Skip to main content

tv   The Civil War Union General John Pope  CSPAN  December 28, 2021 11:21pm-12:22am EST

11:21 pm
he spent history for more of this date in history post. >> hi, buddy. i am john tracy, a newer member >> hey everybody. my name is john tracey, i am one of the newer members of emerging civil war. due in no small part to the recruitment efforts of the
11:22 pm
person i am introducing today. i am here to talk about dan wells, who is a very long time seasonal ranger at gettysburg military park, where is a had the absolute pressure of meeting and working with him for a couple of years. he's also the co-author of the book on the gettysburg campaign, coauthor of the immediately coming out book, and the co-editor of the emerging civil war tent never surrey series, which has just recently come out, one on gettysburg, and one on tele-houma. with not much else to say, i want to introduce dan wells who is here to talk about the man we love to hate, john pope. so here is dan welch, the man with too many laps, and not enough free time. [applause] >> good evening everyone.
11:23 pm
you know, one of the things that i have not shared with a lot of you as my absolute love of the southern rock band leonard skinner. i have been very fortunate over the last several years, have visited all the graves of those who perished in october 1977. i have heard some wonderful stories from one of their former managers and crew. one of the stories that i have heard is that leonard skinner was getting very popular since the 70s were wearing on, and their game was rising. a lot of the acts that they would open for would talk to their for manager and say do not let them close, we cannot top that! this would be from anne's life, now we know exactly the situation they were in trying to follow gary gallagher. in all honesty, i would like to begin tonight by thanking my colleagues and all of the members at ecw for their
11:24 pm
tireless work that goes into this yearly symposium. it is an honor to be back in person and to have that camaraderie over this weekend to talk about this defining moment in american history. it is even more of a special occasion for me this evening because, growing up my superheroes did not wear capes. it was historians that i got to meet, the battlefield that i got to go to, and the documentaries i got to watch with those talking heads. the opportunity to be able to talk about an interesting person like jon pope tonight in a room of such notary's, it is a true honor. thank you. so where do we begin this evening? we are going to begin with perhaps one of the most famous moments in john pope's career, and i ask you to bear with me as i read through these dynamic words that were written 159 years ago. that this military proclamation of popes would begin with this. let us understand each other. i have come to you from the
11:25 pm
west where we have always seen the backs of our enemies. from an army whose business it has been to seek the adversary when he was found. whose policy it has been to attack and not defense, with one instance has the enemy been able to place our western armies and defensive attitude. i have been presumed to be called here to lead you against the enemy. it is my purpose to do so. and that -- i'm sure you long for an opportunity to win the distinction you are able of achieving. the opportunity and endeavor that i am able to give you. meanwhile, i desire to you to dismiss from your mind certain phrases, which i'm sorry to find so much in vogue amongst you. i hear constantly of taking strong positions, and holding them. of quote, lines of retreat, and quote. and of quote, base of supply. the strongest position of a soldier should desire to occupy
11:26 pm
one from which he can easily advance against the enemy. let us study the probable retreats of our opponents, and leave our own to take care of themselves. let us look before us and not behind, success and glory our and advance. disaster and the shame lurk in the rear let us act on this understanding that it is safe to predict that your banners shall be inscribed with many of glorious deed, and your names will be dear to your countrymen forever. for many contemporaries of john pope and historians over the last 159 years, this military cop lemay shun will mark john post military career in the united states. a narrative that continues into modern works. a narrative that for everything after this military proclamation for the next several weeks across july and
11:27 pm
august of 1862 that everything is downhill from jon pope. and it will eventually lead to his banishment to the west. and a fall from grace in which he will never recover. tonight, as we make our way through this program, and talk about the events that will lead to that fall of grace, i will challenge you to think differently about this moment, in the summer of 1862. to think differently about this idea of john pope falling from grace in the eyes of the lincoln administration, and in the eyes of many other commanding officers and the federal army. i am going to challenge you tonight to think about that word, banishment, used by pope 's contemporaries in 1862, and utilized by historians over since. so where does our story begin, than? to understand jon pope, and understand the events that will eventually take place in 1862,
11:28 pm
we need to understand where john pope came from. he was born in march of 1822 in louisville kentucky, and he is the son of nathanael pope a very distinguished figure from the states, a territorial secretary and delegate from the territory of illinois, later a federal judge in the illinois territory as well. pope would receive a very strong education, he would graduate from the united states military academy, 17th and his class of 56, graduating in 1842. he would commission a vet second lieutenant. but despite this pedigree, pope has even more connections that will propel him as the -- all of those years later. first and foremost, john pope is a collateral descendant of george washington. his uncle was the united states senator from kentucky. his father is a friend of a
11:29 pm
than growing in popularity illinois lawyer, perhaps you have heard of him, abraham lincoln. his brother in law, the gentleman by the name of -- these men will become best of friends and will ultimately book and our story tonight. last but not least, the cousin of john pope, had married the sister of a woman who would later be known as mary todd lincoln. pope has an incredible connection to the very history and the fabric of society, and aristocracy, and political greatness in this country, as well as the ability to secure that appointment to west point. in the air is upon his graduation, before the american civil war, people go on to serve several years in florida, he will help the northeastern border between the united states and canada. upon the war in mexico, he will fight under zachary taylor, in the battles of monterrey, and win a vista, in which he will be appointed a first lieutenant
11:30 pm
and captain respectively. following the mexican american war, he will work as a surveyor in minnesota. he would go on to demonstrate the ability of the red river, and serve as a chief engineer in the department of new mexico from 1851 to 1853. he would be promoted regularly, up to the rank of captain by 1856, and in the years just immediately before the american civil war he would spend the remainder of those years serving for the pacific railroad. to say that john pope performed service to his country before 1861 is an understatement. the experiences he gained through the 18 40s and 18 50s, his training as a top graphical engineer, will propel him to the front of the pack as the war began, to bring those experiences, to bring that understanding of terrain and topography and commanding men on the battlefields of a war that is beginning to break out.
11:31 pm
during the secession winter of 1860 to 1861, jon pope is serving on lighthouse duty. he's not the only one. several other high ranking officers in the federal army will have that same privilege, one of which will be george gordon meade. upon lincoln's election, his successful election in the fall of 1860, he will write a seven-page letter to the newly elected president. and he's going to start that letter by giving a lot of advice to the president elect on the state of the united states military at the time. that takes a lot of gusto, if you will, to write a seven-page letter to the newly elected president telling him your thoughts on the state of the united states military. not only will he give lincoln his thoughts on that. he will also include a warning, a caution, if you will, to be careful of some of the high ranking officers that lincoln should trust, as they might be secessionists. it's not just
11:32 pm
advice that pope offers lincoln. it's not just advice that pope has included in this letter. it's a way for pope to insert himself into lincoln's inner circle right at the outset of the war. and it's a personality trait, a desire for promotion, that will come back into pope's career time and time again. pope believes that this letter will serve not only as an entrance way into lincoln's inner circle but it would put him in good graces of the future president, to serve for future promotions for himself. pope will become incredulously ambitious, starting here in the early days of the american civil war. his never-ending to desire to rise through the ranks of his profession will all linked back to this moment during the secession winter of 1861. but as the american civil war plays out, this personality trait will become a double edged blade. though at times it will advance him to the ranks and glory he hopes to achieve,
11:33 pm
it will also set him back as well. when lincoln finally gets the seven-page letter, i can only imagine, as he's opening it up, sitting at his home in springfield, saying, what is this? who is this guy sending me this letter? but lincoln reads it carefully. and decides that he is a promising, upcoming officer and so he sends an invitation to john pope to be one of four officers selected to escort the president-elect to washington, d. c.. the train will leave from illinois on february 11th of 1861 and pope would later recall that he became a member, though a very insignificant, one of the party which surrounded mr. lincoln and that wonderful journey the like of which has never been made before since. at some point following his escort service, to washington d.c. of president lincoln, pope would offer link in his services as an aide to the president. instead, he
11:34 pm
would be appointed brigadier general of volunteers with a date of rank to be effective to may 17th of that year and he would be immediately ordered to the state of illinois, to recruit volunteers for the burgeoning war effort. now, upon making his way out to illinois, he wouldn't linger along in that duty of recruiting. in the department of the west under the command of major general john fremont. pope assumed control of north and central missouri of july with a portion of control along the mississippi river. it's during this time that we begin to see popes desire for a promotion and glory. and he'll enter a new phase, a new trait, that will once again raise its head in years of this war -- the utilization of politics to get what he desires. it's at this moment that pope, detesting fremont, will utilize political connections behind fremont back to get him removed from command. the ultimate goal,
11:35 pm
we do away with fremont, gets promoted to the post. fremont it's not oblivious to what is going on. and he is convinced that pope has horrific intentions. for fremont's career and of course for fremont himself. and that is demonstrated, in particular, by pope's lack of action in following some of fremont's offensive plans in the state of missouri. boy, that's going to sound real familiar come august of 1862. a general that lacks aggressive offensive actions on the plains of manassas. historian allan nevins will -- he said actually it's incompetence and timidity to offer a better explanation of pope at this moment than treachery. though, he certainly showed an insubordinate spirit. it's another trait that pope will continue to refine as he continues to rise through the ranks. this continued trait of
11:36 pm
insubordination. of orders from his commanding officers. by the end of 1861, after a minor action, at blackwater missouri, he is continue to rise in notoriety. among staff and other officers at the department and washington d.c.. with his latest victory at blackwater, he now has proof to back up his claims of his reputation, of how good he is as a commanding officer. and he is going to utilize something he hasn't done yet by the end of 1861. he's going to utilize the press. and it will bring more attention to him and more bragged he show -- the more the press plays in how good an officer he is. and it starts to work. attention is beginning to drop to him. all that attention will focus on replacing john c fremont. and who to replace him? that attention is going to be coming from major general henry
11:37 pm
w alec. or even moreas pope is slowly by rising through the ranks, his stars on the rise. setting him up for an even more drastic followed less than a year later as the historical narrative of the last 159 years would argue. pope himself is a very interesting fellow. i'll give you some of the adjectives that would describe general pope as a person in 1861. gruff, bombastic, foul mouthed, direct in speech, decisive in action, blunt, despondent, and silent. -- i couldn't ignore this quote from a soldier, the 39th ohio -- describing pope in 1961. he says -- you know what a universal knowledge he has of cuss words. and with what artistic ease grace and them he
11:38 pm
could use them. he continues to rise after that minor affair in missouri, in december 1861, one of his first setbacks would occur earlier the following year in 1862. in february of 1862, pope would find his wife, clara, in very poor health. she had many pre-existing health conditions and now, she was suffering even more from a recent pregnancy. pope is despondent. his recent command from 1861 had been broken up. there is no active campaign in sight. and he is giving serious consideration to resigning his commission. he decides that perhaps it's best to pack up his wife, take her to her parents house, and to ride out the pregnancy and its challenges. in the company of family. post would write to his father in law -- saying that since she is so far away from her home and her life, it must be so uneasy, it fills
11:39 pm
me with anxiety for her. pope is also despondent and silent because he's not getting promoted. he is having several small victories. he got fremont out of place. his stars beginning to rise. he's getting noticed from higher ranking officers. in washington d. c.. but where is the promotion? for this man, so eager to have his star rise. now, pope would be recommended by two prominent illinois politicians that would press the state governor of illinois and the treasurer to get a regular army commission up to the rank of brigadier general. it's not working. they are applying all this pressure on the lincoln administration. and he is getting nowhere in this promotion. they will lash out at lincoln. they say, he is already startled at what i have done. mr. lincoln's treatment of me has been so shabby that i would feel almost humiliated today to receive an appointment from him. what an interesting fellow.
11:40 pm
to say the least. clamoring to rise and get a promotion, the opportunity may be there and i am too humiliated to accept. but several days after he writes to accept, popes star begins to rise again. he overcomes setbacks. he is given the chance at an independent command which, if successful, almost guarantees a regular commission and a promotion. henry howick will promote pope to the command of the army of the mississippi on february 23rd, 1862. as pope is willing to leave and accept, he talks with his wife to assure her that he would be okay in his absence and so he went. pope would be given the command of 25,000 man's largest command yet he is ordered to clear a large obstacle from the mississippi river. he wants to capitalize on
11:41 pm
recent victories. he wants to open the river, the mississippi river, as far as memphis. and cut off the retreat of garrison at columbus. it will lead to one of the most successful campaigns of that time. on movement on newman's rage on island number 10. he would capture new madrid and his commanding officer how like would he praise on this already self-confident general. he would say i congratulate you on the success, and your toils and exposures, you have given a fatal blow to the rebellion in missouri. and proved yourself brave members of the new army of the west. pope would continue to mean -- and open the waiver as far as memphis. pope will receive credit that
11:42 pm
his campaign is a bloodless victory. 7000 prisoners and 23 pieces of heavy artillery. and huge quantities of supplies. and a total loss for popes men during these actions was 32 man. he would later report that his own success, that he had produced, delighted him with a profound satisfaction. so everyone is heaping praise on jon pope for these early actions in 1862. and pope will once again rely on what he did, following that small victory in black water, missouri, in 1851. he will utilize the victory and the media coverage thereof to resume his petition for a regular army promotion. pope will write to his benefactor's, saying, you will see from the papers and the
11:43 pm
general alex dispatch, that we have great success. i think if illinois governor, richard yates, will telegraph lincoln at once, he will now promptly transfer me as a major general, independent of the ratification of myself, enabling me to give my staff increased rank if lincoln's telegraphed in the spur of this victory. it just so happens that one of his political benefactor's son was on popes staff. his two political benefactor's right lincoln, promote jon pope to the regular army, as a token of gratitude. give one of her sons a position in the united states army who has so gloriously achieved the just reward we ask for him. now lincoln, by this point in time, has become quite accustomed to pope's personality and his relentless ambition. and one of the things that i love about how lincoln handles some of these delicate
11:44 pm
situations if he does it in a very folksy charm way. it's very plain and easy to understand, but firm. lincoln rights back to these benefactor's. he says, i fully appreciate his splendid achievements with their invaluable results, but you must know that major general ships in the regular army are not as plentiful as blackberries. [laughs] despite this, his victories along the mississippi we're enough to pressure the promotion by lincoln. pope's service in the west was not done. pope would immediately take part in the following campaign of the siege against -- and during this campaign, pope would again illustrate one of those personality traits we learned about, insubordination. during the campaign, a siege would advance the column and disobey alex scripture of
11:45 pm
moving no faster than the other elements of the union army. in this case, the command of fuel. he will also disobey an order from henry halep about four miles east of current. this new trait, of disobeying orders, including not expelling one of popes tools to promote himself. henry howick had ordered the removal of the press during the campaign and pope is yet again a subordinate. he loves gossiping about others to those in the media and the press. henry would write, pope was no doubt unable man and a good soldier. but he talks too much of himself. of what he could do and what he ought to do, contrary to good discipline, and all propriety, and very free comment and their
11:46 pm
fellow commanders. in essence, what villard is saying is that pope would become the consummate self promoter. and i will pause with that thought to let you know that i have some books back there at the end of the program this evening. >> [laughs] >> by the middle of june, june 19th, pope receives a telegram from edward stanton, secretary of war. saying that if you can be absent long enough from your command, i would be glad to see you at washington. when pope receives this from stanton, he is visiting with his family at st. louis. his wife, clara, has just given birth to their first child, named clara horton. and pope does not have time right now or the desire to go to washington d.c.. he has time off from an active campaign that has just wrapped up. his wife has just given birth.
11:47 pm
the family are together. not interested in going to d.c.. and so, pope starts asking for advice. and halleck writes back and says, the secretary of war can have you back. and your service here is of the greatest possible importance. so stanton will send a second telegram. and between this exchange, nowhere in there is a reason given why he is being summoned from st. louis to the nation's capital. least of which, does pope expect a transfer to the east. this is taking place throughout june of 1862. popes man take a moment to reflect on his abilities as their commander while he has commanded them throughout the campaign. captain cyrus carpenter, one
11:48 pm
day future governor of illinois, would write that pope was pugnacious and conceited. i do not think much of general pope as a man -- but i consider him a good general. the cavalry said that pope appeared to me like another one of those sound minded, honest soldiers. i beg you to remember that as we go further in the program. would i learned about him cause me to believe that he understood his business and attended to it. general paul pope possessed the right conception of the american soldier. that is to say, he allowed the men in the ranks to be the real heroes of the war. and i was sergeant said that he was, to be, sure given to blowing a little. as pope is preparing to head to washington d.c., two others known to him will comment on the situation in the moment that pope is leaving to d. c.. captain oscar jackson -- would
11:49 pm
note of pope's departure that it is with regret we parted with pope, who for so long time, had held our entire confidence as a commander. -- goodbye, pope, your grave is made. pope arrives to washington d.c. on june 24th for what he describes as an enthusiastic welcome. it is also reported in the philadelphia inquirer this way. upon his arrival, his wife, claire, wrote him a quick note. and this movement out to washington d.c., this order, this meeting was perfectly -- and she was perfectly convinced that all this was leading to a greater purpose. and that greater purpose was that pope would not return to the west. she would write this in her letter. i am almost sure that you will now have banks in fremont and
11:50 pm
perhaps mocked owls departments. and you will take this field against jackson. it is possible you will supersede mclelland. but i do not, with my present light on the subject, consider it likely. how clairvoyant was popes wife in that moment? on june 25th, pope has arrived to washington d. c.. he has his first interview that day with secretary of war and wind stanton. he goes and sits with stanton. and they sit and they look at each other. and they size each other up. acet.they have some very faint chitchat about lighthearted topics. and that's it. stanton shares no reason to pope, one day, after being in the sea, why he is called back. there is a reason for it. stanton cannot say anything until abraham lincoln gets back to washington. lincoln had left for west
11:51 pm
point. he kept his departure a secret from those in washington d.c.. and the secret from the press. he is heading up to meet with general winfield scott, to quote, ask my views and writing as to the positions to be made. lincoln is traveling to west point to ask winfield scott to ask scott if pope is capable of commanding several disparate armies in the eastern theater. it sounds like lincoln is placing a lot of confidence in hope and that perhaps pope's braggadocious eo has something to back it up. although scoffed nor lincoln specifically do not mention pope in this conversation, around the suitability of whether or not he can take this command, in any of the accounts were turned down about this meeting, it was certainly discussed. lincoln on his return back from west point has a train stop in new jersey and he shares with the press then why he has gone to west point. and he eludes to
11:52 pm
the situation that is brewing back in washington d. c.. lincoln said, when the birds and animals are looked at through a fog, they are seen to vanish. and so it might be with you if i were to attempt to tell you why i went to see general scott. i can only say that my visit to west point did not have the importance which has been attached to it. the concerns matters that you understand quite as well as if i were to tell you about them. now, i can only remark that it had nothing to do whatever with making or an making any general in the country. secretary of war, you know, held a pretty tight rein on the press. so that they shall not tell more than they ought to. and i'm afraid that if i blabbed too much he may draw tighter reign. lincoln will arrive back to d.c.. and on the following day there will be another meeting between pope and edward stanton. they will meet in private chambers in the war department. stanton will finally reveal to pope that there is been a fiasco in
11:53 pm
the shenandoah valley between jackson and fremont. stanton concedes in this meeting that lincoln and himself, they are to blame, for all that has developed and come across from this fall out of this most recent campaign in the shenandoah valley. stanton says, look, we made mistakes in the following ways. first of all, we placed political patrons in command of these armies. we shouldn't have done that. we also shouldn't have tried to regulate their movements from washington d. c.. after these commands were defeated across keys and ports, republic stanton finally is given to what treasury secretary has been arguing for weeks. what he has been arguing is that these two armies need to be united under one commander. and following, this, lincoln and --
11:54 pm
the genesis for stanton calling pope. east stanton reveals there is going to be an objective for this new new army. several. the first objective will be to protect washington. objective too, a defend the shenandoah valley and objective three, disrupt the virginia central railroad in the neighborhoods of charlottesville and gordon's hill. by accomplishing these objectives, particularly threatening that vital rebel rail link with the shenandoah valley, the administration, lincoln and stanton, hope that would compel the confederates around washington d. c. and opposite washington d. c., opposite richmond, around richmond and opposite mcclelland's army, that they would pull away from mclelland and it would ease mcclelland's way into the city of richmond. stanton tells pope at that moment he's been called east. it's at that time that stanton talk stops talking and they just look at each other.
11:55 pm
there is this long awkward silence. stanton finally says, you don't seem to approve the arrangements i've outlined for you. pope responds, mister secretary, i entirely concur to the wisdom of concentrating these widely scattered forces in front of washington d. c.. and using them generally as you propose. but i certainly do not view them with any favor or proposition to place me in command of them. the title of of tonight's presentationtonight's presentatn popes reluctant rise. for the last 18 months, he's been doing everything he can to rise through the ranks. but now he is saying, i don't want this command. stanton is annoyed, to say the least. stanton is saying, look, you should be flattered that i brought you here. that i am offering this command. pope said, i am grateful but i don't want this station. i don't want this. command pope is being reluctant to rise in this occasion.
11:56 pm
stanton says, what do you mean. ? why don't you want? this pope begins to explain. first of all, there are three generals of these disparate armies. and all are my senior in rank. if we brought these armies together and i commanded them, it would humiliate those generals. they would be resentful and those sentiments would thusly be carried to the troops under their command. so pope continues to explain those things. he will decide what's best. and at that moment he decides it's not best for him, not best for his reputation, not best for his command abilities. not best for his command in the west. pope would later right at that moment, my assignment to command the army of virginia by the president, naturally occasion dissatisfaction among a number of officers and no doubt a good deal of severe comment wise was
11:57 pm
indulged in. no one stopped to inquire whether it was my own act or wish that i came to washington. or whether such a transfer of military arrangement was or was not satisfactory to me. i did not desire a transfer. but he had been summoned to another theater, to only add to this already tense situation, if he was commanding the three disparate armies. pope also tells them, it will take a long time to organize these armies and disciplined them. and get them better trained in the role of being a soldier. pope said, in short, i should be much in the situation of a strange dog without even the right to run out of the village. for the command he was to be given, he said, quote, it is of a four lauren hope over the most unfavorable conditions possible for success. stanton is unconvinced. he says, okay, i hear your ideas of why you don't want to do this. but i've got to talk to lincoln about it. so the following day, lincoln, stanton and pope meet
11:58 pm
privately. at the end of the conversation, lincoln concludes that pope is staying in the east and he is taking this command. on june 27th, pope will soon command the army of virginia. lincoln has chosen pope for political purposes, not for his battlefield abilities. lincoln is also not at this time ready to relieve general mcclelland. there are other factors going into this decision. secretary chase and others have chosen pope because he will fight a hard, relentless contest, unsparing of southern populists especially in virginia. chase is arguing to lincoln about this command, primarily on the grounds of policy. and doing so with patronage. stanton's sole objective for pope is to humiliate mclelland. imagine being placed in the situation, you told the commanding officers, this is not the command for me. it will not be successful. and being placed in this position with
11:59 pm
all these sub contexts in mind, you are now expected to be successful on it. pope dim yours again and says, i don't want this position. send me back west. and the question comes at this moment for historical debate. who else would be the right fit? lincoln administration needs someone that is outspokenly republican. anti slavery, check. suggesting easing african americans for federal military service? check. willing to wage a hard war against the civilian populace? check. and a commander that is aggressive? all of these things that mcclellan is not. the new york tribune would know that pope was not the type of man to sit and wait. he's a man of action, a man of bayonet. the philadelphia public ledger would write that pope would bring order out of chaos in the
12:00 am
shenandoah valley. pope takes command and eventually pope is going to be called to different meetings with lincoln and different members of the cabinet and stanton. lincoln and stanton are looking for some advice from pope. mcclellan on the peninsula. mcclellan is screaming for reinforcement, lincoln and stanton are saying no, pope is saying all of this is bad news down there on the peninsula and basically tells lincoln and stanton the reality of the situation. pope said perhaps the biggest mistake been occurring is mcclellan's withdrawal toward the james river. at this moment, for a fourth time, pope says it's a big mistake what he's doing, if you do not order him to halt press the james river, i would prefer to return to the west. lincoln says no. again pope is reluctant from man so ambitious, why is he turning this down over and over and over again? but popes stuck with his new
12:01 am
role and he will begin to deal with the army of virginia and getting it ready for the next campaign. part of dealing with the army of virginia is dealing with the consequences and follow from the most recent campaigns they've experienced against jackson. i am having a problem here with our slide advancer. well, we'll just keep looking at pictures of those three guys. [laughter] i've always admired stanton's facial hair so -- [laughter] as he gets the army of virginia together, what he realizes is the things he talked about our holding true, there army of virginia is in the lowest possible sense, their supply situation is disastrous, hardly any calvary to rely on, most of the calvary men have no forces so he sets upon the task of
12:02 am
getting them ready as bestie can for a campaign and part of that is to issue these orders become so famous. the most of which was his military proclamation. that's the opening of many other offensive orders pope will issue. including general orders number five which is going to order off the land, general orders number seven holding local citizenry accountable for damage to railroad tracks, railroad cars, attacks on wagon trains, strugglers and etc. number 11 arresting all disloyal male citizens within union army, fear of operations if you will. all of these things have great effects and military proclamation damaged them around the army of virginia, ceric relationships with mcclellan and his command and others, these other orders pope issued his
12:03 am
gaining respect of the men and rank-and-file of the army of virginia. these orders are not radical. john hennessey respected historian on second manassas campaign for right that these orders are calculated out with the federal government changing approach to the war made necessary by failure or at best, stalemate on the battlefield. the goal of these orders is to bring hard edge of more to the southern people as a whole. in the end, these orders pope issues would serve as a political weapon by lincoln in the lincoln administration against mcclellan and conservative approach of work. john pope is going to wage a new style of warfare in the summer of 1862 in virginia. when pope finally get command, he's commanding from washington d.c., he's made an arrangement with lincoln, he wants mcclellan removed from command, lincoln tells him no, not ready to
12:04 am
remove him from command so they make a compromise. pope is the one responsible for bringing henry, did you know that box pope says they won't release mcclellan how did you bring my former commander in the west, henry come out here and supervise the armies in virginia? lincoln agrees but there is text to the compromise. you are my de facto military advisor. pope will have to organize his army and organize a campaign while he is still stuck in washington d.c. to prepare for the second manassas campaign ultimately as it would become known, objectives of the campaign he's given, not his objectives, the objectives given are very limited. the first objective for this developing campaign for virginia, to cover washington d.c. number two, oppose and delay confederate offense, last extremity to allow the army to make their way to alexandria and fredericksburg and link up with the army of virginia. number three, pope to attack
12:05 am
critical rail line communications in charlottesville forced robert e lee to send enforcement away from the confederate capitol and mcclellan can hopefully turn the tide of campaign on the virginia peninsula. these challenges, all of these things pope is fighting against again to change him and they way on head. what a great reputation he has, we'll say this about popes challenges, how do they expect with an inferior force, with jackson? give me and my division with pope and popes army, i would breathe again. several days into the campaign, popes men are defeated at the magic and defended at cedar mountain and pulling back from that battlefield surrender the initiative to robert e lee. lee will see is that immediately and begin to capitalize on all
12:06 am
that it will provide him. the second manassas campaign continues to unfold, row and the army of virginia plummets brother, many men feel they are needlessly sacrificed after the defeat of cedar mountain, they are not be supported. ... >> by the middle of the month of august hope is beginning to learn that these objectives are set upon pressing his army and he began to make that series of decisions that are going to be to what will happen at the end of the month. but by the second to the last week of august, john pope starts
12:07 am
make mistakes but he said pretty well in this campaigns of our other areas held at cedar mountain and he is holding some of the strategies and some of the campaign objectives that houston gave him but by august 25th of 26, he has gone completely off the rails and the stress of this command and the stress of the objectives, all that subject that we talked about is weighing on him heavily. john pope is uncertain about lee's intention no reinforcements about how he's been promising for the last two weeks and they have arrived is receiving no specific order from washington or him telling him what to do next as a relates to his campaign objectives and the only thing that he's getting from washington dc are the following instructions from pallet and impossible to attack the enemy and, do so and possible to get in the rear, pursue with vigor. [laughter] i mean,, what is he supposed to do and by august 26, john pope is already starting to look at
12:08 am
ways to get out of the predicament and the only thing he can think of on the 26th to retire but if he retires he believes he would be reduced in command as he would be demoted his actions by the following morning on its way seventh john pope comes up with two other ways to get out of this predict event and he believes that one of the things he could do again is to retire the fredericksburg link up with a command but he feels that if he doesn't his army will be straight from straightfrom him. and then transit on this campaign and in detail he speaks out of this and secure my reputation and and and my start and continue to rise it leads to the battle of the second and john pope admittedly will commit numerous blunders. his biographer peter will say at times he was erratic during the battle that john pope continued
12:09 am
in wishful thinking rather than claim reasoning and continues to dictate gabby petito enter john pope's actions in choosing to disregard about his senses that his better judgment. and there in the field lt. when saying that general pope seemed wholly at a loss and what to do and what to think and he said that he did not know where his own men were or where jackson was buried we all know how the battle of the second played out. pope would retreat back to washington dc and eventually he would be relieved of command and we moved to the end of this program this evening talking about that moment where everyone in the historiography is about 159 years, the most and even his canterbury argues that he defeats his replacement of command and is banishment to the west, ultimately we's fall from grace in the eyes of the lincoln administration but it couldn't be further from the truth. and late august of 1962, as they
12:10 am
were playing out of virginia, abraham lincoln and edwin stanton are ignoring desperate pleas for help from the governor of minnesota. there is a serious serious war waging out there, an uprising of the dakota war of 1862. they need help and lincoln and stanton had been focusing all of their energies on virginia and john hay one of lincoln's private secretaries and got out there months earlier he comes back and tells lincoln that this war is growing more extensive other than they need help. now if pope had lost confidence in lincoln, and instead in and he's being banished out was would you send someone that is so inept that was defeated the second to go to be in charge and carry out a war by themselves in minnesota. where would we call ago, he would back to new jersey, not a
12:11 am
whole lot going on there. in this guide went to another theater of the war that is been forgotten about an pope thrives once again any handles the war the dakota war of 1862 with brilliance in a continue to the star rise through 1863 into 1864 and he continues to impress all of his superiors to the point that as the opening movements of the campaign began printed you know grant called post and an pope east and congratulating him for everything is doing have them cancel print on how to deal with the situation in the west. it doesn't sound like some videos loss in confidence with the higher echelons of the military or the lincoln administration. over the next several years, pope is going to continue to rise in congress and he will really rewrite how the united states government deals with
12:12 am
indian affairs in the 1860s, and the 1870s and the 1880s. in addition to that john pope is going to be asked about his thoughts on and largely based on the british models, based on aristocracy and his hundred percent right and pope said that listen, that is direct opposition with this country stands for and will begin to issue number of changes that will radically change the armed forces in this country. pope and start continue to rise and at one point in hopes command on a share with you is a war is one by february 3rd of 1865, of takes command of the military command of missouri command of 41000 men and has the largest geographic command in the united states. civil war are still in as a who star has fallen.
12:13 am
in march of 1855, he ends to the department to his command and without pope is now in command of half of the size of the united states in march 1865. as he truly fallen so far from grace this command stretches from the red river north to the canadian border from the mississippi river west to the humble mountains of nevada. an pope has lived in very long life and dedicated a large majority of it to service of this country. so finally, retired from the military in 1866, as wife had passed away in 1888 and rarely left the house of the evidence obtained in september he went from st. louis to ohio to visit with his close friend, further lot was recorded the beginning of the program. i was in the common ohio soldiers and sailors home. and during the evening of september 23rd, after dinner pope asked away in his sleep. the on-site sarge said that the
12:14 am
cause of his death was a complete breakdown of his nervous system and letting loose of all vital force which is been very happily styled nervous prostration. he would be buried at the end of the week back in st. louis next two fields wife with full military honors in the war by 1870s and 80s have started to turn their thoughts about pope as the minor affair with john porter continue to plague his legacy as second manassas. and so upon his death the general hopes death causes an eminently useful patriotic and distinguished career barely half a century in his service of his country. and with all of program today, erected rise in the unavoidable all of john pope in this ambitious man of 1851 and 1862, told lincoln standard this month command for me in this enough command of my abilities can doing nothing command they can carry out the objectives you
12:15 am
want to give it. but yet he was forced to take a position in he did the best he could within any clearly made mistakes during the second analysis campaign and he became practically unraveled during the battle itself as fall from grace is not as far as historiography would tell you. and upon hopes death, the editors of the army and navy journal perhaps summed up his contributions. and try to restore his reputation of that fall battle of second manassas in august 1862 and are close our program this evening with military critics, may dispute is a general post capacity as a general in command of armies in the field and none however can deny that he was a faithful servant of his country and patriot and a scholar deserving of the false commendations in a place in the hearts of his countrymen it with those who ultimate success make them for most of the leaders of their
12:16 am
time. thank you. [applause] [applause] [inaudible]. please introduce yourself. [inaudible]. in your opinion if you thought john pope was conservative in his political appointment of an appointment brightest obviously has the pedigree just by the nation of his birth, the seven-page letter definitely puts him on the agenda of lincoln and keeping in mind in his name bear for future promotions and i think that it is a method pope definitely has some political aspirations and political connections will make
12:17 am
part of his higher promotions related politically as we heard from chase and stanton as for the promotions of the army of virginia but clearly pope is a pretty good officer and has a very good understanding of how to wage war in a successful in the west and obviously he has a setback at battle of second manassas in august 1862 but upon his return he's really overhauled the whole way the government deals in indian affairs not only to quelled many of the indian wars that are raging out there but also to overall military system in the postwar era so think that it's a 50/50 balance and he is definitely a capable officer but he also has some of those political connections to help his promotions. >> excellent presentation dan. i'm curious in your opinion, who
12:18 am
was the author of the generals five - seven - 11 pretty. >> so there's a contemporary sources as well as the review of some modern historians that say that the military proclamation as well as the general orders were not written entirely by pope himself which would then go really to rehabilitate some of his responsibility and they follow the effect of those orders and when it comes down to the military proclamation, many believe that general or edwin stanton had dictated a large portion of the military proclamation and also accounts to say that lincoln had refuted the military proclamation before pope and public rated and those same sources point back to general five - seven it 11 as well the pope is not necessarily 100 percent of the mastermind behind his those individual orders and i think the truth lies somewhere in between.
12:19 am
certainly pope is not issuing these orders without effort without somebody knowing the context and funding that would be stanton or lincoln or the very least but i would generally say that the war department and the lincoln administration had input on those orders. >> one more question. all right. last question. so general lee had contempt and was it well-founded rated. >> yes 100 percent and that is a result of the military proclamation and when the military proclamation comes out, and misleads robert e. lee labeling him and it's at that moment, many historians will argue that pope's army and commanded becomes lee's objective in the leap they have had other plans for the summer of 1862, but upon the pope is lee's primary objective and we are going to wipe pope's army at
12:20 am
the map and get him out of virginia and then we will deal with mcclellan's army back on the peninsula. [applause] [applause]
12:21 am


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on