tv Today in Washington CSPAN July 5, 2010 10:00am-12:00pm EDT
with other things attached to it, the cleaner the build a better the chance it will pass. there are fewer excuses to vote against it. we would still have a debate on how to pay for it, but it would be more specific. second question completely escapes me, help me out. host: that is ok. we are out of time. tom fahey is the state house bureau chief for "the union leader." thank you for your input this morning. guest: thank you, good to be here. host: that is it for today's "washington journal." a new edition comes tomorrow, 7:00. we will see you then. ♪ [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2010] .
the c-span video library, a book t the doorway. c-span is now available and over 100 million homes, bringing you a directly to public affairs. created by america's cable companies. >> congressional leaders, unveiled two blacks. historians say the slaves to work 12 hour days, six days a week. the federal government rented the slaves from local slave owners at a rate of $5 per person per month. this is about 35 minutes.
please stand for the invocation. and father coughlin our higheshe chaplain will lead us in prayer. >> let us pray. beneath the whistling of saws and the melodic speech of hammer and chisel, human hearts were heard coming gospel spirituals, as they worked on this capital. as a labors long for the freedom, the age of 103rd psalm and took on flesh and blood and echoes against these marble halls today. to you do a lift up my eyes, to you who dwell in the heavens, my eyes like the eyes of slaves, fixed on the hands of their master like the eyes of a
circuit on this latest gesture of the mistress, so our eyes around you oh lord our god until to so mercy. have mercy on us o lord, have mercy. we are filled with contempt. build with overflowing our souls because of this gordon of the wealthy and the arrogant disdain of the proud hearted. oh lord, the secret songs of the hearts are revealed only when all celebrate justice to the other. a bend. -- amen. >> ladies and gentlemen, at the united states representative of georgia, john lewis.
[applause] xcosto go than to, madam speaker. -- >> thank you, madam speaker. if i would like to think the support for this late labor task force. i would also like to take the opportunity to recognize members of the slave labor task force who are here today, especially jacey watts. together we ioriginated special legislation for the task
force. i would like to take a moment and ask the members of the task force to please stand. all the members that are here. [applause] i would like to thank each and every member for their hard work and dedication. you never gave up. you never did it. -- gave in. we could not be here without the leadership of my friend, my partner, and the vice chair of the task force, senator play a toublanche lincoln. additionally, i must acknowledge the work of the clerk of the house and comptroller and both of their status for their dedication.
i must recognize that young man on my own staff, jeffrey yuman. stand. you worked so hard. thank you. we appreciate it. today we shed light on a long hidden truth. african americans were used as laborers in the construction of this capitol building. the mandate of the slave labor task force is to steady and recognize the contribution of the enslaved african american and building united states capitol. the architect of the capital 2005 report officially documents
the work of slaves in the capital construction. these plaques are a historic marker to be placed in the capital visitor center. we recognize the blood, sweat, of the enslaved african american that helped construct this embodiments of our democracy. to imagine constructing this nation's capitol buildings with your own two hands. imagine a pressing summer heat and humidity. -- oppressing summer heat and humidity. imagine having to fight through the bone chilling winter in
rags and sometimes without shoes. just imagine. the united states government, our government, only paying their owner $5 per month for your labor. this capital, the most recognized symbol of our democracy was not built overnight and was not built by machine, but built through the back-breaking work of labor's and slave laborers. this building from which to protect the ideas of freedom, democracy, and the beloved community stands grounded on a foundation laid by slaves.
slavery is a part of our nation's history of which we are not proud. however, we should not run away or hide from it. the history of the capitol like the history of our nation, should be complete as thousands of visitors walk through the nation's capital. they leave without knowing the true history of construction, today that changes. today through these plaques we moved one step closer to realizing a dream of an all- inclusive and more perfect union. today we now remind all visitors at the work of the enslaved african americans in building the temple of freedom. again, madam speaker and leaders
of the congress, i would like to thank everyone here and their support for the slave labor task force in helping to bring this truth to light. thank you very much. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, honorable senate men nevemember, blanche lincoln. >> i want to thank everyone for the opportunity to pay respect and really elevate have this
monumental task, that was a part of our history and great country. i want to say a very special thanks to john lewis for those remarks, his passion, for his steadfast determination in his lifetime to do so many good things on behalf on so many people. most of all of his leadership with the slave labor task force. i had the privilege of working with him, but have been so pleased and work with him on this initiative. certainly my former colleagues, jacey watts has worked hard on this. i wanted to take of all the i's and remember -- i wanted to take
a moment and remember mr. sykes.. i am so very grateful to his contribution to this effort, but more importantly his lifetime of contribution to our state of arkansas. i would also like to think sara davidson who knew him and has joined us today thinking her for her contribution to the task force following his untimely passing. a very special welcome to our distinguished guests for taking time out of their busy schedule to join us in washington for this moment and loomomentous mo. we celebrate the contribution made by enslaved african americans in the construction of the u.s. capitol. when the capital was first being built in the league's 1970's and
early 1800's enslaved african americans work in all facets of the construction. for nearly 200 years the stories of the slave laborers were mostly unknown to the visitors at the capitol. and we forgot to say thank you to the incredible skilled and talented craftsman and workers. then in 1999, told pay stubs were discovered that showed slaves were directly involved in the construction of the u.s. capital and to recognize the contributions i sponsored a bill to establish a special task force to make recommendations to honor the slave laborers who worked on the construction of the capital. in 2007 the task force prog presented leadership with the recommendations. as we gather today i am
reminded about the story of filigreed and a statue of freedom. -- i am reminded of philip reid and the statue of freedom. prior to the casting the ship to the united states, mr. crawford passed away. once it arrived in washington, d.c., problems soon a rose. zero workmen soon got into hot -- a worker soon got into a paid this fiy dispute. work on the statute became stalled until a man by the name of filiphilip reid solved the mystery.
he was as slave african- americans. he figured out how to disassemble the plaster model by attaching an iron hook to the statute's head and lifting the top section until a hairline crack appeared. the crack indicated where the joints were located and he then repeated the operation until the five different sections of the statue were discovered. we know about him today because the son of the foundry owner share of the story with historians back in 1869. it describes filphilip reid hasn expert and highly esteemed by all who knew him. we stand here today not only because of him, but for other enslaved african americans like him who worked tirelessly to sacrifice in the face of strife. these plaques in their own right will serve as a symbol of their
sacrifice, and will be seen by visitors to enter the building for evermore. in closing, i would like to thank the members of the slave labor task force. and senator chambliss that was an original cosponsor of the legislation to honor the enslaved flavors. this incredible sacrifice and contribution to the construction of this majestic buildings has gone unrecognized for far too along. i am so grateful for the opportunity to be a part of this initiative and to thank everyone who joined us today for this very meaningful and long overdue event. as i think back at what might have been on the minds of the enslaved african americans, i can only thing, just as the father mentioned in prayer, to
do justice, love mercy, and walk humbly with our god would have been on the minds of those enslaved african americans as they did their jobs as skilled laborers, craftsmen, with a great sense of pride for what they produce for so many years of americans to enjoy. thank you all for joining us. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, republican leader of the united states house of representatives, don bain theijohn behner. today we take time to honor group of people that were almost forgotten in our history.
i want to thank plans lincolblan and jacey watts. it is now the preeminent symbol of freedom and liberty throughout the world. the worst of the task force is to remind every american of the contributions that african- american slaves made to the construction of the sacred building prior to the end of slavery here in washington, d.c. in 1814 when the british came to build capitaol, they did burn it. both buildings were completely gutted. all that remained were the outer walls. the effort to rebuild was extensive. all of the work was performed by many enslaved african americans
through all the d.c. area. and the cast of bricks, they cleared the land. they rebuilt the wings end helped construct the greatest symbol of government in the world, our capitol dome. the plaques we're dedicating today simply say we will not forget. american slaves not only helped build the capital, they helped build a nation. i think our nation deserves them of debt of gratitude. thank you. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, republican leader of the united states senate, mitch mcconnell. [applause] [no audi>> distinguished guestsd
friends, as we all know we have come here to tell the rest of the story. to its knowledge the profound indignity that the slaves to help clear this land must have suffered and building this great monument of freedom. to remind ourselves that for nearly a century after the declaration of independence was signed an entire race of people was denied the god given rights about which jefferson wrote and that -- in that immortal document. we give them the measure of dignity they were cruelly denied in life. we are grateful for the work of the slave labor task force. without it, we cannot have these
plaques -- we would not had these plaques. senator lincoln has already told you the story of philip reid. but it is so interesting it bears repeating. as you just learned, he played an unlikely role in finishing the construction of the capitol as it appears today. he worked at a foundry owned by thomas crawford, the man who decideand designed the statute. he was later commissioned to design the capitstatue of freed. the plaster model for the statue of freedom was supposed to be displayed in the old house it to be disassembled. came for
cast into a statute and put up over the dome. but there is a problem. a big problem. the italian sculptor who ended up stock in the chamber was the only person around who knew how to take apart. philip reid was apparently the sharpest guy in the capital at the time because he was literally the only one that could figure out how to take a thing apart without the sculptress help. -- without the scumptor's help.
as the task force historians point out, the story of philip reid underscores one of the great ironies, one of the -pworkers helping to cast the statue of freedom who himself was not free. this is a terrible injustice, but that is part of the story. we must continue to tell it. the history of the capital, like the history of our nation, should be complete. so we're grateful to the slave labor task force for their work, they're helping us remember and memorialize this painful but important part of our history, and they're hoping to make sure that future generations continue to tell the whole story. thank you. [applause]
>> ladies and gentlemen, majority leader of the united states senate, harry reid. [applause] >> as we have heard and as we have heard, at the same year presently consigned the emancipation of bronze statue was lowered in place on top of the capitol dome. here is the untold story. we are ready know his last name was reid, but [laughter] but there are lots of different ways to spell reid and his was spelled reid.]
it hardly describes the foundation of the building of for which it presides. each of us speaking today recognizes what a privilege it is to call this place our workplace. but countless local slaves labor here long before we or any senators and congressman before us could enjoy that honor. their tasks were black breaking -- back breaking, yet they somehow found the strength to fashion the greatest design. the cards in carry the stones to a structure in which leaders would shape and nation. their hands built a temple to liberty, though many of them would never know that blessing'' firsthand.
they toiled with nothing more than the hope and faith that a promise would be filled the inside the halls they built, the rights of the defendant to be free. to elect the leaders who would represent them and serve as their representatives. in this place where so much of american history is written, it is our duty to ensure that none of us, no matter how false, is increased from national memory. that is what we're doing today. we share their story in place this plaque, not only for those who worked here generations ago, but for those who will work and visit for a generation to come. i[applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, the speaker of the united states house of representatives, nancy pelosi.
>> hello, again. welcome to all of you to the capital for this very special occasion. imagine having this program, black unveiling ceremony and recognition of the contribution of enslaved african americans to the construction at the united states capitol. you have given us this privilege to unveil the statutes to correct this injustice. i am glad we're doing so in a very strong bipartisan way. my colleague from the house, bo ehner and mike mcconnell -- mitch mcconnell. i want to acknowledge the presence of so many members of the congressional black caucus
and the associate members of the congress. and they have been called the conscious of the caucus. today the challenge to the congress that this injustice has presented is at least partially corrected by giving the recognition that we do. it is an honor to work beside majority whip in this endeavor of this and also recognize other leaders from the african- american community. lorraine miller, a clerk of the house, and harry krauscarrie ro.
thank you. but over the past decade the slave labor task force worse to document the history of slave laborers who constructed the walls of the united states capitol. we all the that by now. we all know the contribution of the reid family by now. anthese mason's carpenters, painters, and others gave us this house of liberty, and the beacon of hope for our nation and indeed, the world. history books up until now had not recorded their story and were described the pivotal role they played in directing the capitaol. today isn't enshrined in these
plaques, which state this original exterior wall was constructed between 1793 and 1800 of sandstone, quarried by enslaved african americans who are an important part of the labor force that built the united states capitol. for all to read and treasure in value when they visit this capital of united states. never again will there ir contributions go unrecognized. they are a symbol to all who come here, these plaques are, that no american is left out of america story. today we honor men and women who not only constructed a single building, but became critical
threads and a fabric of our country. we will continue to honor the diversity of our nation in the months and years ahead. once again, i always loved to tell the story that when lincoln made his second inaugural address, which is sometimes called clinton's greatest speech, that was the first time in african americans ever attended a presidential inoculation as free people. it was a very changed situation. at that time, not in that speech, president lincoln said we cannot escape history, and with this plaque we embrace it,
we celebrate it. now i would like my colleagues to join us in the unveiling of the plaque. reverend barry blackroc will deliver the benediction. after the invocation, i invite you all to participate in the celebration at the reception following. thank you all for coming. as i look around the wroom i want to run up to each of you and ask you to sign our program. in your all a very special guest. now we will unveil a plaque. [applause]
now we are calling to do something i know you all love to do, i pray. to >> lord god almighty, the creator and sustainer of the universe, except hard thanksgiving for the contributions of enslaved african americans to the construction of the united states capitol. may our gratitude for their sacrifices motivate us to strive to see more clearly your image in all humanity. lord, inspire us to pray that
you will truly made as one nation under guarded by you, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. in the seasons to come less and keep us. and make your face to shine upon us and be gracious unto us. clipped a light at york continents apart us, and give us your piece until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. we pray in your liberating name, amen. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, i think you for attending today's ceremony and enjoy the rest of
your day. >> you are watching c-span, created as a public-service ad y the nation's cable companies. next, a discussion on the future of religion. and later, discussion on health care law from the national right to life convention. >> had prepared is the u.s. for another terrorist attack? -- how prepared is the u.s. for another terrorist attack? that is tonight at 8:00 eastern,
here on c-span. on tomorrow's "since an journwan journal" a look at summer programs for children. and a look at the obama an end homelessness in the u.s.. that is all tomorrow on "washington journal." to go this week, using technology to promote open government here and around the world. -- >> this week, using technology to promote the government here and around the world. that is monday night on c-span2. john analyst discusses the future of the catholic church. how the church is dealing with
sexual abuse and whether it should involve iiself in foreign affairs. he spoke at an event hosted by boston college for one hour 20 minutes. >> good evening. and thank you for that extraordinarily generous introduction. although i know being here at boston college in such a distinguished academic community is profoundly committed to the quest for truth. i guess i feel obliged to offer one small amendment to the introduction you just heard. it is true, as john said, that my job title is senior vatican analysts. i know that sounds tremendously impressive. i guess i feel compelled to let you know that in addition to being the senior vatican and the list, i am only that only vatican analysts at cnn.
those might be tempted to say it is a lot like academic life, or for that matter, the catholic church. here we are. i am delighted to be a boston college once again. my subject tonight is of course the future of the catholic church in the 21st century. before i come to that, john and the other organizers have asked that i say a few words at the outset, not about the church future but about its present. in particular, the dissatisfying chapter about sexual abuse scandals that are swirling around the church in europe, and in particular are rare and pope benedict the 16th. the request that i begin with a few words on the subject is based on the fact that although
i find speculation about the catholic future to be immensely interesting, it is not my day job. my day job is functioning as what the italians call the vatican least that, which means i am a journalist whose professional work is tracking this island that we call the vatican. obviously for the past couple of months we have been in one of those cycles in which the vatican is of intense public interest, while else at the borders of the catholic church. in this case because of currency -- certainty on the sexual abuse crisis. obviously it is hard to do justice to the subject in just a few words. i agree to try to do this and 3.5 minutes. obviously it will be superficial. instead of giving you a
comprehensive review, i will make three brief points. hisheer with tariq reap synthetc observations about the most recent chapter -- here with three brief synthetic observations about the most recent chapter. the notion that pope benedict can somehow become the global symbol of the sexual abuse crisis is, and i have to tell you this, absolutely surreal. it is an honest to god alice-in- wonderland through the looking glass situation. in truth we know the situation is exactly the reverse of the impression that has been created in much public discussion. the truth is no senior official
in the vatican has done more to lead to abuse and acknowledge the suffering of victims than pope and the nexbenedict. = = =as pope, he quickly broughe hammer down on a couple of high- profile roman priest previously regarded as untouchable, including the founder of the legionary of christ. he has met with victims of sexual abuse on four occasions. in general he is responsible for breaking the vatican's role
of sciensilence. that absence of uniform global policies and procedures, the question of accountability for bishops, ongoing confusion about cooperation with police and civil authorities. yet, the bottom line is this. however much work is still undone, the realm they have to cover to get their hands around this crisis, i can tell you from personal experience and observation, that the situation would be infinitely worse were it not for the impact of pope benedict. therefore, the question becomes, how is the distinction between the realities of those that have seen it from the reality and the public image has been created, how is that diversion possible? i would suggest that all parties
to the recent public debate bear some responsibility for this dissonance between image and reality. it is a fact, not opinion that some of the reporting in the secular press has been sloppy and one-sided. it is also true, however, that on the other hand, i say, in many ways the vatican has been remarkably inept at telling the story. to the extent there is in a crisis management strategy, impact has often been to make a crisis significantly worse. blaming the media are comparing attacks on the pope to anti- semitism has consolidated public impressions, but the vatican is in denial. unwilling to with knowledge legitimate questions. until that acknowledgement is forthcoming, it is unlikely
that our broader defense of the pope will cut much ice outside of the circles of the already commenced. that defense already can be made, for the most part it is solidly true. the record is that of the senior vatican official that has done more than anyone else to promote an aggressive response to this crisis. i contend that will be a difficult case to make in the court of public opinion. third and finally, however one diagnosis the causes or the indications of the sexual abuse crisis, one points about the experience seems utterly beyond argument. that is this -- intense global focus on the crisis has made it virtually impossible to tell any other story about this pope or
the church he leaves. that is unfortunate with regard to the pope, because there is a good news story to tell about him. i am convinced he will go down as one of the great teaching pope's of recent centuries. even secular critics who do not carry his convictions, but admits his teachings or speeches on foreign trips, that the teaching has been thoughtful, provocative, and well-worth pondering. focusing exclusively on the crisis, what is most extensive and what is closest to the heart of the pope in that aspect of his activity that most bears his personal imprint, none of that comes into view.
the current focus on the sex abuse crisis is even more of a distortion when it comes to the global church because it leaves scores of compelling catholics story lines and the shadows. for example, the phenomenal growth of catholicism in the southern hemisphere. unfortunately we are currently in the media environment in which it is almost impossible to tell any of those stories. because of the incredibly tight focus that has emerged on the story of the sexual abuse crisis. again, i think it is possible to suggest and probably accurate to suggest that some of that as a failure on the part of the media, but i also think the
corporate communications enterprise that the vatican has to bear is of a shared responsibility for creating and sustaining that environment. those are my three points. as the level of reality, the attempt to lift benedictus up as a global symbol of the crisis shows that the actual reality is almost exactly the reverse. but the gap between image and reality is not enough to blame that on sloppy reporting in media and attorneys federal fundspent on changing public opinion. 3, the most toxic consequence in some ways of the current crisis is that it makes it impossible to talk about anything else about the catholic church. that is a consequence i am here to attempt to address tonight.
i am here tonight to play the part of the coasgoes to paul ha. -- ghost of paul harvey. \ their wor there will be ample time for q&a at the end of this presentation. if you would like me to address any aspects, i am open for business. i may not know the answer to your question, but absolute ignorance has never prevented me from addressing the subject before. i see no reason why it would prevent me tonight. in the future of the catholic church in the 21st century. to get into this subject, i would like to begin with a
parable. what better model is there than that? might parable concerns a guy who was roughly my stage in life, his mid-40's. he is going through the inevitable mid-life crisis. the particular way he decides to resolve this crisis is that he is going to physically rejuvenate himself. he takes out a membership at the local gym. he finds the best plastic surgeon in town and gets the works. at the end of the ordeal he is feeling great about his results. he goes to the local barnes and noble and picks up a couple of gen-x oriented magazines. then he asked the clerk how old do you think i am? he woulsays a late 20's or early
30's. the guy is feeling great. it leads barnes and noble as it goes next door to mcdonald's. he finally gets up to the counter and orders. as he is paying for it, he says to the teenager how old do you think i am. he says 31, 32. the guy says i am 47 years old. and the guy says that is amazing. now the guy is on cloud nine. he leaves the mcdonald's. walks around the block. he sees a cluster of people
around the bus stop. he walks up and approach is an elderly woman. he says excuse me, sorry to disturb duke, but would you mind telling me how old you think i am. the woman says it to take off all of your clothes, run around in a circle and bark like a doll, i will be able to tell you how old you are. the guy thinks this is a little weird, and so he doesn't. he strips naked and runs around. people are taking out their cell phones to call the cops. then he stops, looks a woman and i, and says all right, hold the mike? she said i will tell you, you are 47 years old. the guy is flabbergasted. he said how do know? she said i will tell you how it works. i was behind you in line at the mcdonald's.
-- i was in the moral of the story is, the where anyone who stands before you claiming to possess means of revealing the unknown, because if you take into seriously, you will end up naked running around in a circle and barking like a doll. the truth is i do not study animals. i would nevertheless suggest to you the effort to try to look down align of what might become justified, not necessarily because of what it tells us about the future, but what it tells us about the present. it imposes a certain kind of intellectual discipline. it invites us to look past brandon news headlines and isolated events. -- it invites us to look past briannrandom news headlines and
isolated events. this is the subject of my most recent book. here is the full list of 10 trends that i teachtouch upon in the book. obvious conclusion is that if you want the skinny on the rest, you will simply have to buy the book. bear in mind, graduations are right around the corner. before you know which, we will be into the holiday season. i promise you this is a gift that keeps on giving. it is an ideal stocking stuffer for the catholic in your life. this is an attempt to identify 10 forces.
these certainly are 10 forces that are full of the implications for where the tide and treasurer of the catholic church will be invested in the years and decades to come. and this list is an exercise in a description. we are working on the level of is rather than ought. it would be interesting to have a conversation about what 10 courses we wish were shaping the picture. that is not the exercise i am trying to perform tonight. my argument is instead, these really are 10 courses that are enormously important for the future of the church, whatever you or i might privately think about that. my implication is to dial down
the instinct that so many of us have in the 20% to world to move from information to a conclusion in eight seconds. to bracket off the temptation to draw conclusions and get our minds around what is actually happening. with that, let's get into the meat of it. i want to discuss with you what i call the emergence of a world church. the picture on the slide comes from the holy father's recent trip to africa and march of last year. i was on the trip. i was actually about 50 feet away when the trip -- picture was taken. this was the last day of the trip. a group of local indigenous person sais did advance, and ate end of this they presented him with the momenmemento of his vi.
it was a giant sea turtle. i immediately went to the vatican spokesperson to ask him what would become of the giant sea turtle. he confirmed that was being airlifted to rome, but he declined comment on to whether it was being lifted as a pet or an ingredient in a stew, but i think this picture captures some of the transitions that are unfolding in terms of who the catholic population is on a global scale. carl ronner once said the importance of the vatican council is that it marked the emergence of catholicism pour the first time as a self- consciously close family of faith. he was making a theological arguments.
what i want to argue is catholic demography lens triumphant empirical confirmation to what he was on to almost 50 years ago. what you see on the slide is showing what happened to the catholic population in the 21st century. scarcely more than 100 years ago there were 266 million catholics in the world, of home 200 million that lived in europe and north america, and just 66 million lived across the entire rest of the planets, principally in latin america. in other words, just 100 years ago the demographic profile of the church is the same as it was out of the council of trent. just 100 years later you see what happens. .. .
this, ladies and gentlemen, is the most rapid, sweeping transformation of cassette demography in essentially to thousand years. we're living through this right now. i would argue in terms of what this offers for the future, the moment we're living for right now is comparable to the moment in the first century when st.
paul left palestine and went to damascus, greece, and rom thereby transforming primitive christianity to a sect within judaism to a new religion. that is the kind of scale telescope, and magnitude of the transformation we're talking about. this is a classic instance of what the net -- the late neil postman talked about. it changes everything at once. obviously the $64,000 question is, what is this going to mean? it is very interesting to know where the catholic population is these days. as catholics in the global sell- off set the trend, what will this mean in terms of what catholicism in the 21st century will look like, feel like, smell like and tastes like. i will hazard in answer to that question. i need to put an industrial
sized grain of salt on the table, okay? anytime anyone stands behind a podium and tries to sell you generalizations about seven and a 20 million people coming need be cautious. -- generalizations about 720 million. there are tens of millions of exceptions. nevertheless, i think i can behind these four generalized points about the kinds of things they're likely to hear, see, and field. the first point, in general, we will find a catholics in the global south, but that the top and bottom, the bishops, and the grass roots, you'll find a that by our western standards, they come across as fairly connervative on matters of morality and progressive on most everything else.
let me begin by saying that this is our taxonomy and not theirs. this does not occur naturally to most people lie outside the western sphere of influence. a visit the major university. you've gone this speaking to the catholics not while ago -- i was in the gondola -- uganda. during the talks, i began by asking them, "so, we do think of yourselves as liberals or conservatives"? there were not quite sure what they meant. i tried to explain to them so i started with, well with you be in favor of limited government or would you be in favor of a state that intervenes a lot in the economy? well, we could see the arguments for both.
do you like george bush or not? well, some things are positive and some not so hot. at the end of the day it became clear that i was trying to force them to make a choice that to them seemed artificial. i spent 10 minutes explaining what the typical american would mean and it's the end of them -- at the end they said, "i guess we are both." these categories are not indigenous to the parts of the world. they mean something to us in a rubble and it helps us to get our allies around things. and these issues that constitute as what we would call as culture wars had those kinds of issues, there is a meat and potatoes social consensus in the global south that by our standards they will come across as remarkably conservative. if you want to see how that
plays out, look at what is happening in the anglican community where you have liberal anglican churches in the u.s., great britain, and canada that are pressing ahead with the blessing of same-sex unions and the ordination of openly gay bishops which is being ferociously opposed. 41 million of the english fans are in africa. but there are more practicing anglicans in the nation of nigeria alarmed than there are in great britain which is a clear indication of which way the winds are blowing. want to change the subject away from the culture wars to other issues, things like the ethics of a free market global capitalism, war and peace, race relations, the environment, the arms race, all of these issues
we think of as a social justice, once again you will find a me in pain is -- a meat and potatoes consensus that comes off as remarkably progressive or remarkably liberal. just to give you a sense, in april 2003, i have probably interviewed 300 catholic bishops. i will tell you that i have never found one, not one who is not profoundly convinced that the u.s. led invasion of iraq failed the test for a just war. i am this trying to describe that when we look at the global south, and again these are the people who are setting the leadership tone for the church, what will strike us is this
counterintuitive makes the some issues strike us as conservative and some progressive. to me this seems reminiscent of what they spoke about as the [inaudible] it will increasingly believe the cluster of positions that the catholic church in the 21st century brings to engage in the issues of the day. second, the ss -- the ethos is [unintelligible] it is the narrative universe in the old testament. part of what that means is that things like miracles, wonder ceilings, revelations come exorcisms, and demonic combat that in our culture can seem
quaint, arcane, or off-putting are an acquired taste are very much part of the routine of daily meat and potatoes spur tree ever said the global south. the supernatural is incredibly close. you can reach out and touch it. there are lively expectations that it will constantly erupt in your daily experience. how do you do health care in a culture in which the default interpretation of illness is not in terms of physical cause and effect but also the operation of the spirits? if you do not understand they have a physical frame of reference and all you are trying to do is treat the physical problems without addressing the spiritual world view in which for them healing has to take place, you are inevitably only going to treat half of the
problem. my point is that increasingly this kind of lively, constance presence of the super natural will be part of the warp in the 21st century. pluralism is the challenge. i know in western europe and on the east coast of the united states, we habitually think that the major competitor to the catholic church in winning the hearts and minds is secular ization. i'm not here to tell you that that is not a real concern. in most of the rest of the world, particularly in the southern hemisphere, you have to look pretty long and pretty hard to find an actual secularist. secularism simply does not have a serious social logical
footprints around the world outside of the west. to be honest, it does that have a serious sociological footprint outside certain segments of the culture. yes, you can find secularists in faculty lounges. if you drill down to the grass roots, we still are a pretty dynamic religious society. some of you in this auditorium me know peter berger, the famous austrian sociological who's now an emeritus professor at boston university. and the point of view of religious sociology, the u.s. is a nation of indians, by which he meant asian indians, profoundly religious indians governed by swedes in the most secularized society in the earth. in any evvnt, the point is that however 9 secularized me maybe, i am here to tell me that the grass roots reality in most of
the rest of the world is not secular. and is instead the competitive dynamics of a flourishing religious marketplace. to get really pack -- to get practical, for the typical bishop in sub-saharan africa or most of latin america, when you ask, what are they really worried about? is it losing people to secularism or losing people to christian and capitalism? in some parts of sub-saharan africa listen to militant radical list hinduism. most people are not making choices between belief and disbelief. they are instead shopping for the particular brand of religious belief that suits them best. what that means is that in most parts of the world, the catholic church is not fighting abstract intellectual battles against secularism, they are instead
fighting more pastoral battles against competitors. that imposes a much less in the logical -- and much less a geological stamp on global catholicism. it is not the fine points of liturgical translation so did not smuggle in a mindset. their main concern is that the pentecost those are eating away at their population because they do a better job of organizing groups, having prayer nights, and having youth ministry. that is what they are worried about.3 abstract. use and optimism. if there is one defining characteristic of catholicism in the global south, i think it is this. according to the human population division, did you know that 90% of the population
today that is under 14 years old as in the global south? 90% of those under the age of 14 are in the southern hemisphere. the catholic church reflects those demographics. ladies and gentlemen, i will tell you that i have been to eight different countries in sub-saharan africa and i have gone to many a catholic parish. most of the time when you visit these people for sunday mass, you are not sure if you are in a catholic church or a day care center. kids are literally hanging from the rafters. we know the kind of psychology that shapes when you have a lot of young people in the next. that tends to and you a sense of optimism, a future taking shape. what that has created is a psychology among catholic leaders, bishops, clergy, and members of religious communities, theologians, and landy -- laity.
they're convinced their moment has come. you saw this so clearly in comparing in comparing the bishops for africa to the one that took place last year. in 1994, the bishops came to rome and perceive themselves to be in a subordinate position. they're coming to get instructions from the home office. when they came last year, there is a remarkably different spirit. there was a sense they were aware that there are leading the church where it is growing most rapidly in many ways that represents their future. they're coming to engage in a conversation among adults about where the future of the church needed to move. what i am telling you is not only is their human capital in the global south but there's also a determination to do so which is fueled by this kind of hopeful, youthful optimism about a southern moments that has
arrived in the history of the church. that is our first turned. i know we are running short on time. i will probably do one more. one point wanted to make, if you want to find this multi- cultural, multi lingual, diverse local church, you do not have to get on a plan -- a plane and fly to sub-saharan africa just go of the door. increasingly, the u.s. church is a microcosm of the global church and go these are deemed the results of the most recent pugh forms. whites, or if he wants the term anglos, people who look like me, they will for the first time not be a statistical majority in the american catholic population. we will still be a plurality of 40% but hispanics will be 41%.
increasingly this kind of highly diverse catholic church that i am describing, getting ready for this and try to think the indications of this is not just the kind of abstract but service to the fact that we are part of a global family of faith. it is about getting ready to minister to the american catholic community. increasingly that is who we are. if that trend is concentrated in the global south, then our second, and probably final trend will be more focused on the global market. it is what i call the emergence of evangelical catholicism. here and i am obviously borrowing the term from our protestant brothers and sisters and transferring it back to a catholic meeting. the hallmarks of evangelical catholicism would be third. a revival of traditional
catholic identities, said the traditional markers of catholic fog, speech, practice that over the centuries have set as apart from the rest of the world and told us to we are. many of these things after the second vatican council that without a fashion but in some ways are back with a vengeance today. i'm talking about things that you restrict adoration, priests wearing a roman callers, traditional markers of catholic speech. this is why pope benedict wvi revive the old man and less. in had been a classic carrier of traditional catholic identity. that is pillar number one of the evangelical catholicism. the second is a public proclamation of that identity. this is the essence of being evangelical, right? you shout it from the rooftops.
the third is a matter of personal choice rather than something you simply am i'm from homogenous catholic neighborhoods, schools, and so on. in that sense, evangelical catholicism is a natural byproduct of secularization. that is what secularization does. it erodes the catholic ghettos. some of you are probably old enough to know what it is like to grow up in a catholic pageno. catholicism was the gear you breeze, the water you drink. the momentum of the whole courter -- the whole culture, your member would it tasted like, smell like, and you know that is not the world live in anymore. in this culture, the post modernity of the early 21st century, if you're going to be practicing religious believer,
you cannot rely on cultural momentum to support that choice. it has to be a conscious, personal, and it is a choice. in that sense, evangelical catholicism is a natural outgrowth and it is also a carefully and consciously crafted strategies as an antidote to secularization. evangelical catholicism has been adopted, and job number one of catholic officials, and its intent is to inoculate the church, to protect it against assimilation to and seduction by his highly relativized and all just sexual -- secular culture. to understand why that has become an official edict, we need to understand the sociology of contemporary europe. despite everything i just said,
we dare not orget that the leadership class of the catholic church remains a european enterprise. we do not call of the roman catholic church for nothing. the headquarters of the institution are still in rome. we need to understand the social realities that they are to be a cross on their way to work every morning. this gives you another study. when they do is every 10 years. a round to a selection of nations around the world and they ask people to talk about their values and one question is always how important is religion to you. they can respond very important, somewhat important, etc. they said religion are very important indonesia, which is the world's largest moslem nation with a population of about 310 million, 98% muslim.
we will not get to islam, but let me just say that one of the analytical mistakes often mistake is we only see it to the prison of arab culture. bear in mind that only 25% of the moslems are actually era. it is the same problem seeing catholicism in america. 95% said that religion is very important. in nigeria, the world's largest mixed christian-muslim population, 150 million people split down the middle between muslims and christians, 92% said religion is very important. what ramallah, a still overwhelmingly christian nation though not overwhelmingly catholic, there were 97% catholic and today it is it the first majority protestant state. almost all of that movement has been in the direction of the pentecostal. in guatemala, 80% said religion
is very important. the u.s. clocks in at a still respectable 59% of our population says the religion is very important. look what happens when you get to europe. poland -- poland, ladies and gentlemen, is 36%. italy, the headquarters of roman catholicism is 36%. germany 21%. russia 14%. france, the oldest daughter of the church, 11%. the czech republic, 11%. contemporary europe is on the opposite end of the spectrum from the rest of the world in terms of the vitality of religious faith and practice. if that is the social climate i+ which policy makers are of living, moving and having the caribbean, it is no surprise that the attempt to defend catholic identity, resist assimilation to this culture secular -- to this altera
secular movement. this is not just a private hypothesis. i give you the pope's most senior deputy, the cardinal secretary of state, in effect the no. 2 after the pope in the vatican's power structure. in 2007 he was giving in a trash -- giving an address in milan. what is the main objective of the pacific it? to recover authentic christian identity in the context of widespread secularism. that is the main pontific iate. if you wonder it -- if you want to understand policy making in the church, why things are being decided the way they are, and all of these conferences and dioceses around the world, this is the engine driving the train in terms of policies and
apparatus. it is important to couple that with this point. this is not a tough -- a top down phenomenon. it is a bottom-up phenomenon that is particularly potent among the inner core of young catholics who are most likely to consider the vocation of the priesthood or religious rights, most likely o enroll in graduate programs for theology. this is both a top down and a bottom up phenomenon with profound consequences for the future of the church. there is no area that is immune to pressures over catholic identity. i already mentioned the revival of the latin mass. this is why in your local parish on some sunday in the not too distant future when you show up for the sunday liturgy and they
see the lord be with you. your answer will lockerbie, "and also with you," it will be, "and with your spirit." this is a more literal translation. if you tried to see that in isolation, you will get it wrong. it is a smaller piece of a much bigger picture, a robust muscular sense of catholic identity as an anecdote to secularization. in the interest of time, i will skip all of this stuff. my basic point is there is no spirit of hassett life these days that is freed or can escape the inevitability of questions of catholic entity. how do we know that what you are doing is actually catholic? how do you foster a strong sense of catholic identity?
how do you communicate it? certainly catholic higher education is an obvious case in point. there's not a catholic campus in this country that over the last 15 years has not had a long and painful internal conversations around issues of catholic identity. these of the this trend, it seems to me that the major challenge we will face in the 21st century, particularly in the west, europe and north america, is that of steering a middle course between two potential extremes. on the one end of the spectrum we have what my friend and colleague absolutely correctly describes as catholicism light, the kind of watered-down, sold out version of catholic identity that is catholic in name only but in terms of its values and world view is effectively secularist. but if we are honest with ourselves about catholicism in the 50 years, more or less,
since the second vatican council and take a look around, we can find examples of this. and is not just a theory or an abstraction. it is a real and present risk. but the other end of the continuum from catholicism light is what i have going to -- i have coined "taliban catholicism." it is so angry. and effectively is a disengaged from broader policy. it is in effect a type of bunker mentality into an ecclesiastical position. if we are honest with ourselves, if we take a clear eye to look around the catholic landscape today, we can see examples of this tendency as well. therefore, it seems to me the central challenge of the 21st century with respect to this trend is that we are going to have to recover the classic bit
of progress cotillion -- aristotilian wisdom. virtue stands in the middle. in other words, we are going to have to recover the genetic catholic genius with both solutions. it was pope benedict who is in a meeting three years ago during a question and answers section was asked the question between the strong sense of catholic identity but also dialogue and active engagement with the outside world and diversity in the church. how do you recognize -- how do you reconcile? historically, the genius of catholicism has been its capacity to bring together both solutions to either-or problems. that is the default setting of the church, its capacity to embrace. that, to me, i think is going to be the kind of central -- and in
some ways the final hurdle we will overcome. in the interest of time, i will skip past multi-polar some -- will fly-polarism. i will move to the finale. the two trends and the eight we did not have time to get to, it seems to me that these trends are, in principle, rich with the principle to unleash new creative energies. they are also fraught with the possibility of a new division, and a paralysis, and new polarization. these are complicated matters. there is more than one catholic opinion on how we ought to respond. it seems to me, that in this much more confident world, before we get to the rise of the global south and how we will
manage this biotech revolution, as long, or anything else, there is a challenge we will have to deal with. we will have to overcome the tendency to be constantly blocked in internal travel warfare in the church and instead foster when i am calling here a spirituality of communion, that is a new willingness to accept those things that unite us rather than those that divide us come a new willingness to the emphasis on the best on the various movements and tribes of whether -- rather than what we do not like. if you will bear with me, i will still one more anecdotes. some of you here may know that i grew up in rural western kansas. i do not know if anyone in this auditorium has ever been to rural western kansas. i can think of no reason why you should have been there. if you have been coming you will note it is not exactly a thriving crossroads of the tourist industry.
to tell the truth, about the only time we got significant amount of out of town visitors is in the fall because that is a pheasant hunting. it is a small bird that looks like a turkey. there's a certain kind of guy who finds the idea of putting on combat fatigues and blasting a shot and in the air over a course that we can to be a real hoot. usually this is done while assuming massive quantities of beer. these are a far greater threat to one another than they are to the pheasant population. just to give you a sense of the cultural million, up my 95-year- old grandmother, god bless her, who is in better physical and mental shape than i am, she lives in a small western kansas hamlet called hill city. it is my candidate for the worst place named in america. there are no hills and they're sure as hell is in no city.
there are for the people on a good day. hill city america has one motel. it has 11 rooms. it is called the western hills motel. i have stayed in some pretty funky lodgings around the world. i am here to tell you this is the only motel i have ever stayed in where there is a laminated side in the bathroom that reads, "please do not bet your birds in the sink." i kid you not. the first time i took my wife and their she read that and she looked at me and she asked, is this some kind of weird sexual double entendre"? note. there are serious. this is the culture million -- millieu. we have an out of town guy.
we have an out of towner, a lawyer from new york, who has come out to kansas to try to back some birds. he has spent a long and frustrating weekend with no success. it is the middle of the day sunday and he has to get back to drive to get his flight back to the guardia. before he leaves, he decides to take one last shot. he sees a pheasant across the skyline, shoulders his weapon, fires, and miracle of miracles he brings down the bird. he is flush with triumph. just as it gets to the spot where the pheasant has fallen, he finds a barb wire fence clearly labeled, "private property -- keep out." he has invested too much so he climbs over the fence to get the pheasant. just as he gets there, the farmer and asks, "what are you doing"?
the lawyer tells him he is going to get his does. the bird fell on my property and it belongs to me. the lawyer is hot, tired, in a hurry. he arrived and says, "look. you do not understand. i'm a senior partner in late new york city and if you do not let me have that bird i will see you back into the stone age." not understanding this is where the former already is. i grew up there a soul is ok for me to say that. the farmer looks at him and smiles and says, "well, that may be how you do things where you come from. around here we cobb -- we have the free kick rule. it is very simple. i keep you three times. you kick me three times. we keep going. whoever gives up loses the bird ." the lawyer thinks it is less expensive than a lawsuit and this guy looks like he is 512
years old. the pharma looks at the lawyer in the eyes and asked him if he is ready. he says he is. the farmer is wearing these western kansas work boots. he gives him a shot in the shins. he gives him another shot in the solar plexus. he holds in agony. you can hear it from the nebraska border. he gives it a shot to the chin. finally, with his last ounce of effort he holds himself to his feet, dusts himself off, looks at him in determination and says, "all right. now when is my turn." the farmer says, "that's all right. i give up, you can have your bird." [laughter]
moral the story, ladies and gentlemen, is this -- i would submit to you that to often our internal conversations get to the three kick world. we are not interested in a patient search for understanding with other catholics who may have different the eligible convictions. instead, too often we are interested in scoring rhetorical cheap shots to those whom we view as our rhetorical enemies. it would be picked physiologically -- it would been ecclesiastic fully impossible. it is a prescription for making sure of the losses will never be able to respond in the 21st century. we need a new spirituality of
communion. the work of fostering inner spirituality in the church is not in the first instance a job for our hierarchy or are clerical to do. and has to be done in communion. that is what the spirituality of communion means. this is not something that can be imposed from the top down. and needs to well up from the bottom. and needs to be a grass-roots fix because it -- before it can be codified. that means the job of envisioning and leading us toward a future defined by a spear to melody of communion is it work for all of us to do beginning with those of us gathered tonight in this room. as your scribe, the guy who gets paid to write what you do end run around and talk about it on television, i look forward to watching you rise to this occasion, which i have no doubt that you will. thank you all. god bless you. [applause]
>> thank you, john. many of you to the opportunity this evening as you entered to right questions that you would like to have john address this evening. several of these are representative of what is on your mind. we will oppose them to john now and hear his response. first is this. how do you think the vatican can engage catholic young adults outside of world youth day? how can we, as a church, lessen the perception of a gap between the clergy and the liturgy? >> first of all, bear in mind,
if i had magic solutions to these problems i would be doing something other than what my job currently is. i would be making a great deal more money doing so. as i said before, the absence of a compelling answer has never stopped me from responding. the first for the question, what can the vatican be doing to engage the used? and make a broad conservation which is that i think that one of the problems we have in our catholic culture these days, which is a problem inside the church and at said the church, is that there is a lot of purple ecclesiology. this is a tendency to see the church exclusively in terms of its hierarchy. think about the way the press covers church. the something is not done by a bishop, it does not count as news. that is purple ecclesiology in
action. the internal catholic version is to think that the hierarchy, and often specifically the vatican, is the cause of than the solution to all of our problems. therefore, the way i would advisor to start thinking about these questions is this. if you think there is a problem with reaching a young catholic adults these days, please do not make your first instinct to be waiting for the vatican to fix it. that is never the way change rates in the church, right? in many ways, change will arrive in the catholic church in the holy see last. at the joke goes, if you hear that the end of the world is on the way to make your way to the vatican because everything gets their last. another way of putting it is the working model of the vatican is a top u.s. on tuesday and we will get back to you in 200 years. the model would be, "not built for speed."
you get the idea. i am being flippant, but this is not by design. what is the terrorism of the successor of peter? when christ returned to his face will still be found upon it. it is by definition a cautious, conservative, almost defensive position. it is our last line of defense. it is not the research and development part of the catholic church. think about this historic. how did we get the mendicant orders? was it because the pope ordered it? no, charismatic individuals sought a change in the world in europe, the birth of new european cities, realized there was a need for new epistolic models. it was aimed long and complicated process before the officials eventually embraced it. why did begin the jesuits in the
16th century? why did be the birth of new teaching orders? did the pope order it? i know. historically speaking, guys like gregory xiii and pius ix will not go down as great men. charismatic founders, largely women, saw the need for new epistolic models to rebuild the educational and health care ministries in europe after the napoleonic wars and give best interest to do so. why did begin the great flowering of the new movements in the 20th century? [speaking italian] is a because they had it more room meetings? now. it is because laity saw they were being lost to marxism and the working class was being lost
to populace left-wing movements and invented new epistolic models to set well formed laity with zeal. it took the vatican an awful long time to ratify an embrace the new models. my point is this. the vatican is the last place to go looking for new vision, new energy, creativity in the church. the next to the last place would be your national bishops' conference. we all know how this works. occasionally you will get a bishop who is a real pioneer and a visionary. we receive that is a grace. and is a blessing. if you expect it all the time, it is a description for perpetual heartburn. you will never be satisfied. i would start thinking about, "okay, we have a problem with young adult ministry. to the question be what will the vatican do? the first question should be,
"what will we do"? the models necessary to bring in the young people, then we bring in the process to sell them to officials. that is not, of course, to at absolves vatican responsibility. if you want me to talk about credit things the holy see can do to make itself more user- friendly in particularly to young catholics out there, the first thing i would say is that there is a kind of generational change afoot in the vatican. i do not know how much you know about the sociology of the vatican. the highest level officials, the president's and their secretaries typically are in their 60's and 70's. use degeneration and the middle officials are in their late 20s's early 30's.
my point is that at the middle level and the holy see, you have a generation predominately in their 30's. many of them brought out in the world to have a wide experience of what it means to grow up as the sun in a secular age or are extremely fluent in the language of post modernity. the nature of the vatican is the official world book of the holy see says in the terms of those who will make public presentations on behalf of the vatican, it is only the top level of officialdom. that is for obvious reasons because they can speak authoritatively in a way that people lower down the food chain cannot. what i would say is that if we want tt have a kind of style and a mentality in the vocabulary from the holy see that will speak more effectively to young adults, then when those who are closing to being young adults who are presently in service,
let them carry some of the way. they are extraordinarily talented and talented folks, and men and women. there are women in the service of the holy city who could do a lot of for us if we could construct an institutional culture in which they were encouraged to do so. i think that would be helpful. please, do not put all of your eggs in the basket of expecting the vatican to ride in on a white steed with some kind of magical solution to the churches problems. it will not happen. if there are going to be solved, it will be at the grass-roots level. in collaboration with but not depending upon the officialdom. but -- >> can the american church help?
>> this is a great question. you need a high score on a catholic literacy tests to understand the question. when the abuse crisis erupted in 2002, the american bishops put together two documents, one was the charter for the protection of children and young people which they committed themselves to in the terms of a gentleman's agreement. they also adopted a specific set of new norms that were approved as law for was making them binding. it was obligatory. it was the one strike and you are out policy is the heart of the new norms. there is a great irony of which is when this happened back in 2002, there was enormous ambivalence about these norms in from. many officials saw them as a kind of travesty in terms of
the canonical tradition. logic was on their side, or at least history was, but it is true because can log has traditionally given the judge -- canon law has traditionally given the judge tremendous discretion to make the punishment fit the crimes. some of the opposition was not the fine points of canonical syria but it was a sense among those in the vatican that this was an overheated reaction. the loan friend they had was cardinal of ratzer, now benedict xvi. the reason the vatican sign-on was because of the cardinal. that is a fact. the great irony was that while
eight years ago wrong looked at this as a kind of passing american overreaction, today the american bishops are looked upon as the great heroes and pioneers. they are the trailblazers setting out the kind of pass that the church needs to walk. i do believe, and this is not speculation, but combination for the doctrine of the face, they are working on an update for the rules of the 2001 that pope john paul ii put into place that would make them not exceptions to the law but make them the law. this would incorporate important elements of the american approach, the heart of which is that if there is a credible accusations of abuse against someone they need to be immediately taken out of the ministry and suspended. he has to be taken out of the
field. i do think that is coming. there are other aspects of the american laws that are more difficult to impose on a global church. the charter commits the bishops to reporting every credible accusations of abuse to the police and other relevant civil authorities. now, in part, that is become some 31 states which are mandatory reporters. they do not have a choice. they committed themselves to doing so. now, for an american that seems a no-brainer, right? if you receive information that a priest has a view -- abused child, obviously you call the cops. think about a policy that requires bishops to respond to inquiries for information about their clergy from the police. what would that mean in the a place like north korea? what would that mean in a place
like vietnam where you have regimes that are actively seeking to subvert the church and foster a cultural of informants and writing into the secret police. think about what that would have meant during the police states in latin america in the 1960's 1970's and a 1980's. right now, the guys who refused to inform on their clergy to the police in those soviet states are heroes. the guys who did it are so toxic they cannot be appointed bishops. some of you may know that one year ago and benedict xvi tried to appoint a new archbishops in warsaw. one day after the appointment, it turned out he had been a collaborator as a young bishop in forming on his own clergy to the cops. given the variety of global situations and there are some cases in which solutions to us that some obvious are not
necessarily obvious. it is difficult to craft, at the level of detail, policy that necessarily applies to every imaginable situation all over the world. i do think the essence of the american norms, one strike and you are out, immediate suspension for credible accusations of abuse, permanent legal -- permanent removal are sustained. that is the heart of the american approach. i think there is a critical mass in the holy city that wants to see that become global policy. i would expect that the new and then into canon law will be rolled down -- rolled out in the next 12 to 18 months. >> as a keen observer of the vatican, how do you envision the vatican in 50 years? as a result of the trans world wide you have identified in your recent book. -- as a result of the trans
world wide. >> whoever submitted the question, let me compliment you in your taste of the vatican observers. if by that you mean, will we have an african pope or something like that? let me just begin with my normal the trash heaps of church history are littered with the carcasses of journalists who try to predict the next pope. this is a notoriously has of this enterprise. what i would say that in my lifetime, i am 45, i expect in my lifetime to see the election of it "from the global south. -- election of a pope from the global south. given demographics, the number of cardinals coming from the global south is going to grow. the percentage from europe will shrink. therefore, the basic laws and
betting odds would suggest that the chance of a pulp from the global south will go up. i would also expect that at levels below the pope, the president's, prefects of the various offices of the holy city and increasingly the tendency will be for more of them to come from the global south. that has been the norm. i'll be surprised if this goes to the level of the number two guys. if you know the vatican, often they are the ones to do the real work. at the moment, we have 11 councils come eight congregations, and three tribunals. there are 21 policy-making offices in the vatican. 17 of the secretaries are still italian. 50 years from now, those numbers will look different.
bear in mind about what i said about the vatican being the last change to look for change. i do not think it will look or seem that -- radically different. it is our last line of defense. they are to make sure that the church is not swept away by the passing fancies of a particular age but structurally it will look similar. but what i would say is then given the impact of the trends i have outlined, the personnel will be different. it will be more international and more representative of the global south. secondly, in terms of the priorities of the vatican, where they invest time and treasurer, my top shelf prediction would be that the rise of the global south and the trends we did not talk about, the fundamental consequence is a shift in catholic priorities from a largely odd intra issues to odd
extra issues. that is how they relate to issues in the broader world. i am telling you the theological and pastoral energy in the global sow has very little patience for internal catholic rules. who should be ordained? how much power should the pulte have versus the local bishops? how should we translate the absolute at the fourth few hours to prepare? stuff like that. -- at the fourth eucharist prayer? this is a catholic baseball. if he asks what gets activists in the global south out of bed in the morning, that is not it. they are concerned with how the church can be an agent of change. the one practical example, if you want to ask a defining concern for a wide swathe of the
global south, it is the struggle against corruption, the effort to raise a morally sensitive generation of business and civic leaders who can be inoculated against the tendency to seek corporate leadership or office as an opportunity to enrich themselves. this is because in many societies in the global south, they are all bought off or are basically have no sense of common good. there are organizations around the world who have estimated that basically speaking correction in terms of development, it takes a toll every year on the least developed countries in the world and it is five times greater than the total amount of foreign aid. five times greater. for every $1 in the foreign aid that flows to the 50 most impoverished countries in the earth, $5 goes out because of the cumulative impact of corruption. that is the kind of issue that
tends to animate catholicism in the global south. it is symbolic of what i would see as a broader transition from a leadership regime in the churches primary concerns are odd intra. it is not just at the top. this is true at the grassroots. stop the average american catholic and ask them to list issues in the church. what will they talk about? they will talk about the sex abuse crisis, the ordination of women, the new sacrament, stuff like that. in the global south and ask them. they will talk about corruption, war and peace, the struggle against poverty. those are the defining issues. my prediction would be that is that increasingly sets the agenda for the global church that you will have a vatican that is more