tv American Artifacts Plymouth Colony Pilgrims CSPAN April 16, 2021 12:18pm-12:49pm EDT
than 1 40ishgs 0 cia trained crew ban exiles launched a failed invasion to overthrowfy dell castro at bay of pigs. we'll look back at the invasion and its consequences with former cia historian nicholas dumavich and sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern, four films on u.s./cuba relations. an edited version of the 1961 nbc report "cuba:bay of pigs." a compilation of universal news reels from 1959 to 1961 on the cuban revolution through the bay of pigs invasion. and a 1960 broadcast "cuba: the battle of america." egs exploring the american history. watch american history tv this weekend on c-span3.
next we visit plimoth patuxet in plymouth, massachusetts, and talk to interpreters about daily life. the year depicted is 1627, seven years after the mayflower landed when 160 pilgrims lived there. >> i am richard pickering, executive director at plimoth and we're in the 17th century english village, a recreation of plymouth as it looked seven years after "mayflower" landed. when our guests enter the historic site, they encounter living history educators who are portraying men and women who lived in plymouth in 1627. we know the name of every man, woman and child that was here
because this is the last year that they lived within the walled town. in 1628 they started spreading up and down the coast. and so to divide all of their common assets equitably, they needed a complete list of residents. no one fictional, no one composite. when you come to a living museum, you enter into another world. you're able to encounter the spiritual beliefs of the past, the technology of the past, the experiments and government of the past in three dimensions. one of the things we strive to do is hold the people of the past in our hands very gently and with compassion so that we can enter into their story and experiencing it in 360 degrees. that said, the 360 degrees
surrounding me right now behind me, you can see the fort meeting house at the top of the street, which if we were able to magically transport ourselves to modern plymouth in 2020, you would see the unitarian universalist church there. we would be on liden street. that's the street we recreate. you see a number of different domestic dwellings and where the houses are placed on our recreated street is based on a map fragment that was left in governor william bradford's hands. the gardens are based on inventories and lists of seeds as you find in "the brewster book" from the william brewster family. the idea is to help our guests walk into an accurate recreation of the past and to feel they've been physically transported and mentally transported as well. >> my name is elizabeth how
land. i've been here now for seven years. my family and i decided -- i suppose more so my parents decided we were going to come to the new world. 1620 or so. a ship called "mayflower" that brought us here. i feel at 13 years it was more so their decision than mine. it was two months we were at sea. seven months i lived aboard the ship because there were no houses built when we arrived here so it was men that would get off during the day, they would build houses and get back on a ship at night. so, it was tedious. and being that i was 13, i was caring for younger children but also caring for my parents. i was seasick for the journey. as we were in the harbor, people started getting sick with coughs and colds, and took care of them
as well as best i could. you sing songs, pray a lot, try to sleep. but the sounds of the animals were always terrifying. we brought pigs with us. we brought pens for dogs and cats. and goats. i always forget that one. the ship already smelled all of. the animals made it a bit more uncomfortable. there was something like 100 of us crowded into the ship. we stayed underneath the top deck so it was very low ceilings and we had a the shallot we were bringing here to be used as a fishing vessel once we arrived but it was taken apart and stored where we were. it was so crowded that there were people sleeping within parts of the shallot.
it's not built for people, certainly. "mayflower" was built -- at least it was shipping before we were on it was wine. they delivered the wine to where it was going, took the barrels off and put people in instead. and so no windows or anything. all the water came in from the top deck. and the air gets very heavy. it's a very sickly place. not very helpful at all. but this place is where i got married and i've had children, and so we're starting to see the fruits of our labors. this day i made breakfast just from what we had from supper the night before. a bit of duck and some eggs and bread, just a small meal to get us through the day until dinner time.
but dinnertime is the largest meal, so it's usually, in this season, quail, geese, squab, all different kinds of birds we can pick from, so we cook those often. i still have salt fish that i keep from the summertime, so i make fish, too. hens are still laying eggs, so i've got eggs to boil or fry. we ate maize corn with every meal. and then my children, to care for them. but some days, i mean, it takes all day to do laundry or bake bread, so it depends on what i need to do really. and the weather just a bit. it's not the best day to do laundry. when it's raining, but everything changes with the seasons. this day i'm trying to tidy up the garden. it's almost -- it's the end of october now, so i do fear a frost any time upcoming. and so i'm trying to decide what to harvest. i've got some carrots still
left, and earlier this day i took up all my pumpkins and stored them up on straw, put them in the loft of the house. i'm just trying to harvest what won't make it through the frost. i do have some turnips here, those can grow through the winter. parsnips as well. if it's not an overly harsh winter, they'll be fine. but that's the work -- most of the work in the garden during this season. it's tidying up, turning the beds, putting compost on it. letting some things go to seed as well. this is dill. the dill has flowered, so once the sun dries it out, probably in a couple weeks or so, i can collect the seeds off what was on the flower. so, i'll save those in a small linen sack and then plant it again next year.
it's a bit of that work this day, at least in the garden. my family, we finished taking the harvest, so that was four or five weeks of work. that's finished now. so now i'm able to get to the rest of the preparations for the winter. >> my name is phineas pratt. most persons here call me just pratt for i was the first pratt. whereas my brother is here now. his name is joshua, according to
theirselves, the persons who have been here for some time. for most unwed men, by and large they are referred to by their surname. because i was the first pratt, i will heretofore, and henceforth, i will always be pratt and he will be joshua, i suppose. >> what was it like coming over? >> i came over on a ship, a fishing vessel, a smaller one called "the sparrow." smaller than other vessels that brought other persons. so on that arched at demerol's cove, so not directly here. and then it wasn't so turbulent for we were arriving ahead of the summer. so that is a fair time to sail, whereas i hear the persons who arrived here, they encountered various storms along the way, violent storms, i hear, for they
were heading directly into the winter. whereas i and nine other men, we then took "the sparrow" again to new plymouth here. it is but a day with a strong wind, and so that did not take long, and then we rendezvous with two other ships for -- we were the advanced party of an expedition that was sent to establish a separate plantation among the bay of the massachusetts. that failed missably, howsoever. >> how did you end up here? >> well, we initially came here. as i say, i was somewhat acquainted with these persons, yet after that plantation rather dissolved for god wished it be so, but i watched ten men
starve before my eyes. and then had the natives, they killed two others, and we hanged one of our own. and so this is before as well the rest of those persons who were at wessagusset. there were near to 60 of us. eventually many of them fled back to england. there may be some who fled into the forest. i should say perhaps they are even living among the natives. i should suppose that some have died since, who did so for being an english person living among the natives, you will not live long. and beyond that, i came here. i was the only one who remained to settle in a goodly english town, that is, such as new
plymouth. hopefully here i can secure legacy for myself, perhaps have a family. and i should say things are a bit more secure here. and so i am hopeful that that is god's plan. >> what were your interactions with the natives? >> well, they were divers on sundry, and initially they were quite friendly to ourselves. yet whilst they came to understand that we could not care for ourselves. they more and more for they said this was the case, they more and more came to see us not as men, for there were but men at wessagusset and more and more they saw as women or children. they would insult us.
they began to even take things from ourselves and threaten us. so this is the thing with the natives. if you appear strong, they will respect you. so if you show any sort of -- if you show yourselves in force and you bring guns, they will understand that you are serious men. whereas, if they come to understand that you cannot care for yourselves as was the case there at wessagusset, i will admit we were not well prepared for the winter months or even ahead of that. i should say that life here is quite a bit different than back in checkerman buckinghamford. do you know where that is? it is just outside london city. so, yeah. there you might merely
go to market and secure vittles in this manner or purchase this or that item or select thing, whereas here you must harvest everything that you eat or may kill it, or you must make everything that you use, and -- although admittedly, most things of value they come aboard a ship. so not everything, i suppose. yet it is not so simple as going to market and then having someone else do your work for yourself. you must provide. on the manuals, which instruct twoun establish -- or, rather, plant themselves in the new world. they speak of the abundance of this place, and that one might merely walk up to a deer and shoot it in the face or drive a basket into the brook and it
comes up full of herring. yet what they do not tell you is to avail yourself to that abundance, you must work, you must labor. >> did you have a particular trade in england? >> i apprenticed as a joiner, a carpenter. yet i'm not doing those things so much here. i did not complete my apprenticeship either, so here it is rather illegal to apply a trade for your own profit. so, it is only -- i do these things when it is needful or for the common or for the principal men or for myself or, perhaps, say good and honorable, yet beyond that it is not something we're doing much here. i do know a bit of other men who
know a bit of joinery as well. >> were you accepted into new plymouth? >> there is a part of me which fears that the persons here, they see me much as the natives did in wesagusset, that i have had my manhood stripped of me so i must regain it by laboring. that is what i plan to do. so i appreciate and i am grateful for my friends here and what they have done for me, welcoming me into their community with rather open arms. yet i fear i will never truly feel a part of them. i always will, i fear, feel a bit outside of the community. >> why didn't you go back to england? >> well, i saw what families had
here, and it made me rather hopeful for what i could achieve here. there is work to be had, whereas back in england, i would be but a burden on my family, on my father. so at least here, one can labor, whereas, you know, back in england, persons who have been on acres of land for nearly two centuries as tenants, you may say, gentlemen and the like who have newly come upon means, they are buying up all the land and running them off. whereas everyone as an alternative is flocking to the city of london, whereas there is no work to go around or there is not enough, and so what work there is rather devalued for
there are over much persons who wish to labor at this or that trade, so that even the men who are able to apply to a trade, they are not even making half the wages their grandfather would have maded applying the same trade. so, most persons back in england, if you are not of the merchant-going sort, may, perhaps -- i should say, this is one alternative as well, one way to escape that, is by coming to the new world. at least there is work to be done here. as you can see, this is -- though this is new england, it has a ways to go to be likened to the old. so, that is what we intend to do. >> who determines what work you do? >> well, chiefly the principal
men, the magistrates. so, much of this work is court-ordered. howsoever, i say, i work for the men of the household or the master of the household that i reside in chiefly. beyond that, my brother and myself, we have two acres, so we are devoting that to the household that we are living within for the merchants. yet we work for the good man. in return he gives ourselves lodging and food or vittles. and that is the way of things here. outside of that, as i say, the governor or his assistants might assign labors accordingly. >> my name is susannah winslow and you've come into my house.
i've been in the village for about seven years now since the very beginning, so i've seen really the start of the colony. i've been here through all of the trials that we've had of the first winter where we lost a great deal of people, i've seen famine here, i've also seen feasting. we've had quite a bit of change over the years. i've lost some family here, but i've also been married here. i've got four boys here now, so we've got quite a prospering that has been happening the last several years. >> daily life here is fairly busy. there's always something to do. we're just past harvest season now, so we've got all of that work done which means there is a little more time for resting. there's a little more time that i can spend with my husband, my children, with my friends.
but i spend more of my day cooking now, but things take a little longer, so i'll do a lot of my cooking in the hearth just here. i've got several different sorts of tools that i use. i've got a frying pan here that i can use for frying. i've got a spit i can sit across the top and roast. there's a trammell just in here that i can move and hang pots from. you see the hook at the bottom that i can hang a handle from. and then raise and lower it above the fire so that i can make it hotter or colder. i'll also spend my days pounding corn and looking after my children. i've got to do laundry, and i've got to bake bread, and i've got things to mend, so there is always some sort of work to do.
gardening and making sure everything in the house is in good order, for that is more where i work, whereas my husband is more outside. my husband does more of things like fishing, especially in the summer months. at this time of year, he's out more hunting, so a lot of the wild birds that come through, he'll take out his musket and he'll go hunting for them. he'll also be felling trees in the season so next year we might burn them, but also if we've got to make repairs to the houses, he'll do a lot of that work. all of the dap on the wall might crack from year to year. we have no limestone to protect it from the weather, so here all of the clay and the marsh grass and sand that gets mixed together after a time, it can crack, so he'll be repairing those. but we keep wood and clabboards
on the outside of the houses to protect it from the rain and any sort of weather that might come. all things that we've got in the house have really come from england. there's not a lot that's being made here at the moment, so all of the prettily carven furniture and all of our baskets and all of the pewter and our pottery, that's all come from england. the only things that here for the most part are very simple things like this stool. things that don't necessarily look very pretty, but we can use them quite well. but there's all sorts of herbs we have hanging in the house we grow in the gardens, but we cut back in the winter so we might dry them and keep them for cooking, might keep them for making medicine for it is a very flagmatic season in the winter
so you want to keep things like mint and things that will help -- sage that can clear the phlegm out of your body. not only for cooking but things to help you feel more better in the winter. i've got all sorts of things i use for cleaning. i have a brook on the side of the house. i'll use rags to dust with. there's a cupboard just over here where i'll keep all of the dishes, all of my plates and bowls. things that have also come from england. so, things, for the most part, are either sailing over with you when you come, things that you had in your house back in england, all of your furniture, your bedding. there are some things that come on supply ships, which as of recent we've had about once a year. so, things like candles and wicks for the oil lamp, which you'll see burning over on the cupboard. things such as spices and butter
and gunpowder and baskets, those have all come -- metal things like nails will have to have sent over from england. so church service we'll have on sunday. sabbath is kept from the evening on saturday until the evening next on sunday. and so from there we'll have church services for most of the day. we keep the services of our reformed congregation. it's a reformed christian congregation, so we'll keep sabbath for -- church services for the entire day. we'll start out the day in the morning, the drum will be beaten so we'll know when it's time to go up. we meet in the fort, where it's the largest building we have. so we'll meet up there and muster brewster, who is not a minister proper. he never finished university, so has not been ordained, but he is our ruling elder of our church.
he's been laddered to it. he's the only man who's had any sort of proper schooling in studying to be a minister, so he is the one that preaches on sunday. so, he'll deliver a sermon in the morning and we'll have psalm singing and there will be usually a lot of different parts that will also be sung in one voice, but to honor god through song. and then usually we'll return back to our houses in the middle of the day. we'll eat our dinners and then after we've rested just a short time, we'll go back up to the rest of the service where we have something that's not kept in the church in england that's called prophecy, where some of the more important men in the village will speak on matters that they might have understood a little better in the last week. so, something that from muster brewster's sermon they understood better than they had before or something that happened to them in their own
lives over the week that made them understand a certain story a little better. they might speak on that to the entire congregation. but really it's not something that's kept in england. so, there's some here who are not accustomed to having that practice done. >> the 17th century english village at plimoth patuxet intepts the town and the people who live there in 1627, seven years after the pilgrims arrived on the "mayflower." weeknights this month we're featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what's available every weekend on c-span3. tonight milton-jones recalls his experiences as a u.s. marine
during the vietnam war. he talks about his initial reluctance to serve in vietnam and his journey to meet his unit in the caisson. part of vietnam war oral histories conducted by about the atlanta history centers keenan research center for the veterans history project. watch tonight beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern and enjoy american history tv every weekend on c-span3. american history tv on c-span3 exploring the people and events that tell the american story every weekend. 60 years ago this weekend, more than 1,400 cia-trained cuban exiles launched a failed invasion to overthrow fidel castro's communist government in cuba at the bay of pigs. live saturday at 9:00 a.m. eastern on american history tv and washington journal, we'll look back at the invasion and its consequences with former cia historian nicholas dumavich.
sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern on reel america, four films on u.s./cuba relations. an edited version of the 1961 nbc report, cuba, bay of pigs. john f. kennedy's 1961 speech after the failed invasion. a compilation of universal news reels from 1959 to 1961 on the cuban revolution through the bay of pigs invasion and a 1960 broadcast "cuba: the battle of america." exploring the american story. watch american history tv this weekend on c-span3. american history tv on c-span3, every weekend documenting america's story. funding for american history tv comes from these companies who support c-span3 as a public service.