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tv   Reel America The Eisenhower Years - 1963  CSPAN  September 19, 2020 8:01am-8:23am EDT

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designed for use in the classroom, the documentary emphasizes major domestic and international challenges between 1953 and 1960 including the 1954 brown v. board of education supreme court decision. filmecond is in 1963 follows his time at west point to the conclusion of world war ii. then a biographical film produced by eisenhower's 1952 presidential campaign that features his accomplishments during world war ii and his role in the formation of nato. the final program documents the funeral services of former d.sident dwight eisenhower for following his death in 1969. ♪
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>> on january 20, 1953, chief justice frederick edmondson administered the autho oath of office to dwight d. eisenhower. >> i, dwight d. eisenhower, do solemnly swear -- that you will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states. >> that i will faithfully execute the office of the president of the united states. >> and will to the best of your ability. >> and will to the best of my ability. >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. >> so help you god. >> so help me god. narrator: with this traditional
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oath, dwight d. eisenhower became the 34th president of the united states, succeeding harry s. truman. affection known as "ike," president eisenhower came to international prominence as commander-in-chief of allied forces in europe during world war ii. he directed unified operations until the surrender of germany in 1945. after war's end, he returned home to a hero's welcome, following which as a civilian, he served briefly as president of columbia university. in 1950, president truman calm ike from civilian life to organize and direct the military forces of the nato. in 1952, he signified his availability for the presidential nomination as a republican. he won the party's nomination from senator taft, the highly respected leader of republican
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conservatives. the convention named richard m. california,or from as his vice presidential running mate. adlai stevenson of illinois headed the democratic ticket. >> i don't like texas. i doubt if anybody does. i shall do everything i can to reduce them, but i shall make no promises that i know i cannot keep. [applause] ike campaigned successfully on the issues of reform balanced budget, , government decentralization, and preparedness to preserve world peace. from eisenhower's first inauguration, through his repeat victory over stevenson in 1956, his administration covered eight years of profound social and scientific growth and change. the new president organized an executive team of cabinet members and advisors on a staff basis.
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he assigned individual responsibility for administrative action subject to his final approval, and gave increased significance to the vice presidency, by delegating to mr. nixon, functions in the field of international relations. this woman became the first secretary of the new department of health, education, and welfare. this department has come to sponsor broad programs of research and support and health, -- in health, education, and social security. the supreme court became a focal point of national interest following the death of chief ,ustice vinson, earl warren governor of california appointed , to succeed him. in 1954, the court rendered a verdict of far-reaching social significance, that segregation in schools is unconstitutional. in little rock, arkansas, preparations were being made for compliance with the court verdict.
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arkansas's governor ordered the continuance of segregated schools. violence occurred as anti-integrationists prevented the enrollment of negro pupils into all-weight schools. in view of the continuing resistance, the president served notice that the court decision would be firmly upheld. he ordered troops to arkansas for the protection of schoolchildren and the maintenance of law and order. gradually, southern states moved towards acceptance of the legal requirements of the constitution. on january 3, 1959, a foot in and start was added to the united states flag when the territory of alaska climaxed almost a century's efforts to achieve statehood.
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admission to the union was celebrated in typical alaskan fashion. the 50th star was added when hawaii became a state on august 21, 1959. governor quinn, and hawaii's first u.s. senators participated in a statehood day celebration. he is the first senator of chinese ancestry in congressional history. no hawaiian celebration is complete without a traditional hula. acclaimed as an anti-communist hero and denounced as a threat to civil liberties for his conduct in senate investigations, joseph mccarthy became the most controversial period.l figure of the >> this morning we have been holding executive sessions covering the information programs dealing almost entirely today with the voice of america, dealing with incompetence, waste, subversion. and they say that we have good reason to believe that we will get full cooperation from the
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new secretary of state, mr. lles. narrator: his charges of common is causing by the army led to a clash with justice robert stevens, both censured by the senate. in 1959, the president and mrs. eisenhower joined queen is elizabeth and prince philip with at saintprime minister lambert near montreal, in ceremonies opening the st. lawrence seaway. domestic commerce and international trade were strengthened as major midwestern cities on the great lakes became terminal ports of transatlantic shipping. states vasthe , a program of highway construction was effected through matching federal funds. in the main, the eight years of eisenhower's leadership constituted a period of prosperity. production and consumption of goods reached new heights, and the nation's economy enabled the
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president to balance the budget at the end of his first term. with the exception of coal mining and certain industries, employment levels remained generally high. the eisenhower years constituted a period of tremendous progress in the fields of scientific research and development. in major gain against infantile paralysis occurred in 1956, when dr. john assault's vaccine -- dr. jonas salk's vaccine proved 65% effective. a significant scientific achievement in national defense was the design and construction of the atomic-powered submarine. admiral rickover is shown demonstrating the model of the nautilus, the first atomic sub, to secretary of the navy dan , kimball. , thegust 25, 1958 nautilus arrived in new york
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harbor after a one month cruise from hawaii across the top of the world and under the ice of the north pole. automation came into common use in the economy. the computer of the so-called electronic brain was purported to solve not only industrial operating problems, but also the launching and guidance of earth satellites and space capsules. for this was a period when the space age arrived. the soviets gained an early advantage by orbiting spurt nick -- sputnik i in president 1957. eisenhower authorized the establishment of the national aeronautics and space administration, as the united states began to challenge russia's lead. american scientists perfected miniaturized instrumentation for space exploration. in 1960, they successfully launched the weather satellite demo stated here my models. it orbits the earth that are height of 450 miles.
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it takes 50 photographs, each covering 64,000 square miles of the earth's surface. the satellite transmits these photos to earth by television, and they formed the basis of accurate long-range weather reports shared with the world by the united states government. by 1959, 7 astronauts had been selected for manned space flights. the astronauts began rigorous training for their forthcoming explorations in space. test shots were fired throughout 1959 and 1960, with the mercury space capsule, in preparation for orbiting a man around the earth and interplanetary travel. it was a period of intermittent global tension, requiring constant vigilance by the united states and other democracies to contain communist aggression and
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prevent so-called brushfire wars from leading to the atomic destruction of civilization. early in the eisenhower administration, one such fire was put out when a truce was that was sheeted, ending the korean fighting. july 27, 1953, the united , ases general mark clark united nations commander, signed in 1950.y, and in french indochina communist , guerrillas infiltrated north vietnam. despite u.s. aid in arms and supplies france had to accept an , armistice, yielding control to of the colony to the communists. south vietnam, cambodia, and laos and thailand faced the threat of a communist-dominated territory. to counteract that threat, secretary of state john foster dulles was instrumental in organizing the southeast asia treaty organization uniting
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australia, new zealand, pakistan, the philippines, thailand, and the united states in a defensive alliance against communist aggression. in the middle east, a crisis erupted when the suez canal was nationalized by egyptian premier abdul nasser. -- were scuttled as barricades, and the canal was closed to british ships. israel invaded egypt, while england and france sent a military expedition to seize the canal zone. russia proposed a soviet-american force to restore llesr, secretary du on them to yield to a u.n. mission pending mediation. also in the middle east, a communist faction attempted to overthrow the lebanese government. it's president asked for aid from the united states. in the first application of the eisenhower doctrine, the
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president dispatched u.s. marines to beirut, despite strong russian protests. the presence of the marines quickly restored order. when an acceptable plan was adopted in the united nations guaranteeing the integrity of lebanon, american troops were withdrawn in favor of a u.n. force. is simmering international problem came to a head in 1958, when the red forces of mao zedong on china's mainland shelled the offshore islands garrisoned by trips from the , republic of china. united states's seven fleet appeared for action though , america's allies opposed intervention. president of, the china, was presented to disavow intentions to invade the mainland, and the shelling dwindled to a stop, leaving the china conflict unresolved. in cuba, several rebel factions
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united to fight for the over for batista.ator florencia during the revolt, the american naval base at guantanamo, cuba, was reinforced as a precautionary measure, but the united states maintained a hands-off policy. fidel castro, leader of the united rebel factions entered , havana in january, 1959, following the flight of batista, . castro promised free, democratic elections. these never materialized. brutal executions following his war trials, and the marxist backgrounds of chief aides made it increasingly evident his regime was under russian influence. evidence of communist agents in latin america had previously appeared in caracas, venezuela, disruptednspired moms
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the goodwill tour of vice president and mrs. nixon in 1958. upon their return to washington, were hailed by the president for their courage in the face of political gangsterism. a crisis in the congo reflected the problems of new nations complicated by russian , interference. on june 30, 1960, the king of belgium declared the end of the congo's status as a colony. patrice lumumba, who followed the communist line was elected premier. he demanded the immediate withdrawal of belgian troops. anti-western riots resulted, in which the congolese soldiers participated in attacks on european settlers, forcing them to evacuate. of katanga province, supported by belgian troops, remaining in his province, declares secession from the
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congolese government. united nations secretary-general doug hummer short, flew to kata nga when the belgians -- and persuaded the belgians to withdraw. the president ousted the other from premiership and expelled communist ambassadors from the congo. countries supporting him faced the problem of preventing russian interference while refraining from unduly influencing the congo's internal affairs. the united states provided world leadership against russian cold war aggression, which under laid world tensions. those tensions were heightened went russia's premier, joseph stalin, died under mysterious circumstances in 1953. dear game of and called --
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malinkov succeeded to the communist leadership and announced that russia had the hydrogen bomb, shortly before conference scheduled for 1955. at the conference in geneva, nikita khrushchev, who deposed threatened. upon his return to washington from geneva, president eisenhower voiced hopes for improved relations. >> of course, no one knows, but the coming months will tell. in the meantime, we do know that contacts have been established, and there is evidence of a new friendliness in the world. narrator: in budapest, the tion wasof de-stalinaza khrushchev.ikita a revolt erupted. paving stones and small arms, the hungarians successfully resisted russian occupation troops for a brief period.
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khrushchev went to hungary, ostensibly to parlay with leaders of the revolt. as red reserves were brought from czechoslovakia and romania, khrushchev stalin for time, charging that american agents had fomented the apprising -- stalled for time, charging that american agents had fomented the uprising. the russian reserves swept across hungry, suppressing the revolt brutally. some refugees escaped into austria. others, less fortunate, or shot down by red border guards. in the united nations, ambassador henry cabot lodge spearheaded a vote by the general assembly condemning russian intervention in hungary. the vote was 55-8 with 13 abstentions. the berlin situation became critical when khrushchev demanded the evacuation of allied troops from the city.
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russia failed to win support of its berlin policy in the u.n., as britain, france, and the u.s. stood firmly on the berlin treaty. khrushchev was forced to adopt a softer policy. in the following period of tension, vice president nixon visited an american exposition in moscow, where he engaged khrushchev in an impromptu debate. [laughter] [chatter] >> you must not be afraid of ideas. >> [speaking in russian] translator: we are not afraid of ideas. >> well then, let's have more exchange of them. we all agree on that. >> ok. [laughter] [applause] whenor:
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khrushchev paid a return visit to the united states, the president entertained him at camp david. at that meeting plans were , developed for a second summit conference in paris in 1960. plans for the summit meeting were well advanced, and for the big foreign national leaders had arrived in paris. preliminary discussion of the agenda were underway was an 2 plane an american u- comparable to the one shown here , took off from a base in turkey. --was shut down in russia shot down in russia. the communists claimed that the pilot francis gary powers, , confessed to being on a photo spy mission. the central intelligence agency denied this claim, but the president verified powers' admission. khrushchev used the incident as a reason for withdrawing from the summit conference. throughout his administration president eisenhower dealt , firmly with russian threats to advance the freedom of mankind
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in the american tradition. in accordance with the 22nd amendment, ratified in 1951, president eisenhower was ineligible to seek a third term. in 1960, the republican party nominated vice president nixon. senator john f. kennedy of massachusetts was the candidate of the democrats. the democratic nominee was elected in one of the closest votes in national history. following the election, president eisenhower invited president-elect kennedy to the white house to plan the orderly transfer of executive powers. after january 21, 1961, ike retired to his farm in historic gettysburg, upon completion of half a century of dedicated service to his country as soldier and as president. ♪

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