tv The Presidency Michael Giorgione Inside Camp David CSPAN October 13, 2021 2:24pm-3:09pm EDT
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admiral michael giorgione gives a behind the scenes account of like at camp david. he served as commander there during the presidency of bill clinton and george w. bush and as the author of "inside camp david", the private world of the presidentialme retreat. >> hello and welcome to another episode of white house history live.le my name is dr. colleen show gun and i'm from the white house historical association and director of the david rubenstein center for white house history. the white house o historical association is a nonprofit, ri nonpartisan organization with a mission to educate americans about the rich and diverse history of the white house and thee people who lived and worke there. our guest this evening is michael giorgione. mike is a f retired rear admira from the navy civil engineer corp. he servedld in a variety of assignments around the world and in his 29-year military career
including asg commander of camp david. after military retirement in 2010, mike hashi worked in prive industry, and now is the chief executive officer of af buildin information systems technology company headquartered in his home town of pittsburgh, pennsylvania. in october of 2017, he published hisld first book, "inside camp david", the private world of the presidential retreat. he speaks often about the book and covered by the "wall street journal," the "today" show, smithsonian, npr, c-span and many. other print radio and television outlets.ue after our conversation mike will be a taking questions from our live audience. please put your questions foror mike in the chat and we will get to as many as possible at the end of our program. welcome tote white house histor live, mike. >> thank you, colleen. wonderful to be here. as most would say it is a great
honor and privilege to serve our navy and nation and i appreciate the time tona share a few stori and insights with our viewers. >> why don't we start w from th beginning. yourll u story with camp david. tell us about how you were selected asd, commander of camp david and what that process was like? >> well we know it is camp david. it is actually a navy command called naval support facility they're mont and it was maintained since it was started in 1942 by president roosevelt. because it is self maintained and 60% of the crew are navy and fleets, a civil engineer corp officer has always been the commanding officer. so in 1998 i was put on a short list of possible officers to be considered, went to the white housent and had the interview wh mr. simons and then the executive director of the white house military office under president a clinton, went throu a visit to the camp, interviewed by the staff about a week later i got the call.
>> amazing. tell us a little bit about your own personal history with camp david? i knew what it was. i visited as an assignment officer when i wasas stationed d.c. in the early 90s and interestingly i left the visit that day talking about the next assignments thinking, man, that is kindto of really difficult place to work. that would be weird to work there some day. and put it away and went on for the next few tours and low and behold as i said in 1998 i was short listed for the interview selected and reported in and in juned of 1999 near the end of president clinton's second term. >> and how long were through? >> just over two years. the last year and a half with president clinton and the first eight months of president george w. bush. so a fortunate timing to wor w with two presidents and support theie and administrations and the eents that occurred there. just gained those insights of two different ways of leading our nation.
>> so let's talk about the history of camp david. the history begins really with franklin roosevelt. tell us why did fdr select that site and what did he like to do when he visited what was not calleded camp david at that tim but i'll let you talk about that. >> very good. thank you. let's go back to 1942. roosevelt loved going out on uss potomac. that was one of the presidential yachts. photo ntni right is the floatin museum in california today. but he loved to get away from the white house and secure his hobbies or interests or talk to world leaders and staff. about it was '41, '42 and so staff said sir, we can't go out on the yachtht any more. and he said find me a place that i could go to get away from the white ophouse. this is before a helicopter squadron existed to fly him away. he had to find someplace
drivable nearby. interestingly, because of the new deal,ct bringing us out of depressionon and the progress administration and part of the civilian conservation corp which put money back into the country and rebuilt a lot of the roads andd parks, there was a place i maryland called the demonstration area also known as campmp number three. roosevelt was given three sites nearby tohe visit. hebe went to all three. when he came to camp number three and he looked at it and said this is it and this is my shang raw law. so he named is shangri-la. so implying a utopian place in the mountains and he had that whimsical nature aboutut naming things and so that was its name until as we know president eisenhower idrenamed it after h grandson, camp david. that is how we know it today.
>> can you describe camp david for a lot of our viewers and listens who i'm sure have never visited camp david v in person d probably will not visit camp david. can you paint a picture of them of what the camp is like? >> sure. i will try. imagine a hilltop park, it is a national park. maintained by thes national par service. great partners of ours. 18 hunelvation and and perfectly manicured yards, a narrow asphalt road that meanders through the camp. and these cabins that you see here and this is the aspen, this is the presidential lot and all of the p cabins have this rough cut oak plank sided with a certain shade off green paint. allre of the roofs are seeder shake single and very fresh. but at night i find it particularly surreal and ominous
at night because it is definitely quiet. no lights except pathway lights. no noise except for a swirl in the tree and no lights, no noises from below, just eerily quiet and peaceful. that adds to the mystique. this is the cabin my family and i lived in and all of the commanding officers do. we are the only family to live inside of the t camp and this i called cedar. >> and how many cabins are in camp david? how big is the site? >> there are about 12 for guest cabins, all named after trees. and president eisenhower started that habit again, roosevelt called the presidential lots the bearss den, eisenhower when he renamed it camp david named all of the tree cabins after trees. he picked aspen because that is the tree of navy eisenhower's home state. and about 20 total that include
the fire department and the clinic, eucalyptus, and the support facilities, the barracks for our single sailors and marines, et cetera. >> so t let's talk about the stf at camp david. you were the commander. what is the size of the military staff at camp david and what types of jobs do they perform? >> sure. about over 200 sailors and marines. fiveai civil engineer corp officers maintain for office and maintenance. we haver one chaplain, officer one supply corp and two marine officers overseeing the marine security company o which is comg out of washington, d.c. alll told you put them together it is just over 200 staff. we also have a white house communications agency debt there attachmentca there called -- in charge of communications, that is a joint command coming out of the main command and downtown. >> d could you tell us how camp
david has changed over the years? it was very rustic when fdr first b came to camp david. there has been some notable additions to the complex. you mentioned there is a. chaplain. so there isha a chapel at camp david. talk a little bit about the buildings an theve activities a how the complex has changed over time? >> go back to fdr again, apparently why the navy has it is t because he took the sailor off the uss potomac who had not had aro job an took them with h to camp david and brought the marines along for security. and fdr only went there during the nonwinter months. truman preferred to go to key west. but put a perimeter around the place, have the trees pushed back o from the cabins, and the duringta eisenhower's time it w winterized and heating was installed in thee cabins. very rustic and still maintained. over the years, for use of the
family and administration, cabins have been added. president nixon during his time puthe a lot of expansion into t camp, expanding aspen, the president's lodge. putting in the hourglass shaped pool,ni adding laurel is the ma entertainment cabin that you see when world leaders visiting and a number of features. it has been modernized. it is a challenge when the presidented visits and when to expand themm but that is been going offer for the past four to five years. a very sequential smart way to keep it current but maintain the rusticde nature on the outside d kinds of the amenities on the inside. it is not a marble and brass four-star resort. it is not meant to be. it is ao rustic, comfortable place to get away to think, to walk anden in privacy and silen andh recreate on your own ore meet with other world leaders as some of the photos depict. the most unique thing on bottom
right of this photo is the evergreen chapel that was donated through private money, gifted to the president of the united states and camp david ans commissioned in 1991 during president george w.h. bush. >> now c how did presidents geto camp david? you talked about fdr within driving distance. bute presidents don't drive to camp david any more, is that correct? >> not ideally. we prefer to them bring them by the marine helicopter and eisenhower was the first to come in by that when they started in, weather permitting, they will fly in on hns 1 or marine one and thenr by motorcade from wherever the last departure is. >> camp david is a presidential retreat, yet you know that presidents often find themselves working at camp david. tell uss a little bit about how it functions as a white house in the t maryland mountains. > thank you.
i think most people recognize no matter who is the president, you're always onqu duty. and there could be a lot of critics skb b what do you when you're off duty or how you do your job. but the fact is you are always on duty y as theou president. and you need time off. we all need time off. and in addition to a second home that someid presidents have, so do not, camp david provides that peaceful getaway for family, friends, and if needed for staff and for world leaders. so i find it has been a great balance from history that presidents go there to get away like the reagan famously went most of the time as a couple to get away. to recreate but to think about things and sometimes bring guests with i them. so every president has used it a little bit different. to me, as an outsider, i think the best balance is you use it for a personal respite for your family andnd friends and then fd it is a great place to bring world leaders to, to talk privily. there is no press. unless you invite the press.
theres is no press in. there is no lights or protesters, no traffic, no planeser flying overhead. serenely and quiet and peaceful and that is what you want. >> how do people get around camp david? is there cars or golf carts or bikes, how do people get around? >> yes, it is golf carts, everyone is assigned a golf cart. we have golf cart 1. and they aree assigned to all o the guests and bicycles available and t pedestrian. went do have cross country trai through thehe woods and in the winter months you could do that and snowmobiling, you saw the president of president ford theree during his presidency. principally golf cartsts to get around or walk. >>on okay. an just a t reminder to everyon we are taking questions at the end of our conversation soio if you do have c questions for mik about camp p david, it is histo, what it is like, please put them in the chat and we'll get to as many a as possible. so let's talk a little bit about of camp david and
the historic events that have taken place for camp david. can you talk about some of these episodes foror them and why presidents might choose camp david for the setting of these historic occurrences. >> i'lln mention four events an thin he'll focus on a fifth one in particular. we see photos of fdr riding churchill to the mountains and or going off fishing in a nearby stream and smoking cigars and havinghe a bourbon or two. but the poignant moment is the bottomom left are them talking about how the u.s. went to war. that ish roosevelt inside of aspen. and that stone hearth was still there and that chandelier is still there. president truman only went ten times in his tenen year, preferd to go toir key west. the president's come there so that isl. the first time fdr. president carter made it famous
in 1978 with the sadat of egypt and israel. during my time, 2000, middle east peace summit president clint brought yasser arafat and the prime minister of israel to try to replicate a similar thing. 2012, president obama hosted the g 8 conference at camp david. the single time that any -- most worldid leaders have been at ca david at any one time. but theri since dent i want to back to is april 1961. president kennedy inaugurated in january,ho succeeding president eisenhower, bay of pigs is being planned behind the scenes with the cia gss and the u.s. govern andst others, passed off to the administration and you see this photo in the top right that becameni a pulitzer prize winni photo called serious steps and what is interesting from this a human and political point is
that president kennedy inherited the operations, it was launched it did not go well and hence the name bay of pigs fiasco. and he reaches across the political and personal aisle and invited president eisenhower to comep to camp david, and help hm understand how to get through this. how do i fix this mess. do i do? it is a poignant moment, i think, because you have the new upstart democrat inviting the old guard, five-star retired general, former republican president there to talk about what to do. and i think it is a very humble and desperate measure but a humble way to recognize leadership and recognize what president typically passes on between f administrations and tk about what to do best for the country. >> you mentioned this already, mike. some presidents and you talk about thisde in your book, some presidents andav first families visit camp david for frequently thanit others. you could talk about the differences in how presidents
and firstla families use camp david and explain why you think that is. >> one,wh i think it depends on children. what are theld ages of presidenl children, i think that dictates are they going to be on the leagues and back in d.c., are most of their friends there or are my children grown and out of the house. i think that is a factor that we would allut experience. two, some presidents have second homes and prefer to go there. some can do both. three, many like the quiet nature, someis -- president clintonor rarely went to camp david his first term but a lot more the second term. sor over term two terms he saw the value. and some prefer to go somewhere else and prefer to entertain elsewhere. you've seen over 80 some years of how they've used it. >> can you share with us one or twor of your most favorite memories from your time at camp
david? >> there is certainly the historic moments that most people recognize becausese of ne the middle east peace summit and working with the state department and madeleine albright to welcome clinton and then meeting yasser arafat and have a photo shaking his hand as president clinton spendnt two weeks trying to forge a middle agreement. watching president bush welcome the blairs to camp david on a weekend just twowo couples gettg to know each other much like you wouldel do with your neighbors. very poignant from the side line. because even though we get to serve there and see things, you're in the world for this brief time and you get to know personal things about the familieshe but you're not of thr world and you have to understand to maintain that decorum that you i know. so i'll tell two stories that are more personal nature because i think it helps to relate to
families andnd parents. first one is the final clinton weekend, four days, nonstop, hundreds of guestss coming through, dinners, a couple of musicians performing in the chapel. just a wonderful event. and got an opportunity to say good-bye and as i'm walking to the helicopter that sunday night, thehe snow on the ground saluting them and thanking them for leading the country andt walking them down to marine 1 for thenf first time, chelsea clinton, 20-year-old studentnt stanford turns to meen and hand me two stuffed animals.y and she said, commander, i've had these in my bedroom for eighto years at aspen. please give them to your aughter and thank your wife michelle for everything you've done. and just a h touching unexpecte moment of course, just a human approach and great keepsakes now for the twowo girls. that is themp first one. andns here is the scene, the fil time i see the clintons in 2001.
the second one is a humorous story, it is in the book, it about the goldfish and it is that f juxtaposition as the commander of the camp and the fact that your responsible for security but yet you liveo insis of the gate you have to go through the gate every time you run errands and it was during the middle east peace summit that michelle had taken the girls down to the city fair, common thing to do if you're at camp david and she's coming back through the gate with the two girls inn the backseat and they each won two goldfish and we have a strict policy no animals at camp david. no pets. and the marine corp guard who knows us and we know all of the marines and they know us and everyone is doing their job. and he said, ma'am, you can't bring pet news the camp. and shehe looked at him with a t o of incredulous look and the tears start to come down their eye and she's looking at him and
he's d looking at her and she's looking back at him and he's doing his job and mom is doing her job, michelle leans in the window and says, they're for dinner and kind of winks. yes, ma'am, please proceed. funny moments likee that you that you realize there areim still people there,e haveul poignant moments in time and we live with rules an regulations get and sometimes y see the human side. and c moms and dads sometimes gs it and that is what it feels like.an thank you. >> so the final chapter in your book is called the true meaning of camp david. could you tell us what isnt the true meaning and is it different forr every president and first family whore spends time there? >> definitely different as i described how different p famils have used it. the bushes had kind of kennebunkport and bush had crawford. butba he loved going to camp dad like his dead and f they spent l christmas there.
sori for time some it is a time for family to come together. during my time the clintons love camp david for thanksgiving. so they went to camp david. and again every president has done it differently. president reagan and nancy loved going by themselves but he did his radio addresses on saturday from the d oral cabin. so they all used it differently. the meaning comes from i think the [ inaudible ]. and it has a theme of a camp david kind of place where the krirt of camp david by one of the premiers during the time about a place where you could come together with trust, withim nature, no press, unless you wanted it there, and just the ability to sit down as people, break bread, share a story, get to know each other and to me that is the truee meaning of cag david. a place for ournd presidents to get away and relax, the best they can, a place to entertain
families and guests and probably one of the most unique places in the world to do that. all within reasonable distance of the whitee house. >> mike, we have some really great questions from our live audience.. nancy fromn facebook asks, i knw that president reagan and nancy reagan rode horses while they were at camp david. is there a stable there and what other activities are available besides swimming? >>ra the only time we've had a stable there,rs a corral when wn the t pony macaroni was kept the for the ,children, the kennedys. otherwise horseback p and i had one incident where president clinton and chelsea wanted to go horseback ridinghe so the natiol park service from d.c. brought the horsess up and we used a bak gate into the wilderness with the secret service on horseback to go through the nearby woods. so horseback riding is possible but s there is no corral today. there isoo skeet shooting, trap mini golf course, a
driving range, snowmobile, cross country skiing, the presidents want to good golfing they go to the nearby golf course and if they want tos fish, they're nearby fishing that we arrange to take them to. there is a bowling alley, a movie theater and a game room and a library. there is a bar, lounge, recreation shop, et cetera. >> david asks, have hikers ever from the mountains ever accidentlyly approached the perimeter of camp david? >> it happens and there are some warning signs subtly put around the camp and you could drive by the road to camp but most people know not to go down it. and we have protocols if you approach the fence there are things to check you out and help you get back to your path. again, it is a no-fly zone so typically no aircraft could fly over camp.ap but i'm sure it happens an
people stumble w upon it. >> didn't fdr make a wrong turn when he was driving to get to shangri-la and comeee across a neighbor that was not too happy to see him. >> yes, it has happened. when we didn't drive around as much as we did humor events and knock on the door. every day life. >> dennis asked what the is longest a president has stayed there. wasn't carter there for a week or more during the middle east peace talks. >> yes, there was a time carter was over a week, during the -- well, almost two weeks for the peace talks. as clinton was there, although clinton went to the g-8 summit in japan in the midterm. president carter also went look at during 1979. and he came back and gave that
"malaise," what it's been called, he talked about the condition of the country, what was going on, we had the hostages taken in tehran, iran. all this was going to, and he secluded himself for almost two weeks, working there during that difficult time in his presidency. but typically, presidents go for a weekend. up friday, back sunday night. >> jeff asks a good question, how did eisenhower get naming rights to name camp david camp david? was there an executive order, was it legislation? or did he just have someone go out with lumber and paint and redo the signs? >> i like the second explanation best. but i don't know. i imagine there must have been something signed to change the name from the shangri-la moniker to camp david. we'll have to check the archives together, colleen. >> right. karen asks, when a president
chooses not to visit camp david very often, how does that change staffing and operations? >> staffing operations don't change. you're always ready, your mission is to be always ready to receive. some presidents let camp david be used by guests. president carter visited with his whole family during president clinton's term. some presidents have allowed staff to use it. but if no one's there, you're just maintaining the place and taking care of it. that can be a morale issue. if no one visits, i had a gap of five months before a visit by president clinton. that's a lot of time, you get rusty, you have to practice at times. some weekends with presidents, you're always on and it becomes an uptempo or operations tempo as we say. >> that's the get gadi has. what happens at camp david when the president is away, what do you do as the staff? >> we have more time to do training, physical fitness programs, contests if time
allows it. more time to send our sailors and marines to schools if necessary. again, you need to always be ready so you have a complete staff. but you're really sitting, waiting, taking care of the place, planting flowers, growing the grass, firefighter training. it's constant. certainly because you're always ready, you're ready to execute when the president does visit and that's what we live for, is those visits. >> jeff asks, has hollywood or the news media for a documentary, for example, ever filmed onsite at camp david? >> harry reasoner with abc news interviewed president ford inside the camp. i believe that's the only time there really was an interview done in that regard in what is camp david. certainly during world events like the middle east peace summit in 2000, the press was there in a secluded area to film the principals coming in, then
they were escorted out on the bus. there have been hollywood guests of various guests over the years, musical guests and sports guests. but no real filming documentaries done on camp david other than from a distance, and from the archives, and any presidential films from the libraries. >> peter asks, what is the reason for the no pets rule at camp david? >> it was self-grown. today, the people who live there, the co is allowed to have a pet. it depends on what's happening in history. reading the book about the incident with nixon's french poodle and the camp commander's dog, it was a humorous time and why it dictated some changes. today we're a little more reasonable, i would say, about the pet rule. >> kathy asks, you mentioned the
library. what kind of books are in the library and does it depend upon the administration? do the books change depending on the president or first family? >> we keep some archives in an open public library near the game room. so the history, that's where the white house christmas cards, holiday cards are kept and all the presidents send out, we put those in the movie theater and the library. in the cabin holly, which is where carter chose to meet with sad at and begin because of the smaller nature, i like that room because that library has most of the presidential papers, so this library has the presidential papers that are published and some historical novels about the military services and the presidents. that's what i mean when i refer to two libraries, one for public
use on the use of camp david, and the second, the presidential papers. >> missy asks, do you have any stories about the johnson years in camp david, lbj? >> chuck howell, age 95, lives in coronado, california today. chuck and his family were there from the kennedy to johnson years. in the book it talks about johnson being particularly persnickety about absolutely scalding hot water in the shower and how chuck and the crew worked endlessly to try to make it as hot as possible, and how to deal with the air conditioning, all those little things that all of us fight in our own homes. chuck howell talks about that transition from kennedy, reacting to the assassination, bringing president johnson and his family into camp. >> grant asks, has president biden visited camp david, do you know? >> he's been there eight times so far, which is pretty good. he leaves most weekends, if you've read in the paper recently, going to delaware, rehoboth beach.
he's been to camp david eight times since january as president. he was there a number of times as vice president. >> tiffany asks, is camp david ever damaged by bad weather? >> there's wind that will sometimes knock down trees in the catoctin national park. but fortunately nothing serious has hit the camp. >> marion asks a good question, has there ever been a wedding at camp david? >> one wedding, president george h.w. bush's daughter was married there in the chapel, evergreen chapel, one wedding. >> and saul from facebook asks, what was the biggest surprise you ever had while working at camp david?
>> the day the sprinklers went off when president clinton was chipping golf balls behind aspen. the sprinklers go off, i didn't witness it, but secret service are watching nearby. he moved, the sprinklers went off again, and he threw his clubs into the golf cart, he drew over to the drive range, the bags weren't secure and the clubs fell all over the asphalt. it's humorous, but you can deal with the frustration of someone dealing with that. i tried to make light of it on the night he left camp david, it was a poor attempt at humor. you learn the balance of when to be serious and not too serious and when not to be too humorous. i learned not to try to be too humorous. that was the funniest time. fortunately i had no serious incidents during my time. there were tough things going on in the world. i left the month before 9/11 occurred. and there was a whole -- we spent a lot of time describing what that commander went through at the time. but light moments during my time, fortunately. >> charlene asks, how much
heads-up do you get to know when a president is coming? >> depends on the president. on change of command day, 10:00 a.m., typically a ceremony, 10:00 a.m., and my predecessor knew president clinton wasn't even scheduled to come at all, 10:00 a.m. ceremony, that morning about the ceremony, we get word, the president is coming that night. so a fascinating pucker factor to realize you're about to inherit a camp, you know nothing, really, about what goes on, you've had briefings, but you're the new co, you're driving the car, it's brand-new. i found that to be a very fortunate event for me, because it taught me just to sit back, let people do their jobs. all i have to do is get dressed up, walk down there, introduce myself, shake hands, salute, and that's all i did that first day. but i learned a lot about my crew. and it helped to set the humility about, let people do their job, train them, have their back, support them, let them do their job. so that was no notice. the bush administration, very scripted, we always knew well ahead of time. again, it depends on the person. >> jane asks a good question. can the vice president and his or her family go there as well? >> if the president allows him,
them to. it's happened in history. not a lot, but occasionally. as i said earlier, sometimes the president won't let staff or others go away for leadership retreats. president obama did that a lot for his staff members, a leadership retreat. so the commander at the time and the chaplain would welcome people and they would do what they were there to do and go back on a sunday. so it's varied. >> carolyn asks, if you know this, do you know how the pandemic has affected camp david? are there new procedures in place? >> very observant of the mask rules early on. very observant of vaccinations. again, this is telling of the trump administration, beginning of the biden administration, everyone is very observant of following the rules, either by the white house, the white
house, what the president wants, or by the navy's health protection division. very appropriate response. i don't think it's held back -- maybe it's held back from a lot of outside guests coming. and certainly no world leaders have been there in five years. i think that will open up with world leaders attending more. >> bill says i think i know the answer to this question, but i'll ask it any ways. is camp david ever open to tours? can the average american ever go to camp david? >> bill, you're spot on. it is not open. there's a fake website that advertises weekend tours. don't believe that. the crew members can have guests, so know someone who works there or know the president and be invited as his or her guest. >> jane asks what the food like at camp david? good question.
>> we run a galley and that's available to guests, if they want it. there's the lounge and bar with bar food available. for visits we work with the first family or first lady to work the menu. we have well trained culinary specialists who work with the president's chef or the white house navy mess to prepare the meals. for world leaders we work with the state department especially for kosher meals. kosher meals were brought up from d.c. to provide meals for all guests. we have a galley that serves the crew that works there. >> jackie asks what is something that you think every american should know about camp david? >> it's always on jeopardy, it was first called shangrala.
it was first established in 142 by president roosevelt. >> missy asks what's the highest rank from someone at the navy or marines? >> the camp commander is a commander. he might will selected. >> the last question this evening, several viewers have asked this. why did you decide to write the book on camp david and what were
things fascinating that you learned while researching to write the book? >> thank you. that wonderful final question. on the day of change of command, there's a photo of my wife and two daughters ages 7 and 4. my wife michelle. she hands me this journal. the first page of journal is a scroll note of the two girls saying dear daddy, please write stories about the president's brill. it was humorous. i would have never thought of it. i would sit down and write down what happened. i did it through the clinton administration, bush. i put that away in my roll top desk and never opened it for 17 years. never thought i could write a book. there was rae union weekend during one of the previous commanders at camp david. a lot of the former commanding
officers and spouses were there. some meeting for the first time. many of them were talking about trying to capture some of the history. i learned later that many had written their own stories. it was possible. i knew i wasn't going to write anything that was unattractive to any president. i thought we with bring the history of the camp. a lot of camp together. other cos together. you'll see their photos and use it that way to become a historical narrative. it was to show respect and tell
the stories about the inside workings and how the military supports the presidency around the world, 24/7. >> thank you so much, mike, for joining us on white house history laif. thank you to our viewers for watching. >> the founders were brilliant and gifted, but they were flawed. they could imagine and successfully bring off winning a car against the dom nants military power.
the secular society from the woints of view from government thought. in the american republic which every one from aristotle forward thought you had to have. all those were great clients and amidst the triumphs there's two enormous tragedies. one is the failure to reach a just accommodation with native americans and the other is the