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tv   The Presidency Jacqueline Kennedy Mona Lisa  CSPAN  September 13, 2020 8:00pm-8:49pm EDT

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weekend, only on c-span3. >> next on the presidency, margaret leslie davis reveals first lady jacqueline kennedy's coup in bringing the melissa to the united states despite opposition on both sides of the atlantic. leonardo da vinci's famed painting was seen as a symbol of the free world at the height of cold war tensions and president kennedy used its exhibition to promote democracy and american relations with france. 2 million people saw the mona and newwashington, d.c. york city during the winter of 1963. ms. davis is the author of "mona lisa in camelot." the white house historical association hosted this event and provided the video.
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this evening it is a pleasure and honor to introduce a friend to the association, margaret leslie davis. she is an award-winning author about the history of the west. by books have been praised reviewers in the los angeles times, washington post, npr and new york times. recent book is "the lost gutenberg." kirkusarred review, described the book as "an engrossing read for any book lover." her book has been -- work has been featured on good morning america. the other has appear don c-span's book tv, the history channel, as well as the discovery channel.
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a lawyer, graduate of georgetown university, and points us from the hills of los feliz in los angeles county. joy to be here a for your weeklong celebration in honor of first lady jacqueline kennedy. i am so delighted to share with you a story from my book called it islisa and camelot," kind of a forgotten story, in 1963 when jaclyn kenny -- the story.terminded whisper, ath a whisper between the young first lady jacqueline kennedy and the charismatic, brilliant and eccentric minister of culture. a spectacular white house dinner
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on the eve of may 11, 1962. a whispered promise that would set in motion one of the most unusual and extraordinary art exhibitions of all time, the triumphant american exhibition of leonardo da vinci's mona lisa , painted between 1503 and 1506, scholars believe. lisaisit of the mona provided the greatest outpouring of appreciation for a single work of art in american history and pioneered the phenomenon of the block stir museum show. it was one of the -- the blockbuster museum show. the paintings unlikely romantic journey to america captured the imagination of the world. following the president and first ladies tour of the french capital, in 1961, there were
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throngs of people in the streets during the first couple as they made their way through paris. francetural minister of took misses kennedy -- mrs. kennedy on a tour. one year later when he came to visit the kennedys, jackie kennedy pulled out all of the stops to show melrose some of the great artistic treasures of america. melrose's interest in by was already much admired the first lady. ,he had studied at the sorbonne and considered french literature and art her ideal. by 1962, international relations between france and the u.s. had become seriously strained with charles de gaulle insisting that security of france require an atomic arsenal. into this tension filled
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diplomatic morass glided none other than jaclyn -- jacqueline kennedy. the mona lisa would play a pivotal role at this decisive moment in u.s. history. the first lady was the mastermind behind this 1963 exhibition. when the mona lisa was transformed into nothing less then an icon of the free world at the height of the cold war. she invited the very best of america's artists, writers and intellectuals and even enlisted arthur's lessons are to write a toast. she insisted being entertained by america's best talent and virtuosoo cajole a
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violinist to entertain the guests. this gathering of the most accomplished men and women in the american cultural scene not only underscored the kennedys's support for the arts but demonstrated how adept jackie was at employing the arts to add prestige to the jfk presidency. i love this photograph. it shows jackie and melrose showing mutual delight and close conversation. seated snuggle close with her right shoulder nearly under his arm. whispers a pledge between them. we only learned later what she said. coveredly, and this was in the parisian press and the american press, we only learned later that it was a whispered promise that he would loan the first lady the mona lisa for
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exhibit to america. lisa," send you the mona he said softly that night. the two conspirators considered a u.s. exhibition of the painting a convincing emblem of friendship between france and gesture a well-chosen of amity, goodwill and international diplomacy. understood the relationship of the president to the american people was one of the most closely watched relationships in modern life and recognized the unveiling of france's supreme national treasure, the mona lisa, was an unmatched opportunity to burnish the american image at home and abroad. she was deeply attuned to the power of symbols and the exhibition of france's cultural pride was executed to
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demonstrate the popularity of the american president and at the same time to bring in an important cultural exchange to the american people. shared jackiene enthusiasm melrose's for sending da vinci's masterpiece to the u.s. it was not a popular idea with the french populace, and curators at the louvre and international art authority saw it as an act of american hubris, a preposterous an idea. the intricacies of the negotiations to bring the that ig here are a story hope you have a chance to look at, the wild capers that happened during the mona lisa's travels to the u.s. all the while, this was at the height of the cuban missile crisis. there was the intractable hostility of charles de gaulle,
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and major figures in our world. the story includes many complexities of the kennedy administration, that i will leave you to read more about. but the arrival of the mona coup fora political the administration illustrating the glory of art and culture of the west compared to the sterile art and life of the soviet regime during the cold war. and the gall -- charles de gaulle saw it a shrewd gesture of diplomacy during a touchy conflict over charles de gaulle's desire for an independent nuclear force in the face of fierce opposition by president entity. -- president kennedy. was there opposed national gallery director, and american.
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the patrician, harvard education connoisseur of art that ran the nations most important museum. he was vehemently opposed to the idea and in fact shocked and aghast at the concept of moving a fragile, 400 50-year-old masterpiece, one of the greatest paintings of all time. not a painting on canvas, but on flimsy poplar wood that was already starting to buckle. fragiles precious, painting across the ocean during winter? he underckie know that no circumstances wanted to be responsible for the mona lisa when she came to america. it was a clash of wills and a test of the decades-old friendship, and soon the mona lisa became the real issue of contention between them. repeatedlyed her to change her mind. he emphasized the danger inherent in the venture.
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to walker, the idea of moving a fragile masterpiece thousands of miles across the atlantic ocean tempted fate that should never be tested. reeked, the whole scheme of american arrogance and he urged jackie to abandon the plan. but to his supplies, instead of reacting with apprehension, jackie responded with mild amusement. there were hazards, she said, but the risks were exaggerated. to prove the point, she reminded walker that melrose had determined the painting was in good enough shape to travel and the trip had been approved and sanctioned by french officials, including president charles de gaulle. the exhibition of the mona lisa was the perfect expression of jackie's interest in intermingling art with politics. she had somehow constructed the ideal union of culture and diplomacy. as first lady, she saw the loan
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of the masterpiece as a source of pride for both herself and the nation, a loan that would lift the image of america abroad and elevate interest in the cultural arts at home. waser mind, the exhibition the ultimate cultural statement about the power of the u.s. with allies, further bolstered the presidents cold war efforts to portray america as the opinion me of a free society that advocated widespread support of the fine arts. of walker,world objects of art never had a role in the gritty, grimy world of politics. if the painting arrived safely, it would be a defining moment for all americans, but if it was damaged, it would cause an irreparable rift with the french people and destroy one of history's great artifacts. was akie, the exhibition
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of amity and an intellect she admired, supporting international exchange of the arts, strengthening international alliances and played a cultural role in fighting the cold war. kennedy -- this is kennedy's wish came true. lisais picture, the mona is whisked off of the gangplank. despite riots in the streets of severei imagine so charles de gaulle was forced to have a news blackout. photo, you can see the
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mona lisa packed inside her specially designed traveling controlled,rature waterproof and fire disasters -- fire resistant and designed to float. the mona lisa's bodyguards were instructed that in the event of a fire aboard the ship, the crate was to be immediately tossed overboard, and curators insisted the french flag be painted on the outside of the container in the event it be lost in international waters. the ship arrived in new york harbor on december 19, 1962, and she is whisked down gangplank. photographers snapped pictures as stevedore's carried the box and secret service agents handpicked by president kennedy, wearing tiny machine guns under their overcoats to protect their
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vip charge of a very famous lady. she is carried off of the giant ship, the $80 million luxury super liner, on her arrival to new york city. following a 1962, five day journey across the atlantic ocean, bound for new york. missionways, it was the impossible to get the painting safely to the national gallery of art in washington d c. the french insisted the temperature at all times both inside the special box and later at the museum was to remain precisely the same as it was in the louvre at 72 degrees fahrenheit. the french made it crystal clear that should the temperature paintinge iota, the would be wrenched back by french officials and immediately
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returned. task was to keep the temperature, all the while protecting the painting from robbers, kidnappers or plain old maniacs. history, thear-old painting had been hidden in wartime, attacked, stolen, and john walker was determined to do everything in his power to make sure the mona lisa would remain safe on his watch. he worked frantically with gallery engineers and delicately adjusted the ventilation system in the the atmosphere mona lisa's temporary home would simulate the air she had breathe for a century. i was touched when i read in his memoirs that he was out of his mind with anxiety and worry over the safety of the mona lisa, and the fear of causing heartbreak to both the first and president kennedy. he confided in his book that he was so terrified for the state
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of the mona lisa that he had his doctor prescribed him what he said were mona lisa anxiety pills. and soso concerned consumed with fear that untoward harm would come to the famous painting. but for the sake of this great artifact of stern civilization and for the first lady's dream, walker was determined to keep the mona lisa safe until his grand debut pictured here on january 8, 1963. on the evening of the debut, the entire leadership of the u.s. was to be present for the unveiling, which really was more like a queen's coronation than the opening of an art exhibition. elegantlynedy, coiffed in her pink chiffon gown and pearls, was simply at her glowing best. she stole the spotlight.
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diamond drop earrings by harry winston sparkled as flashbulbs popped in the hall. aess coverage readily found connection between the mona lisa and jackie canada. lady ofa lisa, first the world among paintings, and jacqueline kennedy, first lady of the nation, came face-to-face," reported the washington post. it was a long-awaited reunion, proclaimed life manic -- magazine. returned from palm beach and time to get her hair done for the occasion and she and president kennedy both look rested. whereas melrose by contrast seen in this picture looks a little pale and exhausted. mar such ancould
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occasion as the mona lisa's trying fit debut in the rotunda of the national gallery in washington, d.c. that night, the kennedys shared also a beautiful secret, information known only to the president and first lady and a handful of in -- of intimates. was pregnant. guests said she similar looked radiant. americans did not miss the clinical and diplomatic significance of the loan of the mona lisa and once the doors to the national gallery open, thousands streamed inside to see the painting for themselves. the kennedy administration would utilize the exhibition as a tool to shape, influence and manipulate public opinion. the exhibition of this cultural prize would be carefully engineered to amplify the domestic and international popularity of america's engaging, articulate and media savvy president. coincided with
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the introduction of television into the political mix. lisa'sctacle of the mona unveiling would be telecast to a huge american audience so as to make an indelible impression. once the overflow audience was more or less quiet, kennedy read from his prepared address, a finely crafted tribute to the painting, its artist, and the two nations's shared aspirations and beliefs, written with great skill. painting herehis before us tonight spans the entire life of the new world. we citizens unborn at the time of its creation are among the inheritors and protectors of the ideal which gave it birth. for this painting is not only one of the towering achievements of the skill and vision of art, but its creator embodied the
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central purpose of our civilization. we here tonight among the many of the men interested with the destiny of this republic, also come to pay homage to this great civilization we share, the belief which we protect, and the aspirations toward which we together strive." the unveiling of the mona lisa coincided with the opening of the 88th congress, and because nearly everyone from both chambers was present, the speech was infused with brilliant political underpinnings. utilizeddent astutely the mona lisa to rise above the issues of difference, to stress the political ties between the u.s. and france, and his speech highlight the way in which both nations had fought side-by-side four wars, and how their respective revolutions had come
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to define the very notions of modern democracy and liberty. that trulyration transformed the mona lisa into a symbol of the cold war representing western progress in contrast to the repressive regime of the communist bloc. kennedys closing line would become the single most quoted line by the world press. , the life of art action and the life of thought, the world of events and the world of imagination are one." ued up outside the national gallery. look at this enormous number of people who lined up in a freezing january. for many, it was the first time they had visited an art exam and they would return for -- an art
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museum, and they would return for a quick visit. jackieibition, as kennedy had hoped, triggered a renewed appreciation for culture and the fine arts that had been dormant in the postwar years. yearsay, cold eisenhower were suddenly replaced with the vibrant cultural and artistic interests brought to national attention by the new, useful and exuberant kennedy family. mrs. kennedy was very much the prime mover in this new feeling and sensibility. people from every facet of american life came to the museum , fathers and mothers with children, and in washington, d.c., any residents from less privileged they were hoods --ught children and stood in privileged neighborhoods brought their children and stood in line to see one of the treasures of mankind. this is my favorite picture.
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groups of schoolchildren arrived with teachers to share an experience that would be remembered forever. painting's american debut coincided with president kennedy's escalating international and domestic prestige. it was superbly utilized on the heels of the cuban missile crisis to help solidify the president's image. the succeeding weeks during the mona lisa's visit to america were an exhilarating time described by arthur's lessons interlude inlden which washington engaged in the collective effort to make itself brighter, they are, and more intellectual. the first lady was at the heart and center of this new sensation. thingsended that the people had once held against jacklyn kennedy, the unconventional beauty, the
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un-american elegance, her taste for french clothes and food, were no longer liabilities but assets. sheent on to state that represented all at once not a negation of her country but a possible fulfillment of it, a suggestion that america was not to be trapped forever in the idea.wall -- bo kennedy dreaded coming to the life forse, but herself and her children was never more intense and complete and it turned out to be the time of the greatest happiness. see a marine guard taking very seriously his job to guard painting. theou look closely behind green ferns, you see a piece of equipment.
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theas a thermographic, machine monitoring the air quality and temperature the entire time the mona lisa was inside the national gallery. french curators were literally standing by to seize the painting should the temperature drop below 72 degrees or sale above 72 degrees. it was john walker's charge to keep the temperature constant and the thermographic was hidden behind the ferns. the mona lisa generated the first modern block esther -- blockbuster in the galleries history. exhibition,er famous paintings from berlin, had generated similar acclaim, but nothing could compare to the mona lisa fever that swept through the capital as nearly uredmillion visitors poiu
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through the museum doors. as the exhibition gained attention, walker instructed to other rouse guests galleries so that they could view other important works before they left the museum after the encounter with the mona lisa. on their way out, he declared, "let them see a little rembrandt too." completed hery washington tour with no apparent damage. no tears were shed over the departure of the glamorous, feminine guest by the national gallery guards, who happily largepating an end to the crowds, had written on the black wood in their locker room, "mona, go home!" once again, the mona lisa was packed and ready for a return trip to new york and her
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exhibition this time at the metropolitan museum of art. whetherned to be seen every prayer and precaution by john walker would be enough to keep the lady safe. asked walker specifically to travel alongside the painting during his trip to new york, and after 27 days at the national gallery with record crowds, so much so that john walker kept the gallery doors open each night until 9:00 p.m. to accommodate the masses of visitors, the mona lisa departed washington, d.c. for new york city. was lifted up the steps of the venerable metropolitan museum and after she was uncreated -- u ncrated, she was hung in a medieval hall under the use and director. new yorkers came in droves to see the painting at 10:00 a.m.
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on thursday, february 7, 1963. the exhibition opened amid a citywide newspaper strike but still generated a cultural phenomenon. traffic was jammed and lines of theum goers waited hours in bitter cold to get inside. i researched this carefully and the very first person in line was a new york taxi driver from brooklyn. finer-admitted lover of things, who arrived at the be theat 4:48 a.m. to very first to see the mona lisa. by the time the doors open, a line extended down the steps and all the way along fifth avenue. the city had fallen crazy in love with mona. bars and restaurants got into the act by generating a new cocktail in honor of the visitor
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called simply the mona lisa. the concoction was made up of cognac on the rocks with a -- of dry vermouth. andkeepers sold mona lisa asked by the box load and the famous name appear to everywhere in cartoons and advertisements. i had to share this newspaper clipping. see the little girl on the shoulders of her dad. she emailed me after she read my book and said seeing the mona lisa was one of the most precious memories she had as a tiny child with her father. the best part she said is when the line got long and it was cold and they were waiting 3, 4, 5 hours to get into the museum, her father said he would take her to tiffany's. she was allowed to purchase anything she wanted as long as it was $10. i love that story.
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after the mona lisa was hung inside the medieval sculpture hall, under the direction of the museum director, john walker undoubtedly felt a twinge of envy. with ins more to work the sweeping space of the met's sculpture hall than walker had in the loud west hall at the national gallery. perfectting hung at the eyesight line, not too high or ao low, displayed against hanging of stunning french brocade of red and green. it was beautifully lit from the top, the bottom in both sides. and the bulletproof glass protected the painting's surface, but somehow in new york at the metropolitan, the glare from the spotlights did not reflect as much as it had in the
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marble hauled national gathering -- marble-halled national gallery. unlike the national gallery, the presentation was hailed by critics as flawless. even the typically brutal art critics remarked on the stunning display, noting its beauty, simplicity and import. more than symbolism was involved. the crowds lined up for proof enough that the block esther show had ushered in a new era in shell-- the blockbuster had ushered in a new era. activities would enrich visitor experience, and encouraged return visits. the record crowds that descended on washington, d.c. and new york to view mona lisa proved jacqueline kennedy understood these principles and through her
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adept staging, she set off a national love affair with the arts. it was the first time an exhibition of art had been an official duty of the white house and the first time a painting would serve as the icon of the free world. it may seem utterly inconceivable in today's world, but not one credible threat was made against the mona lisa from the moment the masterpiece left the louvre until it was returned 88 days later. nearly 2 million americans came to see her. jacqueline kennedy was proven right, no harm came to the mona lisa, and the exhibit contributed to a widespread cultural awakening for many americans. six years after the exhibition, john walker wrote that he was wrong about the likelihood the
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portrait would be damaged, and it was the honor of his lifetime to safeguard the painting for the benefit of president kennedy and the first lady. the painting was returned to france on march 8, 1963. later,ght short months everything came to a grinding griefs deep and intense , -- in dallas, with the assassination of president kennedy. also lost following the assassination was president kennedy and jacqueline kennedy's deep interest in fostering a cabinet level arts director. to their way of thinking, the centuries old tradition of public support for the arts embraced in europe was a missing ingredient in american life. jackie kennedy had used her
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rapport with the french minister of culture to explore what was realistic and feasible for america. jackie, mona lisa's trip was her gift to america, awakening a deep, enduring interest in the cultural arts, and a grand pursuit which jacqueline kennedy as first lady passionately inaugurated. >> margaret, thank you for that presentation. i am happy to tell you that one of our viewers this evening, i think we should start with this, carlene from new york, was among those who went to the met to see the exhibition of the mona lisa. she was delighted to hear your presentation tonight. relatedtion she had was to the expense of the
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exhibition. did you find anything in your research about how mrs. kennedy or the newseum's art galleries museumse -- -- or the or art galleries were able to fund this? margaret: the funds to safeguard the painting and launch the exhibition were provided by two donors. i go into detail in the book. -- after, the melon she sent quite a few gifts to mrs. kennedy. it was one of those rare moments where art, culture and politics infused into this remarkable happening. it was a positive and beautiful experience, just triggering sort of a new appreciation for the great cultural treasures around the world. it is the most surprising thing wasnow that mrs. kennedy
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not only the mastermind behind the exhibition also carefully staging, presss interviews. she even edited speeches that arthur wrote for kennedy. her pencil, hand and editing is very clear in the speeches. you can watch the progression. thisas hands on 100% with and the entire exhibition was financed privately through donations. one thing i will say, president his favoriteicked secret service agent, a man named john champion, to safeguard the painting, and president kennedy asked him to sleep with the painting. an earre his family had full when he came home about what it was like to sleep on a cot next to the mona lisa. >> one question we have from
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kevin and washington, d.c. is that when you begin your research on this particular book, it sounds as if you started with the idea that you would talk about the tour of the mona lisa but as time went on, you began to gravitate toward the story of jackie kennedy being the impetus to bring the painting to the united states. can you talk about at one point and why did you decide to take that focus in that direction? margaret: i was really astounded how involved she really was. this is not just casually showing up at the exhibition to be photographed alongside the painting. she coordinated pages and pages of details of the negotiations with the french for the painting's safe arrival, all of the security precautions. really a myriad of details that added to the pizzazz and excitement of the painting's arrival, and its safety. poor john walker, can you imagine being entrusted with caring for france's revered
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cultural treasure, possibly the most famous painting of all time? how he stumbled -- we stumbled on the story is at the time i was working on a biography of the chairman of the national gallery and i was lucky enough to be in the archives and i found some small letters on blue white house stationery which i recognized immediately was injected kennedy's -- were in jackie kennedy's handwriting. she was in an argument was john walker over an art exhibition. over the series of letters, no one mentioned the name of the painting. plane andump on the fly up to the jfk library. within a few days, i figured out it was the mona lisa and realized what an incredible story it really was, and that
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these letters have been forgotten. and i think a large reason the exhibition had been largely forgotten is because of the assassination. the other markable thing i thing i-- remarkable learned is how intense the kennedys were in treating a cabinet level position for the arts in america, much like we have in europe, and france, with the french minister of culture. this was a sincere effort on their part, and in fact, plans have been made for later in the year to announce a cabinet person. you, in termssk of the actual presentation, there are a number of questions about whether or not the mona lisa ever left france for another exhibition like this to another country. what do you know about that? margaret: it is amazing.
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you would think after this amazing trip to america, the french would never let the painting leave again, but they did. it traveled to tokyo. it traveled to tokyo for two week exhibition and was met with great reverence by the japanese people. some of the pictures of the exhibition are so dramatic and beautiful. and of course the day the plane arrived, it was raining and a whole parade of cars and vans and our curators came with black umbrellas and mona lisa was whisked in her special traveling crate. is asr shocking detail the mona lisa was traveling to was a satellite launched into orbit which was unknown to the pilot that he would encounter this whisking
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satellite just in his eye view. i am sure it was a frightening moment. i talk about it at the end of the book. what i loved most is that the mona lisa traveled by herself in the entire giant jetline, strapped to the floor. rhett: thank you for that. i think the other question is, and you will appreciate this as thengeleno -- why didn't painting make its way to the west coast? margaret: good question. i think it was probably too risky to fly it for one more exhibition, and of course our east coast friends, the national gallery and metropolitan museum, may exceed our provincial los angeles museum in 1963. we did not even have the los angeles museum of art in los angeles until later. rhett: we have another question from the west coast.
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asks whom san diego started jackie kennedy's interest in the arts? margaret: i think it was her mother. her mother took her on frequent field trips to museums, and that is how john walker got to know jackie kennedy, won her mother brought her to the museum. of course they were personally led through the museum by the gallery director. this is not an ordinary field trip to the museum. i think her mother influenced her greatly. from meetingy say -- from reading some of her private correspondence about the exhibition, that she thought about her mother quite a bit and what a triumph she would have thought it would have been. rhett: we have a question from maeve from santa fe -- what role did president kennedy play with regard to the first ladies
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initiative to bring the painting to the u.s.? margaret: you know, it is remarkable. in all of the paperwork connected with the exhibition, there are a few things where president kennedy's own hand is there, or he has a check mark or says ok. but it really was jackie kennedy who masterminded this. ofre is an astounding amount evidence, actual primary records that document her day-to-day activities regarding the exhibition. there is no question that president kennedy supported this old idea and considered it part of his effort to ease tensions between france and the united states. many of us know from history conflictt there was a over the french nuclear arsenal, something kennedy was vehemently
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opposed to. i think he appreciated mrs. idea and back to 100%. rhett: we have a number of questions about this, do you think there was a difference in able to people being see the painting? was it available to all people? was segregation involved in terms of visiting the painting at the national gallery? do you know anything about that versus the met? margaret: john walker was insistent it was just first in line, first in. as people arrived, they queued up. no vip access, although you can imagine his phone was ringing day and night who wanted a personal tour. but no, this was really an exhibition for the people and anyone who showed up and waited in line -- sadly the lines were quite long and i am sure some of
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the schoolchildren after a five or six hour wait were quite exhausted. but i don't think anyone who actually had a chance to see the mona lisa during the 88 day period it was in america would ever forget it. rhett: the last question of the evening will be on the transportation mode of the mona lisa. a number of folks have asked why did she travel by ship versus by air? margaret: isn't that amazing? one, air air force travel was commonplace. it was a safer, that her option for the painting to fly, but the french insisted. opulentted the most arrival for the mona lisa they could imagine and they wanted it to come on the ss france, the $80 million luxury super liner.
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there are tremendous pictures in the book of the moment the ship pulls into new york harbor and all of the boats surround it, and the sprays of water. basically fireworks of celebration when the painting arrives. it does astound me that the french would consider that a mode of travel for such a fragile masterpiece. wood,e, painted on poplar 450 years old by this time. but no, the french insisted it traveled by ocean liner. rhett: margaret, thank you for joining us tonight. i want to say a special thanks to you because your work as an author aligns very much with the white house historical association not only because we published your book but because you are focused on keeping culture in the psyche of the
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american public, helping people understand why different things in our culture are important. if folks want to look at some of the other books margaret has written, you will find a number of them are on historical figures but also the recent one on the gutenberg bible. we appreciate that and being a partner with us at the white house historical association. thank you. margaret: thank you it was a joy to join you. >> next, we hear about the kennedy's admitted -- the kennedy administration's work on women's rights. alan price explains that women's right or parts of the kennedy platform and how that transferred into the equal pay act of 1963. the national archives foundation hosted this discussion and provided the video. >> one of the joys of my


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