tv Reel America Cuba - The Battle of America - 1960 CSPAN July 8, 2021 7:10pm-8:02pm EDT
november 2nd 1960, a new york times television river wrote, quote, an exciting new voice, provocative, sensible and challenging him to television last night doctor albert burke former director of graduate studies at yale university. next, on real america. we believe that broadcast with educational television pioneer, albert berke. using footage and interviews from cuba, berke argues that poverty, racism and economic exploitation by u.s. corporate interests and pre revolutionary cuba led to the popularity of fidel castro, who promised to make life better for his supporters.
>> chapter one. and the battle of america. chapter one was the battle of cuba. it was finished on january the 8th, 1959 here in havana. the kind of history these people began writing here was not intended to stop here. has the men who led this revolution, there are 19 more chapters to follow. one for each of the countries in south america where conditions are right for this. and this is revolution. this revolutions have gone throughout the world since the end of world war ii, this one in cuba. post and no special honors for distinctions. revolutions have gone until this one, the cuban revolution is very special. it's very special for several reasons, and all of them are pretty much a mystery to this fellow. john q american, here. who is particularly wrapped up in that cuban revolution. he doesn't really understand what happened in cuba back in
january of 1959, despite the fact that no other person on this planet has a greater number or a variety of ways to read about, hear about, see about and know about things, the tons of new strengths that he's read through and the untold hours of air time that he's listened to about turmoil and unrest and revolutions everywhere around him for years. none of that prepared him for today's conflict. he's confused. particularly so because like thousands of other americans, he's been to cuba. as a matter of fact, he was there vacationing only a few weeks before that scene you saw on the screen a moment ago happened in havana. when he was there, there wasn't much they suggest to him that things would go as they have gone in that island country. where john to american didn't see in cuba when he was there, and what happened in cuba is tonight's, cuba. the battle of america.
main street, and any who most a large city in any country south of the border. as it happens, this is one of the main streets and havana, cuba. modern hotels, gambling casinos, exotic restaurants, department stores and office buildings, this is tourist alley. i'm most american visitors to cuba, the most american visitors, this is cuba. that is, it is all of cuba they usually get to see. it isn't a cue battle, of course, it's a transplanted bit of the united states from the air conditioned hotels that the -- and silver serving dishes in the restaurant. most of what you see on your screen was built by americans, in fact. november 2nd 1960, a new york
times television review wrote, quote, an exciting new voice, provocative, sensible and in havana's case, much of that transplanted bit of north america was built by very special group of americans. who have given to many of the cuban people a somewhat peculiar picture of what the life and america must be like. john q though had a whale of a time in havana, back in december of 1958, several weeks before castro reached that city. i am albert berke, i'll try to tell you how and why this was
the case. he lost quite a bit of money at the gaming tables in the casinos along tourist tally. many of which were built by a group of american racketeers with the profits of the crime syndicates how quarter it in new york and chicago. it's run most of the bookie operations, dope peddling, numbers and policy rockets, abortion mills, prostitution and poker houses here in the states. he enjoyed the excellent food, served him in the exotic restaurant among towards valleys. many of them were built with the same man with the same kind of money. and although he doesn't go for that kind of thing himself, he wanted that kind of feminine companionship. havana was famous throughout the whole of south america for the quality of its red light district, conveniently located two blocks away from tourist alley. and this is a business enterprise which has been set up and run by the same racketeers who shared their hard earned cuban pesos and american dollars, with a number of cuba's government officials by providing such services to the vacationing public. all that was part of the trans by the bit of cuba that made john cues vacation there a delightful interlude. that left of a visiting russia, other cuban president. with a somewhat peculiar idea about what's the american way of life must be like over on the mainland, the short 90 miles away. tourist alley is of course not the whole picture of american dollars invested in cuban economy. but, it has always been the most spectacular part of that picture in cuba. and there are tourists alleys all over south america, for a dangerously long time, they've
been the most important blocks to john q americans understanding what really went on south of our border, what really was a life there. john q, you see, is accustomed to the home rubber mattress, -- he rarely moves away from this, wherever he goes in the world. but there isn't much of that kind of world anywhere in africa, in asia or in south america, except in the tourist alleys that have been set up to cater to those few of the world's two and three quarter billion people who can afford to live that way. for tourist alleys, wherever they are, it's been very hard to see the seat of the kind of revolution that spilled over much of the world since the end of world war ii and most recently, in cuba. very few americans are prepared
now to see those all over south america, as ché, castro's right-hand man in havana saw them last march when he described the cuban revolution as, chapter one in the battle for america. the cuban leaders see those seats spreading in 19 other south american countries where conditions are ripe for castro 's kind of revolution. what are those conditions, the pope john 23rd put his finger squarely on the most important part of them in his radio message to cuba's first national catholic convention last year. 500,000 cubans gathered to hear the holy father tell them that, and that quote, the face of the world could change if true charity were to rule. and this is the charity of the christian man who knows that his wealth, as a social function and that is his duty to give what's above his own needs to those who are deprived
of the bare necessities of life. unquote. pope john. pope john 23rd was talking about was a kind of south america that can be seen a fairly short distance away from any tourist alley in any other south american country. the visitor in buenos aires, for example, is always impressed by places like republic square and streets like the avenue of the 9th of july. when those aries has one of the allied widest, best paved, clean and beautiful streets in the world and they're lined with the smartest shops and hotels. but the visitor rarely sees or hears about a place called the -- the belt of missouri, which almost surrounds the beautiful part of that city. in this belt, more than 1 million argentine's live under conditions of poverty, which few north americans alive today have ever known and even fewer would understand. this gulf between the rich and the poor and every country south of the border is the
stuff revolutions are made of, not the kind that were known and every south american country before january 1959, but this man's kind, which as revolutions have gone in the world since 1945, is not particularly unusual. but in cuba, and latin america, mr. castro's revolution has been very unusual. fidel castro offered cuba's miserable ones, cuba's poor, most of whom are cuban peasants a better deal and a better life than they had ever known before. this group, with their families, make up about half of the cuban population. he told this group in effect that his revolution would make what pope john meant by christian charity a reality for them. this revolution of castro's was the first in cuban history to base its policies and power on
the peasants. his was one of the very, very few revelations in modern south american history that was not fought between power groups, between the military, between the upper classes. in all other revolutions, the peasant, the poor, the miserable ones took no real part. they could not have cared less who won or who lost, because their lives never changed anyway. castro told that group that the revolution he headed was for them. he gave them a sense of political power. he gave them to understand what political power meant and what could be done with it. they flocked to his support. today, almost two years later, they are his main support, despite an active, growing opposition from the upper and middle classes and from the workers in the cities. they are still very solidly with him as the backbone to the revolution new to the western hemisphere. these are the conditions that give a man like che guevara, castro's right-hand man in
havana, the confidence he felt last month when he said cuba was only chapter one in a much bigger revolution to come in the whole of south america. he wasn't betting his guns. at that time, he was a candidate for the presidency of brazil. during the visit, he said he would follow the example set by fidel castro in his country if he was elected. he also said that brazil had many problems like those in cuba, problems of corruption, problems of inflation. he said there was a long overdue need for basic reforms. three weeks ago, daniel won brazil's presidential election with a landslide majority. his opinions about the cuban revolution has not changed since that visit. chapter two in the battle of america may be written with or without a revolution in south america's largest nation. whatever happens to castro in cuba or to his revolution in
the future, whether castro stays on as the maximum leader, or whether his revolution fails, cuba will never be the same again. it will never go back to things as they were. in south america will never be the same again either. pope john warned that top of the gulf between the rich and the poor had to be bridged. the continent to the south of us will never be the same again, because the word has gotten around that the gulf can be bridged, that for the venezuelan and bolivian mestizo, and the paraguay in, better lives are possible. schools to learn to read and write are possible. one does not have to age quickly and die young because of hard work and disease. there are better houses to live in then mud huts and cases with tin roofs. this word has gotten around.
the problem is this where it is not being spread by christian men who practice a christian charity, as pope john suggested. it's being spread by revolutionaries who practice a very different method, as suggested by the man who offered these goods and services to castro to help him try to stabilize his revelation in cuba. these are soviet jet fighters. they offer a problem. with serious concerns that disturb all americans right now, the problem of communist influence, there are reports that in addition to the building of air fields for planes like these, caveat technicians are in cuba now, building hard missile launching sites which could cover every part of the united states. there are also reports about soviet and communist chinese
technicians building submarines for possible future use by the submarine fleets of the two communist powers. and we would like to have you look into this after a short time out. what we've heard about the activities of russia and china and cuba today has come to us from men like ray robinson, for example, who was a pilot for cube anna airlines. he was a first lieutenant in the united states air force before that. a short time ago, he told our man in miami, alexander rock, about soviet missiles, planes, and submarines in cuba. >> we might have more. >> have you seen the russians and the checks? >> yes, i have seen quite a few. >> what about them? >> i understand.
bases? >> yes we had. we have heard many rumors. they believe there is a submarine base. >> and the reports go on with neil macaulay next. he was an american who fought for castro, he was given a farm in cuba for his services, and then pulled out of cuba to escape the communist takeover there. said mister macaulay. >> there are enough people there behind the iron curtain. there are a number of russians, and chinese communists, and a various assortment of polls and then czechs. the russians are the most conspicuous. they always go in groups of three or four. there's always policemen or communist party members. they don't mix with the people
at all. they wear these heavy boots. they are out of place. they just look kind of foreign there in cuba. >> have you met any? >> i met an agricultural team, and -- >> what do you think these people are there for? do you think the more important thing is to do? >> it's the infiltration of the secret service. there is intelligence agents mixed into this group, and political organizers too. >> ray robinson and neil were talking about the problem of cuba right now, as most americans see it. this is the problem of a communist controlled or
communist influenced military base in the americas, which poses a direct, head on, military touch our homes, factories, and to our future. these are the obvious things that concern and disturb us about a cuban which the only organized political party allowed to operate today in cuba is the communist party. these are the obvious things about today's cuba, but they are not the most important things, certainly not in an age of intercontinental air power. intercontinental ballistic missile power. [noise] [noise] especially
missile carrying nuclear submarines, which mr. khrushchev informed the world in a speech two weeks ago were now operational and a part of the ussr submarine fleet. the soviets and chinese are just aware as we are of the enormous importance of the missile carrying sub as a moving, hard to spot, missile launching platform. no base on land, cuba or anyplace else, can compare with this in today's kind of warfare. this does not mean that military bases on land have no value anymore. but it does mean that cuba is not particularly important to a communist russia or a communist china as a military base. and you see, the leaders of those two communist powers have other, bigger, much more important goals in mind in south america than just a
military foothold on an island in our front yard. cuba is particularly important for the soviet union and communist china and other ways, above which, john q american, all 180 million of us, knows little or nothing. it is very hard for him or for anyone else to see men like these, from the tourist alleys south of the border. these men seldom if ever get into bars, hotels, and gambling casinos of those alleys. but these men and one moved him to the kind of revolution they pull off successfully they're almost two years ago, makes the island of cuba particularly important to both of the communist powers. what is it about those men and their revolution in cuba that's so special? something this fellow is supposed to have decided about 43 years earlier as he tried to make another revolution stick
and work in russia, after the man addressing this crowd is lenin, the father of the first communist govern country in history. lenin had the same problem setting up the world's first communist state. his problem was that russia was supposed to be only one of many states that would explode in revolution after the first world war. it was supposed to be a rising workers and peasants all over the world to lead to a communist world. but this didn't happen. lennon is supposed to have decided at that time that the best way to bring about a communist future for the world adopted by concentrating on revolutions in the advanced industrial nations, but by working for revolutions in the colonies and will recalled the spheres of influence of the empire, britain, france, belgium, another, and portugal, all the rest. lenin is supposed to phrase that decision in these words, and i quote.
the way to root for communism over the west lies by way of kolkata in asia and peaking. all the experts on soviet affairs have not been able to get together on this statement, some say lenin made, it some say he didn't, but it doesn't matter. another soviet leader said much the same thing only a few years ago, this man, shortly before he died back in 1953. stalin said the way to victory for communism in the world lay in an alliance of the soviet union's interest with those of the former colonial and oppressed peoples of the world. the statement has been around much longer, but both lead straight out of the past to much of the kind of history that has been made by the communists since the end of world war ii in asia. these statements have to do
with men like these, we will get into in a moment. >> those statements also lead directly out of the past two these men, who, by fidel castro's own definition, are among the world's former colonial and oppressed peoples. according to that definition, cuba was first made a colony of and oppressed by spain in the early 15 hundreds. well, the spanish american war put an end to spanish rule in their island country. what investment have we made? or are we thinking of making, to see to it that the future will not be khrushchev's or mao is a deng? is this to be our investment
against the communist future? this is a meeting in miami, florida. this is a group of cuban exiles who call themselves the alliance for liberation. these people have one burning ambition today to see cuba free, but this time, free from castro. there are all kinds of cuban groups like these, most of them disunited, disorganized, but intensely, wholly committed to counter revolution against castro. >> i was commander of the base. i was fifth in the army corps. when communists were sent to teach at the school -- last march, i then realize that fidel was also a communist. i had to go underground. i took refuge in the brazilian embassy in havana. after three months, i was transported to brazil and then came to the united states. i am a member of the anti communist christian front and
the alliance for liberation. i am ready to join those already fighting castro. >> this is doctor antonio verona. he was the prime minister of cuba. today, he has an exile and counter revolutionary. then there is the former head of cuba's development bank, where he saw a receipts for money sent to agents working for castro and the communists and the other countries of south america. he escaped from cuba and today is with the democratic revolutionary front. this doctor was once a minister of cuban education. he was a strong anti-batista. today, he is preparing to fight castro. this is captain manuel martinez who left medical school to do in castro and his,
in little or nothing for the bulk of peoples. that is the farming peasants. and free of a way of life that kept them out of the 20th century. he worked out this ambition while he worked at the naval base at guantánamo bay, which like most of tourist alley in havana. was a trans patted bill of united states and cuba. at cohen dynamo. he sought in decent housing, medical care and in medical wages. he heard and on television. and he was converted. he took to the hills with
castro to fight for what he called economic reform. when he met was the kind of economy that's public good life for americans. and this meant industrial development for cuba that would give them what you see on your screen. it meant a drastic overhaul of cuba's farming set up that kept human farmers back in the middle ages. he had no idea about how this could be done. he only knew that it had to be done. and his friend jose martinez agreed with him. josé join castro in 1956 two because at that point, josé had one burning ambition. and that was to see cuba free. free of government and the way of life that allowed with this man called for an interest to take up and haul out of cuban mines such things as for my, manganese, copper and nickel. . josé uc was a minor and although he received pretty
good wages working for a cuban branch of an american company in the united states, he resented the fact that cuba's mineral riches were not being worked in cuba to make more jobs and better lives possible for his people. instead, cuban iron ore has, an example, was shipped off to places like the tight water plants of the bethlehem steel company, off in baltimore, maryland. and way off here, cuban orders were used to make more jobs and better lives possible for americans. josé martinez wanted to see economic reform in cuba to. but is the kind that would force foreign users of cuban minerals and words to mind them and process them in his country. as he saw cuban history, ever since the year 1511, first spain, then the united states had been pulling minerals with little or no benefit to his people. it was time for change and josé
fought his way into heaven with castro to bring about bad change. and it was change that interested pedro jimenez here too. but pedro's interest in change was not quite the same as the others. this man had a burning ambition to and that was to see cubans treated as dignified human beings. that is as the equals of all other men. and right now, there is no subject about which practically all of the world's peoples around europe and north america are more sensitive. just as pedro here is sensitive about racial prejudice. sensitive people like pedro have changed the whole political map of the world since 1945. and revolutions which have just about wiped out the empires and the spheres of influence of west europeans. and in that kind of world, people like pedro have made cuba particularly important to
communist east europeans and to the communist chinese. because you see the kind of world these men live in it shot through with the need for land reform and this is the very thing -- top from cuba. desperately needs, economic reforms, industrial development to change the world from the poor agricultural place it is to the better, more industrialized place it could be, just as josé martinez fought for this in cuba. in that kind of world, hosing eunice have made cuba particularly important to communist russia and china because, those are the kind of interests which are not too long ago, joseph stalin said, the soviet union should line up with in order to bring about a final victory for communism over the non communist west.
because john q american doesn't live in that kind of world. he doesn't see the kind of cuba these men fought over in revolution. for which reason he doesn't really understand how serious a threat to his way of life. the kind of cute but they hope to set up has become. somehow, despite the fact that no person on this planet has a greater number of variety of ways to read about, to hear about, to know about things, there hasn't been much in the tons of newsprint that john q american has read through. and the uncounted bull hours of time he's listened through to help him know how and why the words land reform have been and still or the stuff that revolutions are made of. he hasn't read much about how and why the kind of economic reforms that embarrass and martinez want to see for cuba is so hard for cuba and for so much of the rest of the world to get. and unfortunately for millions
of other americans just like him, there hasn't really been much passed on to him through all those ways he has to know about things. which would disprove the idea that he really is a better human being then cubans or indians or chinese or negros among others. after all, compared to his kind of life with there's. if those people had minds that were just as good as his, and if they can do things just as well as he can, why haven't they done what he's done to live so well? well, let's get into that one after we have a short time out. about two months ago, i spoke to a half dozen young people from different parts of south america who were in the soviet union as students, here at the university of moscow. they're tuition was free, their transportation was paid. all of them were from small
towns and villages in the respective countries. when i finish their studies in this place, they intended to head back to those towns and villages. how did they feel about this opportunity? very grateful, they told me. what kind of program was it that put them in that university in the soviet capital? it was a special program that began two years ago in communist china and last year in the ussr to educate and train young ecuadorian,'s bolivian, paragons, provisions in the rest and the ideas in the ways marxism and communism and also a variety of specialists subjects. those young people trained here sent back to the villages and towns, will wait for the day to do the things that have to be done to stabilize any revolution. if and as castro's revolution goes well, and with communist help, the next 19 chapters of the battle of america are written, the students trained
their will have their chance to step into power in their countries and there isn't much doubt about this. . this will happen for very much the first same reasons -- she del castro could fight a revolution without people trained an economics and in finance and problems of transportation and communications, without training and running businesses and industries, agriculture. but castro could not stabilize his revolution without such people. when i asked those young south americans at the university of moscow this summer would courses they were taking, interestingly enough they were studying economics and problems of transportation, finance, communication and the rest. it is an important characteristic of revolutions that they leave political,
social and economic -- because the people who run revolutions find they cannot trust people they were both against. in order to make their future secure they often used very effective messages to make sure that people like these will not endanger the revolution. this fellow on your screen may have been trained and some important field of government work, but to these men he is the enemy. and in dealing with such enemies, the way you are about to see, what you are about to see is the stuff that vacuums which follow revolutions are made of. you are witnessing an execution of a farmer military commander in cuba.
he has been given the choice. given the command for his own execution. and so enemies disappeared revolutions. it is an important characteristic of the vacuums created by revolutions. it's an important characteristic of vacuums as any good physics textbook will point out. that vacuums can be filled and filled easily. who was there in cuba? among those castro and his revolutionaries can trust? by that i mean not from the upper or middle classes, but from the workers either, because those groups have been in with the government castro threw over. who was there in cuba among the farming peasants from those small towns and villages particularly. who could step in to fill the vacuum after castro came to power? where were the non communist educated and trained people from those small towns and
villages to fill that vacuum? in other words, would force have we prepared? what force are we thinking about preparing now, as the soviet union and communist china are now preparing those young south americans and special schools, would force have we prepared against the day of revolution that was written all over cuba to see for years? as it was written all over asia and africa for years as it is written all over south america? outside tourist alley, that is. those training programs for south american students in moscow in peeking, our communism's investments in the future. mr. stalin laid out through places like cuba as the way to a communist future for the world. this is the same future with mr. khrushchev -- assured the whole world will someday be there.
would investment have we made? are we thinking of making? to see to it at that future will not be -- if this to be our investment against the communist future for the world? this is a meeting in miami florida, and that cities park and this is a crew the cuban exiles who call themselves the alliance for liberation. these people have one burning ambition today. that burning ambition is to see cuba free, but this time free from castro. there are all kinds of cuban groups like these, most of them disunited, disorganized, wholly committed to counter revolution against castro. >> i was commander of the base, i was chief.
when communist was sent to teach schools, i recorded this to fidel. this was lots march, -- towards communist. i had to go underground and took refuge in the brazilian -- and havana. after three months i was transported to brazil, and then came to the united states. i am a member of the anti communist front, and the alliance for liberation. i am ready to join those already fighting castro. >> this is doctor antonio verona. the speaker of the cuba senate. then he was prime minister. today, he is an exile and a counter revolutionary. his group is called the a tentacle party. and there is doctor --
this man headed cuba's development tank where he saw receipts for many sent to agents, working for castro and the communists and the other countries of south america. he escaped from cuba and today is with the democratic revolutionary front. this doctor, once minister of cuban education, he was a strong anti-bautista man, now today he is preparing to fight castro. this is captain manual who left medical school to join castro and his regular revolution only to learn later about his plans to move cuba into the communist world. he heads a group called the counter revolutionary movement of revolutionary recovery. doctor josé went to school and college with fidel castro, today he is the brains behind the christian democratic movement. the fastest growing counter of illusionary movement in cuba. pedro, the former head of castro's air force, he was the
first cuban official, he came to the united states by sailboat and warned the united states investigating community about a communist takeover in cuba. to back up the hoax of those counter revolutionary groups, tools like this are being collected. secondhand weapons of all kinds. they are loaded into small boats like these for increasingly dangerous -- trips to cuba. taking in supplies and bringing out refugees and fugitives from castro's police. in this way, many exiles have gone back to cuba to fight and many of those exiles have died, many more will. up to this point john cue american, you and i face a problem. are those highly emotional disorganized many interested, counter revolutionary cuban forces with no clear cut programs to meet the problems of the cubans that those men fought under castro to correct? are those people armed with the
latest weapons? weapons like these? put in their hands where they practice the use of these weapons, not far from miami florida. are men like these with this kind of training, later to be carried out of the united states in american ships? are these men and these weapons to turn cuba into a battleground again? the question is, are those groups you saw, and the methods you saw there, to be our investment to keep the battle of america from going communism's way and the other 19 countries south of the border? the question is, is this an effective answer to communism? anywhere in the world? how does this solve the problem of land reforms, how does this solve the problem of economic
reform and industrial development? how does the solve the problem of race prejudice? as these things are the stuff revolutions are made up in today's kind of world. let's go big to mr. macaulay, again, to get a view of this. >> you think that the united states should intervene or would you think is the solution? >> i don't have a solution. i would like to see some steps taken. i don't know with the united states should do as far as aiding the cuban people and reading themselves of the communist dictatorship. i think something more has to be done. we have to get these people some sort of help. when else i can't say. would about >> what about the policies of the cubans in the exiled, they have much of a chance? >> frankly, i don't think they
have much a vague chance. the situation gets worse as time goes by. the chances of overthrowing castro diminish with time. the russians are getting a stranglehold on cuba now, they are sending in the arms, the equipment, the planes, the tanks, everything castro needs to put down any popular -- >> there is more to come on the subject in just a moment. we live in a world -- from indonesia, around the world to cuba, it's a world of exploding populations, desperately in need of land reform, economic reforms, in agriculture and setting up industries. and a world sensitive to the point of explosion about the idea held by too many white skinned people, that they are somehow better than dark
skinned people. these are things that revolutions are made of today, but communists did not create them. these problems showed up in human affairs before the first bolsheviks was out of diapers. and these problems would be around to spark revolutions and human affairs if every communist on earth, very conveniently were to kick the bucket and die off this minute. communist did not create the stuff today's revolutions are made of, but they have fed on that stuff from russia to cuba. russian revolution was not a communist revolution back in 1918, but it became one. and nothing did more to keep the communists and business in that country about 40 years ago, than the idea described then by this country and others in europe, to deal with the stuff of revolutions there, by backing russian counter
revolutionary groups with bullets. more than three years of bullets and counter revolutions in russia did not destroy communism there. for two reasons. first, the bullet has not been made yet that can shoot our way out of the kinds of problems that exist in the world of men like these. second, that was the easy answer. the problems that have no easy answer. cuba is not russia. with today's weapons, that country, that island could not only be overrun, it could be wiped out in minutes. but cuba is like russia in the sense that bullets and counter revolution are no better solution today for the problems of land reform, economic reform and exploding populations than they were 43 years ago in russia. look hard at history as it happened. particularly during the past 15
years. 15 years and some 90 billion dollars after world war ii, despite all the military facts, treaties, and the defensive alliances we have put through in the best top hat, cutaway coat and striped trouser kind of diplomacy. despite military assistance, technical assistance, economic aid and programs, communists have fed on the stuff that makes revolutions. they have taken over other people's revolutions right into cuba here in the western hemisphere. for two reasons. first, the dollar has not been printed yet, but can't buy i were way out of the kind of world that they live in. and second, bullets and counter revolutions are still easy answer to problems that have no easy answer. there are no easy answers to
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