tv Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Centennial CSPAN January 3, 2022 1:00am-2:01am EST
your program right c-span.org/history. >> today we're going to talk about the tomb of the unknown soldier. this is the 100th anniversary of the tomb of the unknown soldier, the unknown soldier did they state in the capitol. let me give you a little perspective, you see him as our organizer of this event but let me give you a bit of background about him. sam has been's childhood. he earned a bachelor of arts in public policy and college of mary. he joined the society in june of
2016 and has held various services as tour guide, speaker, medications professional, working with retail, working with program management and working with the basic administration of the organization before he came to the historical society, he worked for a trade association as a freelance, client scheduler, title abstractor and commercial property manager. sam comes to us with a fascinating background and real passion for history so it is my privilege to welcome you to welcome our speaker today, sam holliday. >> thank you for that kind warm introduction and it is truly a joy to work for the historical society and with you to advance our mission and inspire patriotism which is a beautiful way of capturing what it is you
do here. i am sam holliday and as we get into today's discussion, or to set the stage of vertebrate first explaining why this we are giving this talk. it's an important anniversary, 100th anniversary of the creation of the tomb of the unknown soldier and the world war i unknown. there's a significant capitol history but also a little bit of personal society history that goes into how we found involved in this commemoration so as i start my program, many of you will recognize the person in the middle, david, award-winning historian, this photo was taken when we gave him his freedom award, societies highest honor. some of you are fortunate enough to know the other people pictured here, some of the finest people to walk the earth. on the left, usc dorothy cosby,
a great friend of the society because in part, her father, he founded our organization in 1962, 59 years ago this year. on the right, go see her late husband, colonel neil cosby who served for an extended period of treasure of the organization but for today's conversation, he served as part of the honor guard, tomb of the unknown soldier. if you look closely, i don't difficult depending on what device you are using but the pain he is wearing on his lapel is representation of the arctic badge. part of his identity important to him and he hopped down feet organization focus on the tomb of the unknown soldier. the society of the honor guard, tomb of the unknown soldier. we'll talk more about that in a little bit because we have this society family connection, this is particularly meaningful to talk about this history capitol
history of the tomb of the unknown soldier. there we go. i want to take a step back talk about how the capitol plays a role in our understanding public warning and memory. from some of the earliest designs of the capitol building, there was this what you see here, capitol designed to house the tomb for george washington. of course many of you went to a capitol tour or would listen to other webinars, it's an empty tomb for george washington but from its earliest conception, it's a place of somber reflection on lessons we can learn from george washington and i think it's an important way to understand the capitol as jane mentioned, a temple of democracy. not only it's a place where we set the laws for ourselves and covenant ourselves as a people but also a place where he celebrate the best we have to offer in one those we thought. congressional gold medals and
state ceremonies take place at the capitol rotunda, about the room pictured here in this image so as we push forward, it's important to think this is where our country comes together to celebrate and mourn those figures we've lost. one of the ways i've mentioned that we have paid tribute to eating figures in important people in our nations history is through the state ceremony, a somber occasion as part of an official state funeral in which the casket of the deceased is placed upon a support structure which we will talk more about the program and people, the public are allowed to come pay respects to siva rotunda, is a very powerful somber occasion if you're ever in washington for such an occasion, we hope they are few and far removed but
typically open to the public it's a powerful way to participate in civic pain tribute to state funeral. henry clay was the first place to stay, clayton state. it's a rare honor, only 35 people in our nations history have late in state total through today involving ten late in state before world war i unknown, henry clay in 1852, abraham lincoln in 1865, 1868, charles sumner 1874, vice president henry wilson 1875, president james garfield, picture from garfield lincoln state ceremony in 1881. senator john logan 1886, president william mckinley in 1901, peter charles, the design for the city of washington late in state when he was reentered
at arlington national cemetery on his way, they paused so he could receive state charters to the capitol building. they felt it was not important as they paid tribute to a figure who had for a brief time, falling into obscurity was in a grave. then relevant to world war i, admiral of the navy george was late in state in 1917 before we get to the world war i unknown 1921. congress played a role in supporting the memory and preservation and tribute to those who made the ultimate sacrifice, last measure of devotion in service of our country, 1862 congress passed the omnivorous act included a provision you can see from the national archives. an image and transcription cap provided the president with the
authority to acquire land and create national cemeteries for those who gave that last full measure of devotion, those who died in service of the country ever since, congress has been involved in preserving the memory and supporting those families who lost loved ones in wars. as we push forward, we start to talk about after the civil war. i should mention before we get into that, there are a significant number of unknowns buried at arlington from the civil war, more than 2000 remain in a large memorial, we could get into that a little later but you get to the spanish-american war fought farther from location than the civil war, mexican american and revolutionary war of 1812 and you have a policy
and acted, repatriation bringing back the remains of deceased service members who died fighting barry closer to home. that conflict did not last quite as long had significantly fewer casualties than the first world war which placed decision-making how to deal with repatriation and the importance of a tomb of the unknown soldier. before we get to that, i will mention in 1913, congress approved and authorized spending for the government to create a new memorial amphitheater at arlington national cemetery. the cemetery had been civil war and they recognize the need for a larger more somber space to accommodate the visitors who were there to pay tribute to their deceased loved ones so they appropriated funds and
authorized spending to create this new amphitheater and make this investment in arlington national cemetery estimations premier place to pay special tribute. now after the first ward war, you have a congressman from new york, the family was very prominent in your politics going back to the colonial era. his father was the secretary of state, his grandfather was a general in front in the revolution so here he is, is highly decorated, won the silver star, retired out as a major of u.s. army, he's pictured here on the left in his uniform with one of the lieutenant generals commanded him during the war and
he won election as a republican from new york to congress and served there 25 years. it was the driving force for the creation of a tomb of the unknown soldier and offered legislation, major advocate on capitol hill. this concept of a tomb for the unknown soldier was one i was put to good use and demonstrated by france and united kingdom after the first world war. this was a tremendously costly devastating war in terms of casualties and there were significant concerns at the conclusion of the war that retrieval of remains from these battlefields could be in peril, potentially unexploded ordinance from a chemical weapons used during the first world war posed significant risks of friends and united kingdom had to restrict and chose to restrict how many
other soldiers lost during the war could be brought back so those countries to pursue the creation of a tomb for the unknown soldier in their respective capitol. in london, and paris were great purpose, unknown soldiers so the people of those respective countries, united kingdom and france have a place and pay tribute to the ones they could not bring home to their families. it served as both a civics tribute and personal tribute for those to pay respects. so he had seen the success, the importance of this memorial and while the u.s. still undertaking the patriotism, there are a great number of unknowns
resulting from the first world war so he offered the legislation to create this tomb of the unknown soldier and placed it on national cemetery care across the river from our capitol city is a monument for the nation to mourn those lost others i came home or not. as i mentioned, a great number of unknown soldiers who perished by the end of the first world war. the process was rather fascinating i should mention that they gathered from several different major battlefields from different unknown soldiers who had been falling in battle and they brought them to a small town in france were one of the highest decorated listed soldiers, veterans of the war made the final selection of the unanimous preference to be the
unknown soldier to rest at arlington, and eternal memory as a symbol, tangible representation of all of those other unknowns and the others who work interred across the ocean from their families and loved ones. what you see here is the unknown soldier world war i being brought ashore at the navy yard here in d.c. if he's not too sure from the uss olympia which had seen significant battle performed valiantly during the course of the first world war and voyage back from france was hardly smooth passage. as they wrote through, there are reports that the swells and rain and winds were so strong that marines garden the casket which was the deck of the olympia were given the option to retreat below deck and refused so they
could maintain their watch to the challenging circumstances and paste this high tribute to an unknown soldier representative of so many others who'd given that last measure of devotion. it proceeds up to the capitol building as we have been discussing. line in-state ceremony, a somber high honor to be paid to someone. this image was laying in-state of the unknown world war one. you could see here we mentioned briefly, the world war one unknown rest in this image, the same one constructed for abraham lincoln. for every line in-state ceremony abraham lincoln has used this which remains at the capitol,
they preserve it and display it when the visitor center reopens, it's on display in the exhibition paid to. they have the laying in-state ceremony and they proceed november 11, 1921. they took her casket by horseback they take it over, they have the state funeral ceremony in the amphitheater recently completed. it presided over by harding and the interment is made on the other side of the amphitheater here, created tomb for the unknown older. you can see this is a small snapshot of the thousands upon
thousands of americans who came to pay tribute. this one person representing so many more about the channel through which they could participate in public memory. congress' involvement in the tomb of the unknown soldier and how we pay tribute to those lost did not end with the first world war and interment of the first. in 1926, congress appropriated funds to authorized spending to increase improve the tomb of the unknown soldier and enhance the tomb of the unknown older by adding this march monument on top. this initial tomb for the unknown soldier was at great, same level that surrounded it they added this structure above the valley, here in this race,
i'm going to consult my notes later on, a beautiful and powerful sentiment but you have this structure added on top of the existing tomb to create that much more prominent office space somber of a space to remind people this is a place of great solemnity i should mention as well we all know there were conflicts after the first world war and after the conclusion of the second world war, congress passed now public law 79 -- 149 authorizing the interment of world war ii unknown soldier at the tomb of the unknowns. they were in the process of preparing transport back to the united states so patriotism nation when the korean war broke
out. suspend a back operation. after the korean war concluded, congress passed new public law 84 -- 975 which authorized selection of the korean war unknown soldier and around the tomb of the unknown soldier at arlington national cemetery so they continued to view it as a way for the nation to pay tribute to all walks whether repatriated or not a place where the country could come together. here is the line in-state ceremony for both, world war ii and korean war unknown soldier -- soldiers in the capitol building and you will note they are side-by-side in the rotunda and as we briefly mentioned, every line in-state ceremony used the lincoln had a fault what you see in greater detail here, this is the lincoln
catapult picture book with the congress and capitol institutions decided to do to facilitate this ceremony, joint ceremony of high honor was to create a replica, second catapult that could be used when multiple caskets are needed to side-by-side you have to lincoln catapult during the course of laying in-state rotated the caskets of the world war ii and korean war unknown so during the ceremony, both aggressive on the lincoln catapult as part of this great tribute. they were then carried great honor somber spirit to the national cemetery further along the plaza where we were showing you a moment ago.
after the conclusion of the vietnam war, congress passed in 1973 public law 93 -- 43 which authorized the selection of interment of an unknown soldier from vietnam war. there was some skepticism and unknown, that there would be unknowns as we had advanced identifying technology which was introduced by the first world war but they had been made more reliable and reliably to identify remains whether there would be an unknown by the 1980s, an unknown soldier had been -- had been selected. that comes up later in a moment and a brief note, son of hamilton for the third we spoke about earlier, introduced a resolution congress, here's a republican congressman from new
york from earlier congress introduced a resolution to select serve the unknown soldier from the vietnam war at the tomb of the unknown soldier but his revolution coupled into the larger package which was passed later. i mentioned, i got a little bit ahead of myself, the unknown soldier from vietnam was successfully identified so there was some thought as people were working through the challenges, missing in action following the vietnam war, the family of air force first lieutenant michael believed tangibly he might have been the vietnam war unknown so the department of defense agreed to exhume the vietnam war unknown soldier conduct dna
testing to confirm that in fact the vietnam war unknown force lieutenant michael so at the request of his family, his remains were moved closer to home to the jefferson national cemetery in missouri. it happened in 1998 and in 1999, both constitution day and more importantly for this purpose, prisoner of war missing in action recognition day, department of defense redesignated the vietnam war tomb of the tomb of the unknown soldiers for the service member's who never made it home so it stands in a similar way for george washington as a permanent tribute to those lost even though there's no one directly for that. so as we get to a place here, i want to mention we are part of a
bigger quilt of recognition commemorations, a bigger coalition of commemoration i should say aphis centennial. the organizing entity of the honor guard for the tomb of the unknown soldier founded in part by the late great crosby they have done fantastic work organizing commemorations and have done wonderful research. their website has a great, concise and important history of the tomb tomb part, frequently asked questions and we can work on some of those as people start to submit questions. the president of the organization gathered, a wonderful fellow and has been helpful as we participate trying to help as they organize this commemoration. justin jd wortman helped, he's been one of our interns.
thus concludes my brief overview of the history of the tomb of the unknown soldier, legislative history now i would welcome any questions you may have. jane will start posing from. >> here we go from one of our questioners, here rests in honor of lori, an american soldier known but to god. thank you livingston for that. now we have a question. do the unknown soldier remains of the various wars from a do they live together or are they replaced when there is one from a new war, what happens? >> asked excellent question makes me realize i should have put in a diagram or aerial view
to help illustrate this. i might be able to show one of the photos included but they are not all in the same spot if that makes sense. the world war i unknown and then to the east make sure i get my geography right here. beside a tomb for the world war i unknown, below grade so at below ground level for the plaza are the world war ii korean war unknowns in the vault for the vietnam vault. they are separated but the same affinity everyone is familiar with they are all there garter by the sentinels. the match is between below ground fault or world war ii korean war unknowns and the
gallery, public gallery where people pay their respects when they visit the cemetery. >> here is an interesting question. got to love our listeners, they are so creative. do you have any information about why it was used instead of beer, fire or -- because catapult has religious overtones. >> that is something i've learned over my years working scholarship in the historical society, incredible questions from our audience, i have to say i actually don't know the answer to that but that is fascinating. i imagine i better be careful
here because we are a historical society and we want to make sure we give you accurate information, i imagine the term was selected during lincoln's laying in-state and lincolns state funeral processes commemoration because everyone use that term was selected even when they rated a second one especially creating a second exact replica. i don't know the reason that that term was selected at the time but that is an excellent restaurant, you've got to love our audience. >> i love our audience, you never know. ...
>> tomb of the unknown soldier, presumably they checked dog tags the register they interviewed families and how did that come to be. >> that is a great question and wait printed out for my research notes here because i can give you a snap and start in just a moment but i can tell you the initial part of the question, and whether somebody was truly had sort of be assumed that if they could not identify the remains of the fallen soldier on the battlefield, they were often times varied in large not quite the mass graves but they were buried as unknown soldiers and there were many of them, they weren't the number that i mentioned earlier, you know just in arlington, there are over
2000 unknown from civil war and then by the time that you get to the first world war, there were again i think the number the dimension one point was more than 1700 unknown deceased. from american service members fighting the first world war so in terms of whether they were identified or they were unknown, was really pretty much whether they determined it when they fell in the battle, who they work. in this for the technology of our time is really the evolution of technology and it has really improved the way we can pay tribute more specifically and identify people and linda said to be in town unknown in the dna
technology which at this point has meant that most, we hope is none. but it's in a to a did the fight to give them a measurable approach than in terms of the actual selection, i can tell you that before the world war one unknown, they gathered at the unknown military personnel from different military cemeteries that had been set up quickly in transit and they brought them to and apologize, french-speaking listeners here, - champagne region of france where they prepared city hall of the selection pretty in 1921, major robert of the quartermaster aided by american soldiers rearranged his casket so each
rested on the shipping case on which it had arrived i should also mention it went on to the national cemetery has prepared wonderful resources for the centennial of the unknown soldiers as well and it's arlington cemetery .mil and it is a wealth of information and this is topic of importance of interest to you so they rearranged them so that the selector, not determined which battlefield the soldier on which battlefield the battle under the soldier had fallen in with the unknown gathered and then edward younger to, who had served in the second battalion headquarters company, 50th enter fenton infantry market forces in germany received it i military honors was called upon to select the final and known to make the voyage to washington. so by placing a group of white
roses on the caskets and then the ceremony took place for the world war ii unknown, not to get too far off topic from the question but you know world war ii was such a global war, there was significant logistical efforts to make sure that this unknown soldier could represent all of the unknown soldiers whether they were in europe, northern africa, in the pacific. so they actually carry out a similar process really grab a group of unknowns from each theater and they made an anonymous selection and then a kind of kept repeating the process until finally the one unknown each from the european theater and the pacific theater, for the atlantic and pacific place on board naval vessel just off the coast of virginia and they were unknown the nice ones
they were on the boat in the selector did not know which was from which theater they entered he placed red and white roses on this election for the second world war so it really is fascinating and also somber process and they would throw. then korean war and likewise they had a similar type of process. so that is a bit about the selection is a great question pretty i think i saw some of our listeners have put in the keel,e chat area, some of the answers about the theater versus that so i know they just sent it to us and they will ask that perhaps the listener donna, if you can put that in the chapter everyone, i think that would be helpful tool as we continue this
discussion. i meant to mention earlier before we jump to the next question, when introducing the legislation for the world war i, the original tomb of the unknown soldier, hamilton fish, hannah really beautiful explanation for why he thought this was important and he said the part of the legislation was to bring on the body of the unknown american warrior to himself represents no section, creed or race, and moreover, the soul of america to bring sacrifice for a heroic task. so as we talk about public memory and warning that was at the heart of the legislation. >> samuel holliday, now that we have much more sophisticated identification process there is no known soldier beyond the
vietnam war and that is actually empty vessel. >> that is correct and is likely to remain the case and again, you hope that it's not befallen in the service of our country but it is some small palace that dna technology has identified technology has reached a point where we can identify those who give that last devotion so their families have closure and can be repatriated or in name and that their families have a place to pay tribute to the very personal way. the tomb of the unknown soldier is a beautiful memorial that someone could go a tribute
through the channel of the unknown. i think it is reasonable to say that being able to identify people so they can have a more personal tribute is better. were fortunate and i think that something is to be said for the ability of more rapid medical care. they can do incredible things with medicines in the 21st century there were not available in those earlier conflicts. it's a combination of factors, i think that it is thought to be nearly certain that there won't be a future unknown and we can certainly hope that is the case. >> samuel holliday, how can we
be certain that the unknown soldiers are certainly an american but not an ally. >> that's a good question i think a lot of that has to do with how they were initially you know how they would've initially been identified as american soldier or an enemy soldier but not necessarily identified as an individual person. again, this is one of the very swear i can draw from but i don't have a definitive answer necessarily on the world more on these specific unknowns but it seems reasonable that when they were initially, because all of these unknowns you know, they were not taken straight from the battlefield to washington. they were unknown soldiers amidst the american cemeteries in these foreign theaters.
and i harkens back to a recent conversation when she serve in the battle line and these overseas cemeteries for american service members. again, with a careful lens, i can say is likely they were able to tell readily what whether someone was an american servicemember or enemy servicemember in the conflicts when they were initially ensured closer to the battlefield. that's an excellent question actually brings up an interesting point that tomb and memorial that i about the civil war and arlington, is a mix of confederate unknowns and that they had difficulty to the point identifying the time they moved them to arlington because they
had been in other parts of the cemetery and the parts of this area that they had difficulties identifying at the point when they were reentered whether they were confederate or union. so the civil war unknowns at arlington, is condensed and it's a mix in the documentation. >> since alice was there any opposition, this is congress, was there the physician to the creation. >> there certainty and friction congress, seems to be one of them but to the best of my recollections from the research, this was the widely held. none of the initial interments, there was pretty bipartisan and
wide support for this sort of a memorial. put it this way, i don't think it was an uphill battle for congress in the 1919 to 1920s and i remember seeing a couple of boys, sorry to jump back of a nearby we are seeing from a couple of folks in the chat section, similar to the point that the uniform that they are wearing her where they were buried, can help draw the solid thinking that these are in fact american service members. if those initial triage identifications, that this is an american servicemember and put them into an american cemetery that they were able to identify them so thank you to the folks in the chat read.
>> a couple of more questions and someone asked about the recordings and everyone was registered will get an e-mail that will give you a list of the recording so if you want to share this with your friends and neighbors, we would be happy to do that and you should know sam that a former person serving from 99 - 2001, wanted to get a special thanks because it was precious time in his life. >> god love you and thank you for your service and i feel i think i can speak on the behalf of the society, it is an honor for us to play small part in this commemoration that this is an important anniversary. our mission is to inspire patriotism and part of that is recognizing the sacrifices to have this constitutional democracy and that telling the
story of the temple of democracy, the united states capitol is a story of sacrifices made for future generations and sacrifices made for the preservation of of our democracy. it has been an honor working on this, absolutely. >> you showed a picture of the monument his self, can you will house them monument chosen and the sculpture chosen and what is the history of the monument in the gathering area around the tomb of the unknown soldier. >> let me see what i have, let's see here. i will pull this backup. i believe the question is about
the argument and i know the figures facing toward us in his image are representative and there are 63 of us representing for the world war one unknown six of the major battlefields of the first world war and the quote facing towards limiting mechanism a severe, facing towards the apple to the end of a theater in the garden of the tomb from the beautiful quote that whatever listeners was able to send to us because it is too good of a quote to get it wrong. more specific information to give to you guys about the yes so that is the quick brief on
that and again, society for the owner guard for the tomb of the unknown soldier in this cemetery and both have put together outstanding resources and talk about this in the anniversary in the history of the tomb. and it was card, i do know that the memorial was carved in the paper la and again, i apologize because of an italian speaker. but the brothers who did some of the carving work at the lincoln memorial and elsewhere at the monument to washington, they worked on the monument of the tomb of the unknown soldier. so it's steeped into the washington history as well. >> samuel holliday, one of the things that i think we should talk about as we come to the end of our time together, that when
they first approach us, one of the things that he was very interested in was encouraging people to celebrate the tomb of the unknown soldier, in their own communities on this veterans day coming up in november. while there's not a tomb of the unknown soldier in every community, there are people who served in the military and people who lost loved ones across the nation. that is one thing that the tomb it does as a society has set of resources that we can include in a follow-up information it with ideas about how to celebrate and balance and everybody gone and including you can do this on
your phone and everybody in the amazing thing is you don't need it church but they have them on the phones and a variety that everyone can see the american spirit as we move forward in the american spirit. okay go ahead. >> soap if i make that point, they have a whole list of centennial projects there promoting and working with people and never forget gardens with the representation of the tomb an american soldier and that's a tribute at that they never forget. so that we never forget those who make that sacrifice and he said, national salute project and so, all of that is on the
tomb guarded dot org website that we will share in follow-up you said you had another question really. >> there's a couple of things that people are sort of publishing a book to chat in the q&a. the 41 members of the society will be going to france on october 18th to be part of the recreation of the selection on the question that came through is the british tomb of the unknown soldier is very important in his national life was not really visited much by foreign dignitaries whereas the tomb of the unknown soldier is often visited by foreign dignitaries and you have any insight into how the tomb has become such a big part of the global diplomacy. >> that is a fascinating
question pretty and this is one of the areas where being the careful historian, i will say that i don't have a specific answer to it and i can and for that and infer that the british tomb of the unknown soldier is in westminster abby which is of course is still functional space for the purposes. and of course the national cemetery which is more of a public, the whole purpose of national cemetery is paying tribute to those who have made the ultimate sacrifice for our nation. but in terms of this becomes a course for the global diplomacy, through a fascinating question, political question and foreign-policy question but
you're absolutely, the question is absolutely accurate in putting out that the national cemetery in arlington has a page that you can find galleries and images going back to those years of every world leader is come to visit washington it later recently to the tomb of the unknown soldier and perhaps, part of the answer is that we have a a process available for these world leaders to pay tribute and perhaps part of it is well is that during that first time of the world war one unknowns, the unknown from world war i was decorated from a great number of nations, they sent did
mention dignitaries to award some of their military quasars to the world war i and unknown as part of the service so perhaps a little bit of interest but perhaps part of the impact in the importance of the power of the tomb of the unknown soldier is that there is already some global interest and appreciation and respect for what we were doing here with our world war one unknowns. and i will mention a brief, a correction that never forget garden plaque is the east relief of the tomb but the match and for anyone, i'll never forget that because you can find more information on that website. >> and the other thing that several people sort of commenting that it also may be
that the united states played a critical role in finalizing both of the world wars which then created the united states as world military power therefore the tomb of the unknown soldier is a component of that and european nations and beyond beyond, the soviets have a tomb of the unknown soldier but this is ours and we are talking about hours and we also have to love james livingston who pointed out that the tomb is made up of seven pieces, the model is from marble from colorado in this culture was thomas hudson jones and the architect as more mark rich, these are very interesting in our you know, folks who really have great resources.
samuel holliday, were just about at the close of our time and so would you like to cut it give people a charge as we move forward and we would like to see people not just take this and say isn't that interesting, but this is one we would like you to take action and hideaway in the own community to plant a garden, to do a commemoration and this is 100 years of the tomb of the unknown soldier when it is just one way that we recognize the people who served in the military, and their families whose loved ones serve in the military. in the past and even today. so, samuel holliday, give us our charge as we move forward. >> i think that what i would say
is our role as mentioned earlier, inspiring patriotism and civic engagement and part of civic engagement you know, there are a lot of ways of people engage in our democracy. and a lot of that is boating and the important piece of it that always need to be present is respect and appreciation to for the sacrifices that have been made and that here we are in 2021, that that we have this absolute privilege to live and exist and work and support the democracy and we have that because people have made the ultimate sacrifice time and time again given to us. i think our charge to ourselves and to those of you are kind enough to spend time with us today is you know, as we go
about this anniversary and the tomb of the unknown soldier think about how civics and civic engagement and how participating in democracy can be let down and away the pace tribute here to the sacrifices made. it's incredibly important and is part of our duty and part of our obligation as citizens to be part of aching sure the sacrifices are not forgotten that we live up to the promise of our democracy we have not always lived up to the promise of our founding's in the founding's of our identity but we always strive to do so and part of that is making that commitment to remember pretty. >> thank you samuel holliday and than museum opened in 1991.