tv 1619 - First Africans in Virginia CSPAN March 26, 2021 9:14am-10:10am EDT
congress," and "why man creates." sunday at 2:00 p.m. eastern, the orangeburg massacres with troops fired on students protesting segregation. and on american artifacts, we visit the national museum of the u.s. army. at 6:45 p.m. eastern, lonnie bunch and ken burns discuss the challenge of telling america's story. exploring the american story. watch american history tv this weekend on c-span3. rick murphy talks about his book "arrival of the first africans in virginia." this group included murphy's own ancestors. the virginia museum of history and culture hosted this event and provided the video.
>> today's lecture takes place about 200 years prior to that event of creole in 1619, a group of 32 african women, men and children arrived on the shores of virginia. they had been kidnapped in the city in angola and forced aboard the spanish slave ship san juan bautista. they were taken to their new world colony. but this group has been shrouded in controversy ever since. today our speaker is ric murphy who is an acclaimed historian and award-winning author who explores the rich contributions made by african-americans in united states history. ric has a bachelor's degree's from the university of massachusetts and a master's degree from boston university. he's the author of several books
including the subject of today's topic, it explores treason, piracy, enslavement, and british law. please welcome ric murphy. >> adam, thank you very much for that fine introduction. thank you for your warm reception today. i'm going to take you through the writing of the book "the arrival of the first africans in virginia." i'm going to tell you some behind the scenes stories. i'm going to tell you how i got involved in this and i'm going to hopefully explain who the first africans were who arrived in virginia and subsequently english america. when i first took pen to paper, there were some things i wanted to do. you have to excuse me. for some reason, my throat all
of a sudden got dry. i don't want to have to keep interrupting myself. when i took pen to paper, i found it very interesting who these men, women and children were. and my interest in the story, i hope to be the same interest that all of you would have. i wanted to talk the historic significance of who these original an goal yaens, the circumstances in in they lived when they came here and their conditions in which they lived once they were here. when it comes to history, when it comes to our knowledge of history, and particularly for authors, we tend to write what we know. and we only know what we're taught in school. and i have to admit, i knew nothing of virginia's history.
i never learned about the founding of jamestown, i never learned about the representative government, i knew a little bit about the rebellion, had no context for the 1705 slave codes and i didn't understand how the resolves helped the southern colonies get into the revolutionary war. you're going to ask yourself, how is it he didn't know that? if you can't tell from my accent, i'm from massachusetts, and we had our own distinct history. i learned about the arrival of the mayflower, the founding of plymouth rock, i learned about the mayflower compact, the arrival of the 120 pilgrims. i learned about america's first thanksgiving and the boston tea party and the shot heard around the world in lexington and
concord. that was the basis of my learning in school and the basis of my historic knowledge of colonial america. now, when i first got into this, i didn't do it as a historian. quite frankly, i fell into this strictly by accident. what i want to do is to explain to you how i as a historian and genealogist came to learn about the 20. but my story starts with a land dispute on martha's vineyard. the family owned a substantial tract of land on martha's vineyard. goes back to the 1700s. and in this land dispute, we were told that we would have to create a family pedigree. now, that dumbfounded us, particularly myself and siblings
and cousins, because in my family we raised german shepherds. when you think of a family pedigree, i only knew, we only knew of the american kennel association, aka, and that was the raising of purebred puppies. and we certainly didn't see ourselves as purebreds, nor as puppies, but we soon learned that the discussion was one of creating a family pedigree. what we have to do was, we had to construct our family lineage going back to the 1700s to clearly document that our family owned the land. now, this dispute was with a were famous person who had a lot of money. in fact, even hired an attorney on our behalf because they didn't want any kind of problems in the press.
to truncate the story, we entered into a settlement. this is the land. you'll see the bay on the left and you'll see the atlantic ocean on the right. those of you who are familiar, you know that's one of the most expensive tracts of land there could be. and this tract of land, once the settlement came about, this was on my maternal grandfather's side of the family, my maternal grandmother wanted us to do an investigation on land that her family owned. before i get into that, that tract of land was the land that later became red gate farm which was the property owned by jackie kennedy onassis. if you look at the right arrow, you can see the farm in the background and where i'm standing to take the picture is the land that we own. and she had acquired her property in the late '70s but
because of all the gawkers, as myself, she wanted to take as much land as she could for her own privacy. i mentioned how my grandmother wanted us to do an investigation on her family in terms of all the land that the family owned. my grandmother born in massachusetts, her parents came from a county called grandville county, north carolina. she talked about how the family owned thousands and thousands of acres of land. she insisted that i begin to do a similar type of research and in that research find out about the land documents. my mother in 1983, as part of the settlement where we had to establish our family pedigree, joined the dar.
i would come down to d.a.r. i would go to their library and i began to research the documents on grandville, north carolina. now, my grandmother, as i know her maiden name, she knew her grandmother's maiden name and i was able to find my first great grandparents' marriage certificate at the d.a.r., i was able to find their parents marriage certificate and that took me to the early 1880s. but i had to start looking at the land patterns. what's very interesting, what i'm about to do and about to share with you, had i done it through a geneological
perspective, i wouldn't have found it. but since i did it through the land records, we were able to find a lot of information. i drove down to the grandville county courthouse and lo and behold, not only did i find land patterns, i found the original going family land deed actually signed by lord grandville himself. lord grandville, the county named after him. then from that, i was able to find other abstracts going back and what it actually enabled me to do was to track the family land, and in tracking the family land, it took me all the way back to virginia. these land records were having interesting because when someone dies with land, they leave the name of their family. so they almost provided a genealogy within the land records. and what that enabled me to do
is, you can see here if you look at the bottom area which was my grandmother's maiden name, i found her father who was henry, his father who was edward, his father who was edward, his father who was edward, his father who was edward to william, to mehill, to john. i knew nothing about virginia's history. i wasn't looking for these individuals from a historical perspective. i was only looking at them -- looking for them in a genealogycal perspective. and i was looking for land records. as you can see. the land records took me in a direct line from north carolina to the james river.
flipping that, technically meant that the family started on the james river and ended in north carolina and grandville county. now, someone might want to say how were you able to trace back that far. these are just some of the books that i used at the d.a.r. library tracing land patterns. again, nothing mysterious about it. i was not trying to do anything fancy. but these were the books that i found that had some interesting records in them. what i was able to do was to absolutely connect a family genealogy from my first -- my second great grandmother, all the way through to my 11th great-grandfather. and fortunate for me, the family only darted out at my grandmother's grandmother.
and because she knew her, i was able to follow all of the men in a direct line from land patent to land patent. they even showed how they sold land in one location to purchase the land in another location. that became quite invaluable to me. but in doing this research, all of a sudden i made a remarkable discovery. the discovery of 1619. and i'll explain a little bit about 1619, how i made this discovery. but those of you who are virginians who know virginia history, you knew that 1619 was the year of the first representative government in july of 1619 and a month later in august, 1619 was the arrival of what was known by john ralph as the 20 and odd. and you can see his document
here where he referred to them as 20 and odd. that's not the total number who came here. the white lion was the first ship to arrive. it arrived on august 25th, 1619, and three or four days later arrived the treasurer as documented in the colonial records. now, in my research in 1984, '85, i believe, i may have the dates off, two publications came out in the quarterly. and his name flagged up. in those two documents, a danish researcher explained the story about a ship called the san juan bautista and how that ship was pirated by two english ships. and for a whole year i tried to piece together the story that engle sluiter had in the william
and mary quarterly. and the next year what happened is john thornton came up with a book. it's william and mary, volume 57, april 1857. and the following year, john thornton came up with a book. and he explained where they came from and the historical significance of the city where they came from, which i'll get into momentarily. again, i now have a wealth of material that allowed me to understand the arrival of the first africans in virginia. again, this wasn't anything that i was planning because had i been looking for this, i would have never found it. i found it purely by accident. or those of you who are genealogists, you know we have a secret. and the secret is our ancestors
speak to us. and my ancestors spoke to me because they told me where to look for them. most unusual. when i wrote the book, again, i wanted to talk about the historical significance about who they were, their importance in african society, how they happened to depart their homeland, the circumstances in which they lived here, and their legal status. and that brought me to four conclusions, globalization, colonialization, integration, and propagation. i'll talk about each of those as it pertains to these. let's first talk about globalization. did you know why european nations felt that they had ownership over africa and south america and other parts of the world? the pope told them that. and it was in the treaty. my family didn't get along and they were exploring around the world and they kept bumping into
each other. they were going to go to war and the pope knew that that would be a disaster. so he divided the world in half. and he said to spain, you have west portugal, you have east. and many people would say, how is that possible because brazil is in the west and the reality is that it depends on how the pope divided the world up. and this is an example of how the pope divided the world and that's why portugal during the early period of the colonial era believed it owned africa. and everything there including the people. and it began to colonialize which brings us now to colonialization. and it's when you establish control over indigenous people. in 1493, a year after columbus in 1492 went to sail the ocean
blue, they found the kingdom of congo in angola. we know so much from his writings. very different than what we learn in our history books, but he said it was such an advanced civilization. he said they lived in cities, much like the cities that were existing in portugal at the time. they had a form of government. they were very sophisticated. they had very sophisticated languages. i happen to find it very interesting. my first experience with africans, i'm sure many of you are the same, was the only language they had was four syllables. but to learn they had a very developed language. not only did they have a developed language and religion, the portuguese and the they were
educated in spain, portugal and rome. how do we know that? it's in the colonial records. but something happened and i'm really truncating this because you're going to buy the book. but something happened. despite the relationship that portugal had with angola, they found gold under the royal city, they were determined to take control of the city. and in the fall of 1618, they sent 36 ships loaded with sailors and armament to take control of the city. and in january and february of 1619, the royal africans were beaten. now approximate 4,000 were
captured. whenever you try to take over a government, you obviously take the most educated, the landowners those of prestige, those were the ones that were captured. now, the last ship to arrive was the first ship to leave and that was the san juan bautista. because it was the first ship to leave, it had the most royal of the royals on it. now, while they were placed on 36 slave ships, it's really important to understand that 350 left on the san juan bautista. but that ship was pirated by two english ships, illegally pirated by two english ships that almost led england and spain back into a costly war that no one wanted. now, this is what the san juan
bautista looks like. this is a replica. look at how small the ship is. originally, 350 captured angolans were captured on this ship, headed to present-day mexico. this ship was actually built in japan, but that's another story you'll find in the book. now, where do the angolans come from? they had the characteristics of the bantu people that we know today and they were catholics because within that 200 period that they had the relationship with portugal, they converted the entire population to catholicism. as a result of that, they had names of patriot saints,
catholic patriot saints. now when the angolans were taken from the royal city, they were enslaved. when they were placed on the san juan bautista, they were slaves. and they were destined to be slaves when they reached new spain. but those who came to the colony of virginia, that would not be their destiny. i'll share with you how we know that. now, when the white lion and the treasurer attacked the san juan bautista, they thought there was gold and silver on it. they certainly were not going to release it at that point in time 1619 attack a ship for enslaved% africans and run the risk of treason and being hung by the king of england. they were looking for gold and silver. two hours they battled.
and in that two-hour battle, they boarded the san juan bautista and realized that there was nothing more than enslaved men, women and children on it. they searched the entire ship. they ripped it apart board by board because they just knew that there was gold on that ship and that would not be the case. now, one of the reasons they thought gold was on the ship, because it was a very elaborate-looking ship. because the ship belonged to the emperor of japan who sailed around the world debating whether he wanted his country to become a christian country, decided not, and then sold the ship to spain. so it wasn't just an old barge. it was a very elaborate-looking ship as you saw it in the picture. now, the english pirates, when they attack the san juan bautista, they created such an
international crisis that it created specific problems for the two captures because king james conducted a council inquiry. when the angolans came to virginia on august 25th, 1619, virginia's not what we think of it today when they arrived at point comfort. when they arrived at point comfort, the first ship, thez,c white lion, the captains knew they were in trouble. when the white lion arrived, he was told that there was a warrant out for the arrest for the captain who was the second captain to arrive four days later on board the treasurer and that the ship was to be seized. that's how series an inquiry that they had.
now the white lion, they sold the 29 angolans that were on board. once arrived, they became just like the poor english, indentured servants, and they had no contracts. you're going to ask, how do we know? i will get into that momentarily. now the settlement of jamestown, it was founded in 1607. it was on a peninsula. the colony was actually owned by the virginia company of london. the employees -- the inhabitants were the employees of the virginia company. and the first 20 years was an absolute failure. now, with that, there was high attrition, atrocities by the local tribesmen, they could not recruit or build a colony. both came from the peasant class
of england, many were orphan or homeless and many has served prison sentences. now their survival here in virginia was very much like the tv show we see today, survivor, survival of the fittest. no matter how hard they worked, they didn't have the skills necessary for survival because they didn't have the basic skills of agriculture, farming . as we look at undeveloped countries today, that's what they came to when they came here. now you're going to ask, how do we know this? well, there was one book in particular, the original list of persons of quality. this book is very interesting. i like the title of this book.
original list of persons of quality because it leads one to believe that everyone who came here and most virginians have answers believe they came here because they were people of quality. if you look at the second heading of that book, they were immigrants, religious exiles, political rebels, men who were serving a period of time, children who were stolen, and others who went from great britain to the american plantations. that's who was here. and another book by peter wilson coleman is a social history of forced immigration to americans, political and religious nonconformance. they were put on a list and that's how we know who they were
and their stations in life. when it comes to the angolans, some historians profess that they weren't christian, they were slaves and they arrived with no skills. and we have that belief because there's an actual document that conforms to that. and that document came out of the ferrera papers. and this would have been just a couple of months when the first angolans came here. you see where it says non-christians in the service of the english. those of you who understand religion, they came from a catholic environment. and the english colony was a protestant colony and the pope had a number of comments with
respect to the religion of england and those in africa because he made the leading angolan leading catholic in the country an archbishop. you'll notice the numbers. the number was 32. even though john ralph wrote in his notes 20 and odd, that was a coverup for the crime that had been committed. the actual census was taken and it was 32. how do we know he wasn't correct? you can tell by the number of people who got off of the ship through the ship's manifest. we don't know their names. that's another false narrative. in the 1693 census, the list of the living, this was a year after the great massacre. you will see the beginning of some of the names being listed. and many of these names have
spanish names or were recently converted from spanish names to english-sounding names. and we find where they lived, who the captains were on the plantations and where they lived in the colony. and what happened is, they were distributed throughout the colony. they were integrated within the colony. some professed that they were slaves. and someone not too long ago made the statement that the first africans -- that their skin was black and dirty and represented evil so they had to be slaves. i want to show you, that wasn't necessarily the case because in the 1624, 1625 list, you have the ship captains. these captains were salty old men. they traveled all over the world. they were captains. they knew what an enslaved person was and what an enslaved person wasn't.
so the head of each of these plantations or developments or settlements was headed up by a captain and they gave their districts these fancy names and you can see the names of the plantations or the areas in which these angolans lived. but the sea captains who were worldly men, what they did in that same muster, they listed their legal status. they didn't list them as slaves, they listed them as servants. so in 1624, 1625, we hear people say that slavey started all the way to the beginning and that's not what the legal documents -- that's not what the colonial records are showing. now these colonial records weren't just made up because the same records are in england and here in virginia.
now, those of you who work in government or work in the private sector, you know what ksas are. and for those of you who have not worked in jobs where you've heard the expression ksas, you know it stands for knowledge, skills and ability. and these angolans brought tremendous skills and abilities because they were farmers, merchants. they were cattlemen. they raised crops. they traded crops. now, how do we know this? well, in the original list of persons of quality, there is just so much information these colonial records that no one knew they were there and chose not to share it. again, we have with the immigrants and religious exiles and so on and on, but it also shows the ships that these people came on. i'm going to show you, this is
the cover and to the right is a page. i'm going to take one page out of this. on this one page, you will see the servants that are listed at the muster of captain william pierce who is one of the most wealthy men on the colony. and you'll notice, thomas smith who is an englishman, he's a servant, came on the abigail. henry bradford is an english man, he's a servant, came on the abigail. a maid servant came on the jonathan. and anglo whose name was converted to angela, a woman on the treasurer. this was written in 1623. who knew? the angolans who came here on the san juan bautista, their
legal status we find throughout the colonial records and we do not find them as enslaved. indentured servants no different than the english. but as they come out of their indenture, what's even more interesting, we find when they have the ability to own their own animals, an enslaved person cannot do that. they were able to indenture their own children for protection and a slave person could not do that. they entered into contracts. they bought land and leased land and a slave person could not do that. now, i'm going to share with you some of these angolans and i'm going to start to talk a little bit fast because time is running out. there were two in particular. the 1625 census, anthony and his wife became a head wright. for every head you bring over,
you're entitled to 50 acres of land and listed here in cavaliers and pioneers. anthony and his wife was listed as headrights, but they came on the treasurer. the treasurer was not allowed to land. they went to bermuda. they were hid in england and brought back on different ships. anthony came back on the james and mary came back on the margaret and john in 1622 in time for the census. lo and behold, this man who in his lifetime was captured as an enslaved and was destined to be enslaved for the rest of his life, he bought 250 acres of land in northampton county in 1651 on page 36 and he transported four englishmen and his son richard from another county and that enabled him five
people in total times 50, 250 acres of land. there was a catholic martyr. you all are familiar with the southern this catholic mar tier named juan pedro. they believed he was a catholic priest in angola because he was one of the highest ranking catholics in the colony of maryland, when they had the great battle he was the second person to be killed. we find him on the 1624, 1625 muster. john gollan, my 11th great grandfather, and this is how i happened to stumble upon the story of 1619 as i'm falling upon the information on john gollan, came on the treasurer, his name is spelled different, and the next document you find
he's on with captain ewing. his name is spelled different but it's confirmed by other documents. margaret, his wife, is right there on the 1623 census. and there's her name right there, my 11th great grandmother. we know the names of these angolans. again they say we didn't know their names but now through research we've been able to document their names. and there were so few africans in the colonies up until the 1640s, 1650s, when the names surfaced based on the relationships with the plan tonations they came from and their captains were able to determine who they were. i just did something wrong here. apologize for that.
when i did my research i went through courted transcripts, rulings, wills, deeds and estate papers. again, all in these documents here. those original angolans because they were smart people who could read and write, and understood the tenants of religion were so sophisticated that the next generation they began to strip away the rights. and one of the things that they did is, you know, many people would say, why is it the black community it is such a may tree yar cal society? because in 1662, the laws were changed to the status of the mother. and after the rebellion, there was a legacy left behind and that legacy was integration. those of you who are scholars of the rebellion know it was
multiracial because the africans and native americans and english were all into marrying with each other. when you go back to the original eight colonies or counties within virginia, a gentleman wrote a book about white slaves. i think the title is a little too narrow. but what he did was, he was able to find between 1660 and 1720, more than 5,000 white children were kidnapped and taken to maryland and virginia. and those same individuals were the ones that intermarried with those angolans. and from the rebellion we got the 1705 slave codes and from those slave codes they were foundation of antibell lull slavery and jim crow laws. the slave codes actually mirror the accomplishments#t>ñ of the t angolans who came here. so look at anthony johnson and every accomplishment he made it
was flipped into an actual code so no other african could benefit the way that anthony did. my ancestor, john, and his wife, separated, based on my research he became the first man in the virginia colony to sue for custody of his son. margaret, years later, appears to be the first woman ever to purchase her own land. now women got their land from the deaths of their husbands. they inherited it, or they got it from their sons. but margaret appears, based on the records, to be the first who actually purchased her own land. and with those successes, they turned them around to make sure that no other african would be able to do that. so propagation came as a result of the english and the angolans
intermarrying one another. and those 20 and odd africans actually became 900 separate individual free african-american families to the early 1700s. and if you look at this list here, you'll begin to see all of the original names that came out of those first documented angolans in 1619. these are their desen dent names. again, most of this is through interracial relationships. now somebody will ask, usually all the time, your paperwork says this, but how do we know this is true? i did all of my research in the early '80s through the early
'90s. that was before the internet. before all this new technology. and i have been asked by several of my publishers, you should take a dna test because we need to make sure that your dna follows your narrative. and lo and behold, my dna, i have bantu dna. not only do i have bantu dna, it goes to the area that margaret and john came from. so my dna takes me directly to john and margaret. whether you look -- whatever you look at, it's been analyzed and overanalyzed, goes right back to the paper trail as everyone thought that it would. and what's more important, the legacy that these angolans left
behind, i don't know if you know that there are 44 million americans of african decent in the united states today. 70% of us are related to one another. and not only are 70% of us related to one another, we're beginning to find out that 20 to 40 million americans of european descent also have african dna, which makes sense. so with that, i think my time came right to the moment. so in writing the book, "the first africans to arrive in virginia," i wanted to make sure that i talked about the historical significance on who they were, where did they come from, the importance on african society in terms of being royals, in terms of their knowledge skills and abilities,
ksas, the circumstances in which they left and left for no other reason than the portuguese found silver under their land. when you hear people say 1619 is a fake story, it was africans selling other africans, that is not the case. and their legal status, once they came here, i want to thank you all for the kind invitation and i hope we have a lot of good questions. if you want to find out more, you can go to my website at ric murphy dot com. i'm on facebook, youtube, twitter. although i have not done any tweeting for the last three or four years. i will get back to that shortly. with that, any questions that you have i hope i can answer them. >> thanks, ric. great program.
for those of you on facebook and youtube, please feel free to ask some questions. we have a few minutes for ric. the one question i want to start off with is, being native virginian, your objective in this search, in telling the story, what was the biggest discovery or surprise to you as a non-virginian about this story? >> as a non-virginian, again as i started to do the land records, i really had no idea where i was going. i literally was just going from one land patent to another one. and fortunately they had laid out all the information. when i started to get to -- so when i went to grandville county and i found, i think, the 1742 original land patent right in the drawer there, i was pretty impressed with that.
and i was also impressed that it had the signature of lord grandville. now i must admit, my family in new england, we owned land going back to the 1700s as well. so i guess i wasn't blown away with that other than lord granville, when i saw that he sold land in virginia and i started to research virginia and then i'm getting into the mid 1600s, and all of a sudden i realize 1635 i find john gollen with this legal dispute with his wife margaret cornish. and i find out he and margaret are one of the original, that blew me away. that was something, had i been looking for, i would have never found it. if someone told me about it, i wouldn't be able to make the connection. that blew me away for weeks. >> so if someone asks, what
happened to the africans who didn't come to virginia, outside of the 32 angolans that you spoke of? >> when the ship left angola, they had 350. within one week's time, a week, week and a half, over 100 men, women and children had died. they were not cut out for this. they were not hardened people. the captain stopped in jamaica, he needed to get food, he needed to wash down the ship. to get the food and the medicine he needed, he left behind 24 young boys as evidence in his ship's manifest. the remainder, 147 eventually arrived in new mexico, acuna went bankrupt, the captain, when he went back to spain, he talked to his cousin. his cousin was count soto mayor,
who was also the ambassador to england. he was the ambassador to king james and that's why king james conducted an investigation. that's why it was such a big deal because count soto mayor was trying to recoupe the funds his cousin lost. what's interesting is some of the people today who are doing dna are finding distant relatives in parts of brazil and in mexico and jamaica as well. >> another listener has asked, why did the first angolans who had been the royals work with the english to get back to their home? >> probably the same reason that the english peasants who came
here couldn't work with the english to go back home. the ships were not leaving here to take people back. when the ships left here, they were taking barrels of tobacco back to england. some of the children who were kidnapped, based on some of the colonial records, they kidnapped the wrong kids and the families had the funds and resources to come and get them, but the reality is, no one went back> so one of the vessels that you spoke about, the treasurer, was apparently half owned by samuel, a former admiral and governor of virginia. was he charged by the king for his piracy? >> he was a partial owner.
he was a minor stakeholder. the real person who owned it was sir robert rich, the earl of warwick, he was like air statlo nasis. he owned a large fleet of ships. he was charged. there were a number of lawsuits. the only reason he got away was because governor yardly died i think in 1765, indicate piercy died in 26 and count soto minor died in 1627 so the major principles going after him each died in three consecutive years. king james died in i think 1625 as well. so the principals in this investigation -- but it was a serious investigation because if you recall, sir walter raleigh
was beheaded for piracy of spanish ships. >> you mentioned when you were doing your research that one of your predecessors had an early custody case with her son. do you know how that turned out? >> yes, he won the case. and that's why i found out so much information about john gollon was because of the custody case. i didn't initially know who his son and the grandson was, which would have made that last connection. but i went through one of the books and found the name gollon, and that was the family name. once i found the name i made the connection to the three generations of edwards -- i had all these connections to edward, they kept leaving land to my son
edward, my son edward, that's how i made the connection. because the grandson william left land to his son edward, which was edward i. >> so what's next for you, rick? what projects are you working on for the future? >> i'm doing the biography of john and margaret. i'm writing about another family who -- the collapse grandersons out of massachusetts, they were involved in the revolutionary war. they had 100 acres of land. and because of smallpox, the air of the land gave the land to the town for the care of his children, three girls, because he was afraid they would be sold into prostitution. it's a phenomenal story because they were absolutely war heroes. they were part of the green mountain boys. seth warner's group.
they were prisoners of war for 18 months and half of the prisoners had died and they succeeded and got land grants. and i'm also going to write about the legacy of the first angolans because of all the discussions today about 1619 and 400 years, i think it's really important that people understand the legacy of the first angolans and how their successes were turned into the slave codes which became the slavery laws and then hence the jim crow laws. that's four books i have in mind right now, and i have about two of them half written. >> terrific. ric murphy, thank you again for a fascinating presentation. weeknights this month featuring american history tv programs as what's available on weekends. tonight we'll show a 1987 film from our reel america series,
"crossing borders" the story of the international women's league for peace and freedom about the organization founded in 1915 to end world war i and promote peace and women's rights. watch tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern and enjoy american history tv every weekend on cspan3. american history tv on c span 3. exploring the people and events that tell the american story every weekend. this weekend, saturday at 10:00 p.m. eastern on reel america with the announcement of the academy award nominees we feature films that won awards, "library of congress" "with these hands" and why man creates". sunday cleveland sellers
remembers the orangeburg massacre. and at 6:00 p.m. eastern on american artifacts we visit the national museum of the u.s. army in virginia. at 6:45 p.m. eastern lonnie bunch and ken burns discuss the challenge of telling america's story. exploring the american's story. watch american history tv this weekend on cspan3. american history tv on cspan3. every weekend documenting america's story. funding for american history tv comes from these companies who support cspan3 as a public service. >> richard josey was an interpreter of african-american history at colonial williamsburg, portraying several
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