language. a few minute later his communicates in the dirt. usa. two men get out of the black car, put him in the back seat, they take him to a holding area and he is turned over to the kgb.
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>> 1400 miles inside soviet borders. lets than two. the most ensagsal operations. america with flights over and above russia. lincoln white used it. >> they are practiced by all countries. and history reveals that the soviet union has not been lagging behind in this field. >> they interrogate my father for three months. he get an international show
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trial. he is served 21 months before being exchanged for soviet spy rudolph adel. if you would like to learn more about the incident, google cspan and gary powers, you can get a full detailed account of what took place. had my father not been shot down over the soviet union, imprisoned by the kgb, exchanged for a soviet spy, i might have a different interest. but he died when i was 12 years old. at that time it was too late to ask him any questions. i didn't understand the significance of what my father went through. in college i came out of my shell. i was curious, i started to ask
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questions. so i tried to find out how to answer questions. that sddesire to find out the truth set me on a lifelong passion to find out all i could about the u 2 incident. and i realized that i had to understand more about the cold war to understand the u 2 incident to understand more about my father. i found out more information from the cold war. huhs and thousa hundreds and thousands of men and women were being honored, and we also developed it to educate the kids.
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had i not grown up in this family i would have taken a different career path. two years ago steven spielberg it a film. and we have a little poster. holding up you tube, and march 6th of 62 where he appeared before the senators in washington dc to explain to them what happened with the incident and the plane being shot down. it was set up. as we go over, we have the blij of spies. this is where my father was
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exchanged for soviet colonel rudolf abel. this is my dad's headstone, a forecast of rudolf able. a photograph air force partial suit. the u 2s, in order to survive at 70,000 feet, had to have a pressure suit that would allow them to sustain bodily functions and lives at those altitudes. this was made up of the cuban
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missile crisis. ten or 15 years ago. we presented it to the family members of major anderson. that was the air base that he flew out of on october 27th, so the family showed their generosi generosity. we have a u 2 camera that was functional in the later dates of the 70s, 80s, and 90s been i can't tell you too much about the camera and what is on the attemptably board here. when you look down here, with the mirror, you can see the lens coming out of the bottom. as we go over, this is a light
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table, justly named, it lit up, what you would do is u 2s would take the photos, they would be developed, and the analysts would put them on the tables and they would would put them on with the streengts of the military hardware. and over here is a very unique photo that was interpreted. this is an original photo of an sa 2 base. when you blow it up you can see the details. this was the actual base in russia that shut down my dad's u 2. so this is basically what my father was trying to photograph to confirm it was operational.
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some other photos, specifically the cuban missile crisis. where the launch equipment is located as well as low level flights. with missile erectors, missile shield tents, the moving -- etc. back in the 60s, he showed the world to prove that russia was putting in icbm missile ngs cuba. >> this resolution calls as an interim measure, for the immediate dismantling and withdrawal from cuba of all
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missiles and weapons. this is an antenna array to help pick up these signals. in the cold war, we're trying to monotore as many as possible. we're using c 130 stds, constellations, u 2s, a variety of art to monitor their activities. this was a type of system that would have been inside one of these reconasense aircraft. i want to say 20 to 30 cold war shot downs. and his shoot down is one of the best known because it was so
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highly publicized. it was an international incident. he was out the only plane shot down. there was some 25 to 30 planes shot down. there was a conference about early cold war flights. the aircrafts would shoom in. they are missile systems, they would scramble their jets. how quick were they able to scramble and turn on their radars to get ready for an attack. it gave us an upper hand.
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they are gathering investigation. here is another poster called the baltic sea incident. this is a poster of the 50th anniversary of that hoot down. this person donated her jacket. her husband was one of the crew members lost on this mission. she donated the jacket and other articles to us for display. here we have a piece of a plane that was shot down on january 28th. here is another piece of a plane that was shot down. this was shot down over soviet armenia. and this is one of the pieces of the plane that was donated to
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the museum. here we have an art work poster called a hot day during the cold war. it is signed by the crew members of this mission, and it depicks a cold war shoot down of july 1st of 1960, but i'm not sure if that is the correct date or not. this is called a blood chit. if they were shot down or forced down over enemy territory, in 14 different languages it would say i'm an american and do not speak your language. i need food, shelter, and assistance. i will not harm you, i bear no malice towards your people. if you will help me my government will reward you. this was in 14 languages to be used in the event of a shoot down or forced landing for a hostile country.
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the u 2 is the best reconnaissance of the time. it was so sleek, fast, and so ahead of it's time it is a very, very well known plane. so this here is a display on the ut and sr 71. this is a diagram. kelly johnson's photo here, the designer of these plaeps, a brilliant end near. >> on december 9th kelly johnson
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called together his tiny 26 man special projects engineering group. hoar are the problems they faced. to design, build an airplane, and fly it in eight months, it would cruise well above 70,000 feet. one that would travel as far as a b 52 and remain in the air for ten hours. a mane that would be completely reliable with forced landings out of question. the world's most stable aircraft -- >> in the display case here, u2 information models, one of the models that was produced in the 50s. the black cap, the insignia on these plaques. they make the program and the u
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2s flying over china, but a lot of people don't don't realize iraq, iran, middle eastern countries, middle eastern countries and the soviet union and other countries as needed. they were flown by taiwanese pilots trained by the cia to go over communist china. four or five were shot down over china. not a lot of people realize that, but that is declassified. but it is something you can look up and find a very famous photo of the four or five u 2s on display. a little bit more, another unique item we have here. a plaster paris item.
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it is mao's ear. the chinese leader had several body doubles and in order for the cia to determine if it was him or his body double, they made a plaster model of his ear. ears like fingerprints are unique to every individual in model was made by the cia. one of our museum supporters, and an advisory member until he passed away a few years ago, was giveen this. after he passed away his son gave this ear to his museum. this is a very unique piece of history, created by the cia to make sure a via leader -- little information on different
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leaders, spy versus supply, and it was a cold war era cartoon that would talk about. and also human intelligence, how people will do so illegally and distract. rudolph able was a soviet spy that worked with people like the rose rose rosenbergs to fight out the strengths and weaknesses of measuring. so here we have area 51 and the
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atopic bomb. here is an original photo of one of the mushroom crowds from one of these areas. other photos here of the push room crowd. as we go up the stairs, the information, an area of area 51. the american government i think just four years ago finally acknowledged that it existed. and this mountain top that these
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people were on talking this photo was taken in the public. so it is more acres of land to prevent these photos from coming up. so we start off with a little exhibit on area 51, the roswell crash. and institution to the development of the spy plane, they also did testing of other platforms. they would do, i want to say a top gun training of the time to train our fighter pilots on the capabilities of the soviet
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airplanes. so we would pick them apart, reassemble them, and test them to determine their vulnerabilities so we would see a better advancement in the event of an actual conflict. as we walk through here on the right side, these uniforms along with other east german items were collected by one other individual. he is a museum supporter, he donated items to us. i want to say 15 years ago, and there was an incredible collection of the plaques, the signs, wood, metal, and how they could do it from east german military units. and one of the collections, i think i can say accurately is at the cold war museum here in virginia.
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as you look down this stop floor, the flags from the former soviet union and other earn european countries, the warsaw pack countries. night vision goggles for tanks and helmets, forecasts of one of the people jumping over the berlin wall. a variety of soviet cold war museums, and they were all used in the cold war as propaganda to show how evil the solve yets were. so they went through the cold
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war, the propaganda posters, and what we were doing to safeguard americans throughout the war. models of migs. and other types of weapons systems from the soviet union, east berlin, and former other countries. so we have a crew member that is at a nice missile base. he turned into taiwan. we have a variety of newspaper articles. the soviet space race. the american space race, the cosmonauts and the astro naugna. movie posters, and some of this was prop began ta filmings being
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produced to show how evil the soviets were or how evil the americans were if you were in russia. gas masks. what would have been used in the event of a chemical or buy logical attack in the cold war. the insignia on your shoulders or your sleeves. this is a soviet major general's winter coat presented by the individual who wore it. so as we go along, again, soviet military uniforms. colonel, major, quarter master. we have types of uniforms that would be used in the field for camoufla camouflage. the winter field uniforms that
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were used. you can look down the next section. more of the flags from blocked countries that were part of the soviet union. . the poster on the type of planes and helicopters being used in the cold war area. a little information on missiles. this is a little black that shows you the difference. when have a desk plaque. navy uniforms, dress blues for a sailor. a german sailor's uniform. as we go over here, we have a small display on the u.s. liberty incident. it was on june, 1967, it involved israel and the united
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states. they attacked the uss liberty. several crew members died, this is the type of battle wounds done on the ship. this is one of the original uniforms worn by one of the crew members on june 8th. this is one that they gave to us so that we could promotes and show case this event. and one of the jackets to remember the uss liberty. that is still controversial. i don't know for sure behind the scenes, i know the crew members were addiment about getting
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their version of what took place out in the open. over on this side, a unique exhibit on the uss pueblo. it was captured in 1968, january 23rd in north korea. the ship was boarded, the sailors were taken prisoner. they served almost one year, maybe more in a north korean prison. this is a prisoners uniform. an original one that was used by a crew member of the uss pueblo back in 1968. the commander of the was pete bucher. he wrote this experience. this is the berlin air lift.
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the berlin to every 19 seconds. these types of planes and the airbase in west berlin. they would unload fuel, code, fuel, and supplies to keep the west berliners free during this incident. it was known as the berlin block aid. they were trying to keep them out their efforts were thwarted and west berlin remained free. this is all about the air lift, the candy bomber, he is about 92 years old now. he is a patriarch for lack of a
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better word, in germany. he would make these type of parachutes, they would put on candy bars and drop them below. he would come in and he would wiggle his wings as he was in 1948 there was no chocolate in g germany, he would drop gum welcome chocolate, and other candies out of the plane to the kids watching the planes land there at templehoff. the bay of bigs and what took
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place there. julio castro was trained to invade cuba. he donated his uniform to the museum. we have what we believe is raul castros hat. we're still trying to verify and document is. but it is purportedly owned by del castro. halloween masks of the era include castro. an autograph print of the planes flying low level missions over the cuban missile crisis. this is a very unique piece. so, notes made by president kennedy, object 1962. she in a briefing.
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he is making his notes, at the end he rips up the paper and throws it away, the secretary salvaged the paper and she kept it and then through some sources we were able to recover it and it is on display at the cold war museum. doodles. here is a piece of paper that john f kennedy was doodling on during the briefing missions there at the white house. what you can see are very good good good and bad bad bad. this is one of my favorite posters. it was produced by a gentleman by the name of morrisburg. and i had the privilege of talking to him on the phone prior to his passing a few years ago and he told me the following story. he was in berkeley, california, a student there, this was the early 1960s, and he would make
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these parody post ters against e soviet union. he would sell them at the bookstores. and then the counter culture took over berkeley, then the hippies came in and berkeley transformed into a very liberal enclave that didn't appreciate this guy making fun of the soviet union. what i thought is that this guy was some berkeley person who was anti-america. he was doing these things. turned out he was a member of the military. he was making fun of soviet union and other eastern black countries. so perception is not always correct. i thought because he came from berkeley he had a liberal attitude, but turns out he was very conservative, and he has the story about being run out of town once they turned from
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conservative to liberal in berkeley. after little more information about the ussr. some original banners and flags. and something you don't see much any more, a map of the soviet union. and the soviet union i want to say went through 11 or 12 time zones. here is one of the last exhibits about the fall of the ber lynn wall and what took place. what took place when the cold war was ending. so we have a picture of gorbachov. president reagan gets all of the credit for ending the cold war, but it actually ended when president bush was in office. so it is important for children and students to know about the cold war. florida to understand the world
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today. florida to understand this war on terror that we're living in, you have to understand how we got here. and we got here through the cold war. ly give you an example of how this connects. in in 1979, the soviets invade afghanistan. it's the afghan war. it's the soviets vietnam war. it was an unpopular war in the soviet union and many of their soldiers were being killed by the rebels who were fighting the invaders. one of the rebels, who was fighting against the soviets was osama bin laden. the cia trained osama bin laden, supplied him to fight the soviets. jump forward to 9/11. osama bin laden uses some of what he has learned to attack america. here we have this tie-in from the cold war to the war on terror. that's why it's so important for students to understand the
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significance of the cold war and how it got us here today. >> you're watching a special edition of american history tv, airing weekdays. tonight beginning at 8:00 eastern, programs on dwight d. eisenhower. marks the anniversary of the end of world war ii, and dwight eisenhower is being remembered as supreme commander. dwight david eisenhower talks about the evolution of ike's leadership style from west point cadet to president of the united states. american history tv now and over the weekend on c-span3. every saturday night, american history tv takes you to college classrooms around the country for "lectures in history." >> why do you all know who lizzie borden is? and raise your hand if you ever heard of this murder, the gene harris murder trial, before this class.
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the deepest cause where we'll find the true meaning of the revolution was in this transformation that took place in the minds of the american people. so we're going to talk about both of these sides of this story here, right? the tools, the techniques of slave owner power and we'll also talk about the tools and techniques of power that were practiced by enslaved people. >> watch history professors lead discussions with their students on topics ranging from the american revolution to september 11th. "lectures in history" on c-span3, every saturday at 8:00 p.m. eastern on american history tv. and "lectures in history" is available as a podcast. find it where you listen to podcasts. >> the presidents, available now in paper book and e-book, organized by their ranking, by noted historians, from best to
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worst, and features perspectives into leadership styles. visit our website, c-span.org/the presidents, to learn about each president an historian featured. order your copy today wherever books and e-books are sold. up next, a discussion on the concept of the deep state in american history and political debate, generally arguing it's not a new idea. this discussion, among three historians was part of the society for historians of american foreign relations annual conference. >> good morning, everybody. and welcome to the society for historians of american foreign relations 2019 conference on this, the longest day of the year. hopefully this panel will not be the longest panel of the year. i'm aaron owe connell. i teach u.s. military history and foreign policy the university of texas at austin. i'm pleased to be chairing this

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