tv History Bookshelf Candice Shy Hooper Lincolns Generals Wives CSPAN March 12, 2021 3:18pm-4:04pm EST
from transporting supplies to acting as r regimental mascot. and sojourner truth, who spoke out on abolition and women's rights. and at 8:00 p.m. on "the presidency," a look at the personal and political partnership between franklin and eleanor roosevelt through home movies, which give a behind the scenes look at the couple, exploring the american story. watch american history tv this weekend on c-span3. >> candice shy hooper talks about her book "lincoln's generals' wives" four women who influenced the civil war for better and for worse, in which she profiles the wives of lincoln's top generals and examines how their relationships with their husbands and president lincoln affected the civil war. this was reported at politics and prose bookstore here in washington, d.c., in 2016.
it's about 40 minutes. >> good afternoon, everyone. thank you so much for being here today. my name is candice. i work with some of the events here in the store, and on behalf of the owners and the rest of the staff, i want to welcome you to politics and prose. i just have a couple of logistics to go over. if you wouldn't mind taking out your cell phones and making sure that they are on silent. we are recording this event this afternoon, and we also have c-span here with us today, so not having any interruptions would be great. we're going to have about an hour long presentation here with half the time given to our author's presentation and the other half given to your questions. we have one microphone on the side here. if you wouldn't mind using that for your question, we can pick it up on the recording and everyone will be able to hear
you. and then finally, we typically ask that you fold up your chairs at the end of an event before getting in the signing line. if you could just leave the chairs where they are, we do have another couple events this afternoon. i'm so pleased to be welcoming candice shy hooper to politics and prose this afternoon to discuss her new book "lincoln's generals' wives: four women who influenced the civil war for better and for worse" this wook is a detailed and lively account of the overlooked role of four women during the civil war using letters, memoirs, and her subjects' extensive wartime travel reports. hoopers group biography of jesse freemont, nelly mcclellan, ellen sherman, and julie grant married to a union army general shows how much these women influenced their spouses and through them the president and the nation. ms. hooper is an historian, a writer, and a member of the advisory boards for both president lincoln's cottage here
in d.c. and the ulysses s. and julia grant historical home in detroit. she has written articles for the "new york times" and has been published in the journal of military history. she also let me know before we started that she had a poem published with us in our district lines opus publication, which is a yearly publication last year. she has received her m.a. in history from george washington university, and this is her first book. please help me in welcoming candice shy hooper to politics and prose. [ applause ] >> being here today brings me full circle. in late 2002 i came to politics and prose. my home away from home, went to
my favorite section over there, browsed it and bought the book that changed my life. the book that led me here today to talk to you about my book. thank you all so much for coming. it's been said by recent biographers of abraham lincoln, incluing sydney blumenthal who was here just a month ago that abraham lincoln wouldn't have been abraham lincoln without his wife. i can tell you that after eight years of research and writing, the same is true of the most famous union civil war generals and their wives. john charles fremont, george mcclellan, william tecumseh sherman and ulysses s. grant wouldn't have been who they were without jesse, nelly, ellie ewing and julia dent. i first twigged to this story
ten years ago when i was in graduate show and learned that ellen sherman sought help for her husband from president lincoln in january of 1862. from earlier reading, i knew that jesse benton fremont ha lobbied the president on her husband's behalf a few months earlier. as a former congressional aide and lobbyist, i was intrigued by their lobbying efforts and by the very different results they achieved. i wanted to know more about how these wives influenced their husbands' careers. i was confident that they had because i was raised in a military family and learned very early the strength, courage, and resilience required of military spouses. i began with jesse and ellen, and after initial research decided to also tell the stories of the wives of two men whose career trajectories in the civil war roughly matched those of fremont and sherman.
george brenten mcclellan was one of lincoln's very first appointments to major general in may of 1861. by the end of 1862, neither of those men commanded any troops at all. lincoln had relieved them of command. the same day freeman and mcclelen were major generals, grant received his first command as a colonel two months later in july of 1861. but by 1865, sherman and grant, well, spoiler alert, they were at the very top of the united states army command. they rose from obscurity to national, even national, even international fame, and i've got just a bit of a bonus material here for you. it's not in my book. you'll see why soon, but i think this graphically illustrates the trajectories of their careers. this is fremont and mcclellan in 1861, and this is sherman and
grant in 1865. you know the old adage, behind every great man is a great woman, but how exactly does that work, and what about the not so great men in history and the women behind them? even now it seems to me more than mere coincidence that when i found these two matching sets of generals, i found two sets of wives who shared some important characteristics, too. today i'll only be able to talk about a few of those shared characteristics. early on, i realized that none of the wives lived in one place during the war and that some of them had traveled widely, even in the south. a long time map lover, i decided to map their travels, and i began with rough distance calculations on my computer with map quest. i then wisely, as you can see from that, hired a professional
cartographer, scott zilmer who had worked with me on an earlier project. scott, who has just accepted the position as senior map editor for national geographic here in washington took my map points from letters, newspapers, memoirs, and official military records and mapped the wives wartime travels as others have mapped the generals. scott believes and i do, too, that the maps in this book tell a new story of the civil war. they also tell at a glance much about the relationships between these husbands and wives. jesse bent fremont is the woman i thought i'd most admire as i started my research, but i soon altered my opinion. from the start i thought i knew a lot about her. she was smart, savvy, born into a political family, raised by a doting father who educated and groomed her to be the toast of
washington society. at the age of 15, she fell in love with lieutenant john charles fremont, a dashing explorer for the u.s. army toep graphical core with no social standing and little financial prospect. senator thomas heart benton was not about to allow his daughter to marry so far beneath her station. but marry him she did, secretly in 1841 when she was 17 years old. in their 20 years of marriage before the civil war jessie's aggressive ambition for her husband resembled the unrelenting coaching of a stage mother. she carried on that way during the civil war. when her husband assumed command of the western military district in july of 1861, jessie followed him to st. louis and established herself in a small office in front of his office as his unofficial chief of staff. in st. louis, she was referred
to as general jessie. when her husband issued an emancipation order in missouri in late august, 1861 without advising president lincoln in advance, it was general jessie who boarded a train east to convince the president that he should not revoke her husband's order, even though union soldiers were laying town their arms in missouri because at that early stage of the war, they had not signed up to free slaves. her late night encounter with lincoln in september was one of the most famous meetings in the white house during the civil war. neither she nor he handled it well, but most of the blame goes to jessie who threaten -- who demanded lincoln's confidential correspondence and even seemed to threaten that her husband would challenge the president's authority. she encouraged fremont to flout lincoln's order of revocation, and he did, and lincoln soon relieved him of command.
though fremont was given another command in 1862 in western virginia, that also ended badly. jessie was at his side there, too. she set up an office in his office in wheeling fighting for him alongside him to the very bitter end. she fought hard for her husband always until the election of 1864 when she secretly derailed his candidacy for president against lincoln, prompted by a cartoon in harper's weekly magazine. george and nelly mcclellan are a fascinating if infuriating couple. he was a child prodigy from an upper middle class family in philadelphia who entered west point at the age of 15. nelly whose story has never fully been told before this book was a celebrated blue-eyed beauty who turned down eight marriage proposals including one
from mcclellan before she accepted his second petition. on their wedding day in may 1860, mcclellan was president of the illinois central railroad. a year and a half later, the 34-year-old was general in chief of the united states army in the middle of the civil war. the mcclellans were prominent on the party scene in washington, d.c., in the summer. in the winter of 1862. even as the white house, congress, and the newspapers fumed at his interminable delays in confronting the enemy. in lincoln's memorable phrase, mcclellan had the slows. in fact, the general had serious mental problems, too. mcclellan's daily letters to nelly reveal that he was often deluded, always paranoid and narcissistic in the extreme. nelly fed her husband's disdain for lincoln and his cabinet her
letters. mcclellan had his own problems to be sure, but she egged him on in tirades against husband civilian superiors. nelly might have realized she married a complex and proud young man, but she couldn't have imagined the consequences to the nation of her unquestionable support for his warped world view. nelly had joined her husband at his luxurious headquarters home on h street this washington in late 1861 when he took command of all union forces. when mcclellan finally moved his army south in april 1862, nelly began traveling north, to new york and connecticut and new jersey. indeed, more than once, she literally fled to new york city to avoid criticism of her husband that was rampant in the nation's capital. lincoln relieved mcclellan of command soon after the battle of antedum in late 1862 and the
mcclellan's fled to europe for a time to escape his hhumiliation. when they returned, they spent much time in the 5th avenue hotel in new york city, the well-known haunt of the most fervent anti-lincoln democrats who convinced mcclellan to run for president against lincoln in 1864. after he lost that election, they fled together again to europe. we know for certain that george loved nelly, but did nelly love george? those his biographers state that as fact, the answer is not obvious in my opinion. i tell the tale of her youthful passion and engagement to the future confederate general a.p. hill, which was cruelly thwarted by her mother. but i found even more convincing evidence of her ambivalence toward mcclellan in her behavior during the war, and later in the life after her husband died. unlike many civil war widows,
nelly abandoned responsibility for defending mcclellan's reputation after his death. nelly left her husband's legacy to the not so tender mercies of a very misguided literary executor who published perhaps the most inaccurate and most criticized memoirs of any civil war general, and it included more than 200 of the wartime letters mcclellan had written to nelly. in those letters, which mcclellan had always asked nelly to keep private, he had poured out his abuse of lincoln, the gorilla, the bab boon, stanton the judas, and hallic the devil. it's almost enough to make you feel sorry for george mcclellan, almost. if jessie fought too hard for her husband, nelly fought not at all. unlike the other lives, ellen ewing met her husband as a young child. they were neighbors in lancaster, ohio, where their
fathers were best friends. when william tecumseh sherman's father suddenly died of typhoid, ellen's father walked next door and offered to take in one of the 11 children left fatherless and pennpenniless. according to family legend, sherman's mother chose cump as he was always called because he was the brightest. ellen was 4 then, cump was 9. for most of their childhoods ellen was away in catholic boarding schools and later cump went to west point. they where to each other then and all their lives, long interesting letters that transformed their friendship and foster sibling relationship into love. they were married in 1850 in washington across from the white house at frances preston blair's house, which her father, who was the united states first secretary of the interior was then renting. i learned that ellen suffered from numerous illnesses all her life. she died in 1882 at the age of
64 from heart failure, the only one of the wives to predecease her husband. but her worst ailments struck her in her youth. a form of external tuberculosis, it was a widespread disease in those days bf pasteurization, which was invented in 1864. since it was transmitted in raw milk from diseased cows. scrufula is a terrible disfiguring disease marked by huge boils on the side of the neck and the jaw, which swell and erupt and then temporarily subside. ellen was plagued by it her whole life. i think it speaks volumes about sherman's character that this terrible disease did not prevent him from loving ellen and marrying her. that they did love each other is obvious in their letters, from the earliest days of the war when ellen was in ohio and cump was posted here before the first
battle of bull run, she wrote to him often asking if she could bring their newest baby, their sixth child with there to washington and stay with him, but sherman was opposed to having women in camp. he camped with his man cross the potomac river near key bridge, and later criticized mcclellan's luxurious lodgings in washington with his wife. nonetheless, ellen did travel on more than one occasion to help her husband. in november 1861, she raced to louisville, kentucky, when the first reports of concern about sherman on the part of his superiors reached her, and she took him to see a doctor. sherman had been forced to take command of the department of the cumberland when general robert anderson's health failed, a post that three months earlier sherman had specifically asked president lincoln he not be given, and lincoln had agreed. sherman feared his troops were badly outnumbered and began to show signs of a nervous breakdown. as he requested, he was soon
relieved of command and moved to a less stressful posting, but as a consequence of that demotion, newspapers around the country carried the startling headline, general william t. sherman insane. and so in january 1862, ellen traveled again on his behalf. this time to washington to ask the president of the united states for help in restoring her husband's reputation. that meeting was far more productive than jessie's had been in large part because of ellen's opinion of and attitude toward the president. sherman took president lincoln's advice as ellen reported it to him, and soon was rising again in the ranks. again and again ellen asked cump if she could visit him in the field. he consistently refused until after the great union victory at vicksburg when he wrote to her that she and his children could come to his camp on the banks of
the big black river. never mind full of disease in those days like malaria, yellow fever and the typhoid that had killed his father, cump assured her in a letter i have a healthy camp and ellen took four of their six children with her to mississippi. the shermans who had been apart for most of the previous two years had a great time together until grant ordered sherman to relieve the siege of chattanooga in early october. as the shermans left vicksburg it became clear that their youngest son willie was not well. almost as soon as their boat arrived in memphis, the young boy died, probably of typhoid. that was the last time that ellen traveled to be with cump during the war. she went back to lancaster and buried her son and soon her mother too while cump fought from chattanooga south. in june of 1864, ellen who had become pregnant while at vicksburg bore another son, her
seventh child before atlanta fell and sherman began his march. cut off from communication along the way, he didn't learn that baby charles sherman died on december 4th until he arrived at savannah and read about it in the newspapers. for the rest of the war ellen and her children divided their time between lancaster and notre dame where they were in school, except for a trip to chicago to take part in the catholic church's fund-raising for soldier's medical needs. ellen was a devout catholic her whole life, and has often been accused of putting her faith ahead of her country and her husband. that's not true. let me read a bit from the last chapter of ellen's part of my book. the 19th century reverberated with ugly anti-catholic prejudice, with charges that catholics served only their pope and not their country, but if there were any question whether a catholic could be a loyal american, ellen ewing sherman was the definitive answer.
in her words and deeds in private and in public, ellen displayed a passion for the united states of america that the most avid protestant might hope to match but could never exceed. ellen had instructed her sons to wave the flag for lincoln's election in 1860. even before the civil war began, she urged cump to rejoin the army and defend the union. when he wanted to hide in the wake of the charge of insanity, she rallied his spirits and battled to keep him in the war. when sherman threatened to resign a year later, she sharply rejected that course's desertion, urged him to remain on duty and prophesied great victories for him. in her letters to cump, she wrote that she wished she were a man so she could fight. she wished her sons were old enough to fight. she wished her daughters were sons so they could fight. of her beloved brothers' possible death at the second battle of bull run, she declared no greater glory than to fill a
patriot's grave. the thought of catholic successionist drove her to pray fervently that vengeance shall fall upon them yet for being false to their country. fortified by her faith, ellen weathered the tragic death of two young sons even as she urged her husband to stay in the field and wage unrelenting war against the rebellion. so jessie traveled in lock step with her husband. nelly traveled from her husband, and ellen traveled to and fro, but julia grant was the civil war's road warrior. every biographer of grant mentions that she was with him a lot. though they don't really say more than that, but her memoirs are full of tales of being in camp with him, and i learned that the confederates tracked her movements too. julia's map like the other maps in the book is a rough
approximation of her travels. no matter, it's clear that ulia traveled more than 10,000 miles during the civil war to be with her husband. why did julia travel so much? i found the answer in her eyes. as amazing as it is that she traveled so far, often with four young children in tow, sometimes through enemy territory, it is even more astonishing when you realize that she did it with a disability. julia grant was born with an eye defect called strabismas, it made her eyes look crossed which embarrassed her all her life. she always preferred to be photographed in profile. it also made it difficult but not impossible for her to read and write. she also certainly never saw anything in three dimensions, and she had no depth perception, a not insignificant challenge in an era of travel by horses and carriages and ferries. but similar to sherman's
attraction to the disfigured ellen, ulysses fell in love with julia despite her obvious disability. they fell in love and they stayed that way for nearly 40 years. theirs is one of the great love stories of american history, but though julia loved grant, she broke his heart again and again when she failed to write letters to him. time and again he pleaded for information about their children. does fred have teeth yet? asked if she had received valuable items from him. my commission as brigadier general, and in hundreds and hundreds of letters over nearly 20 years, he begged her over and over and over again to write to him more often. i needed to understand why she didn't. i first did a very close reading of her memoirs, which provides important clues, especially in her tales of her childhood, and then i turned to medical
expertise, including insights from one of dr. oliver sach's most famous case studies, stereo sue, dr. sue berry. i go into considerable detail in lincoln's generals' wives about how julia's eye defect was linked to her failure to write to her husband. ulysses needed constant reassurance of julia's love. it shook his self-confidence to his core when he did not hear from her, and it was at the root of his resignation from the army in 1854. and so when ulysses decided to return to the army in april 1861, they sought to overcome her inability to write to him on a regular basis. her first offer was to send their 11-year-old son fred with him, when ulysses got his command in late july, but grant soon sent fred back when his troops were actually called into battle. so amazing as it may seem, julia decided she would rather travel
to be with ulysses than have ulysses suffer the consequences of her not writing. in the fall of 1861, julia and her four children traveled from galena, illinois, the very northwest corner to live with her husband at his headquarters in cairo, illinois, the very southern tip. she brought her slave with her, too, also named julia. we know that abraham lincoln knew that julia's slave was living in that union military camp with one of his up and coming generals, and though he was urged to dismiss grant, he was urged to dismiss grant, lincoln did not. the two julias traveled together nearly 5,000 miles during the first two years of the war, and they came within hours of being captured by confederates in december 1861 in holly springs, mississippi. julia grant's wartime journeys are remarkable demonstrations of the grants' mutual love and
devotion. as a result of them, julia had a front row seat as almost no other woman did to the end game of the civil war when she and their youngest son jesse lived with grant in his headquarters from january to april of 1865, and when she refused to go to ford's theater with the lincolns on april 14th. why were fremont and mcclellan so unsuccessful as generals and sherman and grant so successful? of course there are many reasons, but an important part of the answer to that question is found in the women who were their wives. jessie fremont and nelly mcclellan never disagreed with their husbands. instead, they encouraged their generals to persist in their arrogance and delusion and reject the advice of their commander in chief. ellen sherman and julia grant intelligently supported their husband's best instincts including trust in and
admiration for lincoln and rebuffed their worst. ellen and julia were among lincoln's strongest allies in the war effort. they were their husband's centers of gravity, the source of their strength to win the civil war. thank you. [ applause ] >> and now i'm happy to answer any questions. >> can you please come to the microphone or repeat the question? >> okay. when the first son died, his father said to the next son, when you see someone in the military, give them your half.
what does that mean? >> so you're talking about sherman, when willie sherman died and willie sherman was cump's favorite son. there was just no question about that, and when he died, cump was utterly inconsolable, and though he tried to console his children, he wrote what was really, as i put in here, a pretty tone deaf letter to his other son, tom. what he was saying, whatever you have, however much money you have, give half of it to the soldiers. he was trying to say you have to be willie because we've lost willie, and it's just -- it's a very heartbreaking moment because, of course, since he had told them that he had a healthy camp, he felt completely responsible for his son's death. microphone or i'll shout it out
again. >> thank you very much. which of the wives did you find the most amount of research material to help you in this effort, and which was the most difficult? >> these women most all of them kept their husband's letters. most of the husbands did not keep their wives' letters. often they were because they were in the field and either they couldn't continue to carry letters with them or they would protectively destroy them so that they couldn't be captured and read for intelligence, but william tecumseh sherman saved off of his wife's letters. it's astonishing because when he first marched off to bull run, he said i will tear every ounce of your letter up because every on the march tells.
she saved his letters and that is the most complete and intimate correspondence i believe of the whole civil war. it's at the university of notre dame, and it's actually available online, and it is just astonishing because the two it'. and it is just astonishing. they were both highly educated and beautiful writers. if you do nothing else, then find and read ellen's letters. you will have done yourself a favor. she wrote two of the most remarkable letters. i've got hem both in the book. the one that she first wrote to president lincoln and the one she wrote when her husband was in serious national disfavor at the end of the war because of his surrender terms to joe johnston. i had the most information from the sherman family and all of the associated documentation
there. the one that was most difficult to write was nelly mcclellan. only five of her letters have survived. she had no other writings unlike julia grant and jesse fremont. there were only five letters from nelly but the fact that mclellan had extracted the promise that they would each write to each other every single day they were apart, and they did, meant that you could read in his letters what she was saying in hers because whenever you write to somebody, especially if you're writing every day, you're reacting. all of these years people have read mclellan's letters that she saved and allowed to be published, they read those letters to understand what he thought about other people, what he thought about the war, and about himself. and i'm the first one to read
them about what did he think about her and what was she doing, and so this is a new picture of her, but fact it was a really a lot of evidence once you look for it. >> i read once that grant left the army after a drinking binge because he didn't want julia to know about the drinking. and he went home and tried to work at other things and not with a great deal of success. can you address her role and her knowledge of the drinking? >> absolutely. and that incident in 1854 when he's stationed in this isolated post in what is now washington state really was a time where there is evidence that he was drinking but the question still
comes back to why did he drink? and the evidence is absolutely crystal clear that she was drinking because he was so depressed because he was hearing nothing from julia. other men in that place were getting letters from their wives. he was getting letters from other people in his family. it took more than six months from him to learn from her that he had a son. i mean, he could count the months but, you know, it was just -- it was astonishing. she did not -- she did not write to him as much as you you would imagine and he became very depressed and he drank and amazingly on the same day that he accepted his promotion to captain, writing a letter to the general, he also resigned from the army. and it was because apparently he had been found drunk while he was paymaster. a lot of the legend of grant as a drunk revolved around the fact
that people claim that they brought julia to live with grant in camp to keep him from drinking. and that is clearly not true, because he was trying from the very first day of the war to have her with him and have her with him all along. and so it wasn't in response to a need to keep him from drinking, it was his own need to have her there and her desire. there were clearly a lot of stories about his drunken sprees but most historians have found those to be not only unrealistic but absolutely not supported by the facts. if i can set that straight, i will be very happy to do so. >> congratulations on your book. the undertaking. but when you wrote the book,
what did you -- also -- speak to the families of what happened after the war, did they come back together and repair their whatever distance had brought and what -- what part of the book did you lose in the editing process that you wish was in there? >> those are all good questions. i almost lost the one chapter for each wife that said what they did after the war but i convinced the publisher that people would want to know that. and james fremont, they were made wealthy because they sold gold mine for more than $4 million which at the time was worth a lot more than $4 million. at this time it would be worth a lot more than $4 million. but then almost immediately,
fremont sunk that into a bad investment in a railroad company, they lost it all. and so jessie began writing stories and books to make money. she wrote about all the famous people she met, although she would never write about lincoln again. again, she hated him so much after what he had done with her husband. she talked about his sly, slimy nature and his tendency towards slavery but wrote about the famous people when she sold her stories. fremont finally did get attention but he died within a week of having it awarded to him and so jessie continued to write. she was in los angeles. he died in a tenement flat in new york city. because they couldn't afford to send his body back to california
he was buried on the hudson river and her ashes were sent there to be spread ten years later. the mclellands, the general died very suddenly of a heart attack in 1885. then nelly fled to europe again. that's when the memoirs were written and that's when her daughter was copying parts of their letters to give to that literary executor and that's why i said she knew what was going on and she allowed it to happen, but she lived really the rest of her life in france. it was at a villa that was owned by her daughter and her son-in-law that they had named her husband's greatest victory. called villa antietam. the shermans, they -- as i said,
she predeceased him but they lived in washington after the war. he became the lieutenant general of the army and and she did work as he was dealing with indians who were threatening the transcontinental railroad, she was doing indian missionary work here in washington and she started an orphanage in washington. she was always into charitable work. her husband, there had been a lot of talk about his flirtations and maybe his affairs and there's some evidence of that but it's clear that he loved her dearly. though he was a very, very healthy man, he died two years after ellen died. at the last moments of his life as he was unconscious, his children brought in a catholic priest and had him have the last
rites said over him as his mother would have want. the grants, you probably know more about them than any -- of course, he did go on to become president. he gave up his military pension when he became president. he was president two terms. julia loved being the first lady. there's nobody who loved being first lady than julia did. and then after his second term, they went on a two-year tour of europe and in her memoirs, those two years of touring europe take up more space than any other part of her life with all of the things that she bought and all of the things that she ate. she loved it. but then suddenly twin disasters struck, first the final firm he invested in went bankrupt. he lost everything. they told everything but one of the swords that they later presented to the smithsonian
institution and then they found out he had throat cancer. he died 11 months letter. during those 11 mnt months, he wrote more than 1,000 pages in order to make money for julia because as i said, he gave up the military pension to become president and there was no presidential pension at the time. sherman came to washington but, in fact, his memoir which mark twain published brought her the equivalent of $10 million. she lived into the 20th century. she died in washington, and is in grant's tomb in new york. and if you ever have the chance to go there and also if you've ever been to napoleon's tomb, there is a stark difference.
even though there is the dome and the red granite, napoleon is in this blended and when you walk you see two of those sarcophaguses. because the last thing he wrote was a note that he put into his pocket before he died that said, he we wanted to make sure that julia was buried next to him. thank you all so much. [ applause ]
sheila tate, former press secretary for nancy reagan, talks about her book, "lady in red." and then the book, "her story." profiles of susan b. anthony and madam c.j. walker. afterwards, kirsten downey talks about "the woman behind the new deal," about the first female labor secretary. you're watching american history tv. american history tv on
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