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tv   Reel America Universal Newsreels on Cuba 1959-1961  CSPAN  July 8, 2021 2:26pm-2:46pm EDT

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tonight on american history tv, we long back 50 years at the forces that collided on the capital streets that spring with the journalist lawrence roberts. the author of mayday 1971. a white house at war. a revolt in the streets. and the untold history of manager's biggest mass arrest. that's at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on american history tv on c-span3. 60 years ago on april 17th, 1961, there was a failed invasion at cuba's bay of pigs. next on reel america, a compilation from the 1959 cuban revolution through end of april 1961. the chronology reveals how initial enthese. i can't for fidel castro turned to skepticism, then opposition .
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♪♪ >> cuba's if i had. he castro emerged triumphant against the battista regime. it began with castro, a fugitive, practically alone, thanning with 82 followers to be wiped out by government forces. ended with the fight of dictator batista and the entry into havana of rebel forces to be claimed by the city. ♪♪ the forces of castro's 26th of july movement named for the anniversary of his first attack on the regime in 1953 have grown vastly, captured army weapons. nearly two years aimed at toppling the government culminated in victory as 1958 ended. castro led an all-out government offensive with a counterattack.
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and in the battle of santa clara won the crucial victory. batista resigned to prevent more bloodshed, and fled the country. his departure touched off wild rejoicing as the first elements of rebel forces entered havana. ♪♪ at first the celebration was peaceful as shouting surged from the city. then the temper changed and an angry mob were in the streets. six years of prosperity and government corruption and police brutality bred explosive discontent.
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now batista has fled. a new leader is on the scene, fidel castro. but certain to be dominant in cuba's new era just begun. ♪♪ fidel castro demonstrates his unchallenged power over cuba's masses. he announces his resignation as premiere and the response is explosive. walkouts from havana shops and factories, mass demonstrations by workers and university students calling on castro not to resign, hailing castro the maximum leader of the revolution. president manuel shown just after the revolution when castro installed him as provisional president, then one of the heroes of the people, was ousted to be replaced as president by the former minister of revolutionary laws. but it is certain that whoever
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may be president or premiere, fidel castro is number one man in cuba. in an emotional four-hour broadcast that evening, he accused former president of near treason, toppling him from the role of hero to one threatened with mob violence. fidel castro's dramatic show of strength makes it clear that after six and a half months he is still riding high on a wave of turbulent mass emotion. ♪♪ 1 million peasants jammed the square before cuba's national capital in response to the call of fidel castro for celebration of the sixth anniversary of his 26th july revolutionary movement. it is perhaps the greatest mass rally ever staged in the western hemisphere. a telling demonstration of castro's sway over the cuban masses. the unpredictable castro dons a baseball uniform to pitch a full inning in a benefit game.
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his new president tosses the first ball, and the game is on. castro pitching is credited with striking out the three batters he faces. this one game the ump really has to be careful. viva, fidel! ♪♪ in havana, deputy premiere opens a counterpart to the recent soviet fair in new york city. of more significance is the presence of premiere fidel castro at these opening ceremonies. his one-week visit and affair are part of a broad program to woo the good will of castro and cuba. while he was boosting russian and military achievements, havana's intelligencia led the orchestra. december might demonstrations, the soviet may have made real progress toward building up trade and re-establishing
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diplomatic relations, thus adding to america's headaches in our troubled relations with this caribbean neighbor. ♪♪ cuba celebrates the seventh anniversary of castro's revolutionary movement with a red chinese delegation and one from bolivia among a quarter of a million who will march past fidel castro's reviewing stand. his observance in the foothills where he directed the revolt against the batista regime was one of castro's few recent public appearances. suffering from a lung infection for weeks, he was ordered to take a complete rest both mental and physical. although doctors say his recovery is assured, castro's brother who was enjoying this triumphal reception in moscow at the time hurried home. he is fidel's prime minister. he is the number two man in cuba's revolutionary red tin's government. he seems to respond eagerly to the soviets wooing of cuba.
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an ailing fidel castro has top billing. he delivers a typical rebel rousing talk after raving for a half hour, the cuban premiere loses his voice, but he regains enough strength to come back and announce his latest blow against the united states, the seizure of three-quarters of a billion dollars in american-owned properties in cuba. castro promises to pay for it all in 50 years. but at the rate the cuban economy is failing, the payoff may come sooner than he expects. ♪♪
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the cry in havana -- cuba, si, u.s., no. this is definitely a pro-castro crowd enthusiastically defacing the telephone company building. a day after this demonstration, senior castro charges that the u.s. in what he calls fascist priests are in a part to defeat the revolution. he says his government has been generous to the church. but there are no clergymen at the mock funeral of the telephone company. in costa rica the organization of american states votes sanctions against the dominican republic led by venezuela who complained that the dominican trujillo had ordered an attempted assassination of venezuela's president. and diplomatic sanctions are
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voted. united states secretary of state takes up the next topic calling for action to meet the threat of growing red influence in cuba. the reaction was explosive. in cuba castro proclaimed friendship with the soviet union and communist china. the oas took positive action against dominican strongland rule but joint effort of the american states to cope with red infiltration by political compromise for the castro regime apparently resulted in worsening the crisis. but even as cuba threatened to walk out of the oas, president eisenhower in his white house press conference recalled common ties and interests and left open the door for an easing of tensions. >> by no means do i want to admit or charge that this
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situation is irretrievable. cuba has been one of our finest friends. we are the ones that conducted the war that set them free. and when they got in trouble we had an occupation, and again we set them on their feet and set them free. and we have had a long history of friendly relationships, and we've tried to keep our hands out of their internal political affairs. we have not tried to throw out someone we didn't like or anything like that. so, i would think that the very warfare of the cuban people finally demand some kind of composition of the difficulties between the american states including our own on the one hand and cuba on the other. ♪♪ >> cuba's fidel castro arrives at new york.
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the first of the parade of heads of government that includes nearly every iron curtain nation and russian ally all on hand for the opening of the united nations 15th general assembly surrounded by a heavy security guard, he appears subdued. his arrival speech is only a few words. i want to salute to the people of the united states. my english is the same like the other time. about the other things that i want to tell, i wish -- to the general assembly of the united nations. thank you very much. >> a first red satellite to arrive in new york are
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czechoslovakia and poland. they are not greeted by any united states representative, not being guests of this country. he makes an arrival speech in his own tongue. despite their status as high-ranking red leaders both of them are almost ignored by the numerous pickets and demonstrators. many of them east european refugees who protested the arrival of khrushchev and other leading reds on the s.s. baltica. arrived on a dank and foggy morning heading up to the east river closest to headquarters, it was harassed by cruising parties of hecklers. the shore hundreds of demonstrators amassed despite heavy rains.
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on pier 73, carpets had been laid by soviet emissaries for the occasion. it swarmed with newsmen and one of the massive assemblies of police and security men ever gathered in new york. khrushchev could barely be glimpsed through the throng of protectors. promises to make a general assembly session already momentous on the cargo issue on a potentially explosive or a potentially historic international meeting. at least 16 new members are to be admitted. a score of heads of government are a dramatic setting with global states at issue. ♪♪ fidel castro whips up a furor in cuba charging the united states with arming and training mercenary forces for an imminent
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invasion. he calls out some 200,000 militiamen for training and guard duty at key points throughout havana at the guantanamo naval base. they were on a weekend of liberty after training in the caribbean. >> cuban charges of aggression by the united states. meanwhile in moscow, an expert at fishing in troubled waters reels out the line of friendship to a group of newsmen and women from cuba, president at the invitation of a soviet journalist fleet whose job receives a gift of the cuba flag. the soviet's and the western hemisphere align. castro marks the second anniversary of his revolution with the biggest military parade
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ever staged in cuba, featuring tanks and other heavy weapons from russia and red czechoslovakia. shortly afterwards, castro demanded the united states embassy drastically reduce his staff to 11 persons. it was the last straw in his long campaign of provocation. president eisenhower broke off diplomatic relations with a message read by press secretary haggerty. >> there is a limit to what the united states in self-respect can endure. that limit has now been reached. our friendship for the cuban people is not affected. it is my hope and my conviction that in the not-too-distant future, it will be possible for the historic friendship between us once again to find reflection and normal relations of every sort, meanwhile, our sympathy goes out to the people of cuba now suffering under the yoke of a dictator. ♪♪
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>> the assault has begun on the dictatorship of fidel castro. cuban army pilots open the first phase of organized revolt with bombing raids on three military bases. two of the b-26 light bombers then seek asylum in florida on the heels of the air raids, landings were affected by rebels at several places on the cuban coast, and the rebellion against the red dictator was on. with the refugee pilot claiming a full-scale army revolt. in havana, the diplomat showed rockets fired from the cuban raiders which he claims have u.s. marking. meanwhile at the united nations cuban foreign minister, i accuse the united states of unleashing a war of invasion. he said the invading soldiers trained in florida. but the ambassador makes a quick denial.
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>> these charges are totally false, and i deny them categorically. the united states has committed no aggression against cuba and no offensive has been launched from florida or from any other part of the united states. >> in the guatemalan foothills there's a mysterious training depot where some of the raiders may have been based. professional soldiers are among the teachers. and once trained the men mysteriously disappear. guatemala has held no brief for the castro regime and has aided the rebels. in cuba itself, the people have been exhorted by castro to push back the invader. and 300,000 militiamen have been mobilized. the invasion was successful in its early hours with castro of
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course blaming the u.s. is this the first chink in his armor? on sundays know, book tv brings you the latest in nonfiction books and authors. if you saiding for c-span2 comes from these television companies and more including comcast. >> you think this is just a community center? no. it's way more than that. >> comcast is partnering to create wi-fi lifts so students can get the help they need to be ready for anything. >> comcast supports c-span 2 as a public service. tens of thousands of anti-vietnam war protesters converged in 1971. more than 7,000 of them were arrested in a single day. tonight on american history tv,
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we look back 50 years at the forces that collided on the capitol streets that spring with the journalist lawrence roberts. the author of mayday, 1971, a white house at war. a revolt in the streets and the untold history of manager's biggest mass arrest. at 8:00 p.m. eastern on american history tv on c-span 3. on november 2nd, 1960, a "new york times" television reviewer wrote, quote, an exciting new voice, provocative, sensible, and challenging came to television last night. dr. albert burke, former director of graduate studies at yale university. next, on reel america, we bring you that broadcast with educational television pioneer albert burke. burke argues that poverty, racism, and economic exploitation by u.s. corporate interests in prerevolutionary cuba led to the popularity of fidel castro who promised to make life better for his supporters.


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