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tv   American Perspectives  CSPAN  January 1, 2011 11:00pm-2:00am EST

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much as we can for our needs, and so she's really turned out to be a great friend to all of us at the institute. the actual award she's get sergeant award for responsible activim in media and entertainment. she could not be here tonight and i know my husband is very disappointed about that. [laughter] >> she's filming on location but she did take a little hand-held message and wanted to send you a special message. you've not heard this yet. so take a look. .
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i cannot tell it you how much i value the work i do in trying to bring this across to the children of south africa and all of africa. jane, you are incredible.
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i love you so much. thank you very much. [applause] >> i have noticed that we have ever friend on the table. people may not know the story of a girlfriend -- of our friend. he is 15 years old. he was loved so much. his home is in england in my
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bedroom. he was given to me by an extraordinary man, one of my many heroes. he was in the u.s. marine. when he was rehabilitating, he said he wanted to be a magician. i said, you cannot be a good magician if you cannot see. he said, he would try. i have watched him several times, and he is amazing. he will turn to the children and tell them he is blind. he said, you must never give up. there is always a way forward.
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he gave me this for my birthday. he thought he was giving me a stuffed chimpanzee. they do not have tails. he said never mind, take him where you go. you know my story and it goes with you. we have been to 59 countries. he has been touched by more than 3 million people. i do not know how he has survived. a boisterous child tried to pull his head off.
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mr. "h" if you touch him, the inspiration of gary horne rubbed off. -- rubs off. >> i had a chance to meet him at a hampton film festival. he was premier in a brand new documentary film, unlike any other you have seen. she tour's 370 days a year. it shows her from going from one location to the next. all kinds of people are spreading the word. we have c-span here tonight in a nether television station here. i want to thank them for coming out -- another television station here as well. i want to thank them for coming
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out. we are very excited, because this woman can only be in some many places during the course of a year to get this message out. we're very excited about her serving her purpose. anything else? >> i think that is his story. he also stands for hope. my mission in life is giving people hope. if our children lose hope, there is no hope. hope is really important. you can pretend to have who, but then nobody would believe you.
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if i have hope, it is because of the youth. >> we have hope because of you saw thank you. i am excited about something in particular. she gets the standard questions when she is interviewed. every now and then some people for in zingers that we did not see coming. we have gathered together some of those questioned, she has never been asked before. it gives us a chance to see more of her sense of humor which touches us. she is a riot. she has an interesting sense of humor. let us get started.
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now i am in control here. who is your dream date? >> my dream date [unintelligible] tarzan, of course. [laughter] [applause] >> very good. >> when i was 10 i was so jealous of that jane. [unintelligible] my mother saved up to take me to
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one area in england after the war. i told her, that was not tarzan. every single hero is out there acted on television. favor several hollywood people who wanted to do this. i am me. [applause] [laughter] >> what do you like to do for fun other than tease me? >> fun is when you are with really good friends and you can relax and you can be silly and
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tell stories. that is fun. i am being that with my family and my sister. you have a fun when you are with family and good friends. >> what is your drink of choice? >> whisky. [laughter] [applause] you call it scotch. without ice. a little bit of water. >> state -- send the bottle to my address. >> and the other is coffee. when you travel 300 days a year -- a lot of american coffee is not very nice.
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[unintelligible] [laughter] i like to take my coffee with me. right now we have a reserve coffee in london. finding really good coffee going above the hills and we came out and tested it. a specialty brand was made. it gives the farmers more money not as giving it to the americans -- more money than they ever dreamed of. that is why the the form -- farmers need to take that conservation land.
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coffee is really important. i have one of those corals that you plug in and put in a cup of water. then you put the coffee into boiling water. you do not want it to burn you. it takes five minutes to come to the boil. then you get pantyhose and cut that over the cup.
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then you take the coffee off of the stove. perfect. it is light. and then you can put it on again. >> always thinking recycling. you mentioned green mountain coffee is one of the select product that is worthy of our good housekeeping seal of approval. you will see that on some select products. it is only done where the local communities and benefited from our partners being there. wholefoods market has been a big supporter of our products there. it is really nice to know that when you go to buy something, it is supporting us a and it is a good brand. it is more important however is that it is supporting the people on the ground.
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i just heard about coffee. what movie to you watch? >> i do not often watch movies. let me say that. i watch movies with my sister on dvd. we like eddie murphy, "trading places." it is quite fun. >> what was your most embarrassing moment while on a lecture tour? >> probably the one we had one of the first day let the events -- gala events. . and my mother had this very nice skirt. she never really had a waste.
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she hated anything tied around her waist. so here we are, we got here without a problem. and we changed the chairs around so we can put people in a nice group and tell stories. she got up in a grand way and said i will leave you children and go to bed. as she walked away from us, the skirt fell down. she had a nice petticoat underneath. [laughter] >> what is your exercise routine? >> i have no time for exercise. >> how to use it -- stay in
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great shape? >> you are using your whole body giving a lecture. i tried to go up the stairs in a hotel. if you push down in the basement, they think you are a terrorist or spy. i walk along the beach at home. [unintelligible] a house belonged to my grandmother. her son became a successful surgeon in mortgage the house and was able to give us the
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house, because of him. it has a lovely garden. it has had so many of the family in it. sometimes it seemed too small. i loved to climb the trains and a dream about africa. so i look out the window and see the peach tree that i used to climb and dream from. i used to climb to the top, because i did not like going to hospitals that [unintelligible] i never got my tonsils taken out. there was a polio epidemic and my uncle said she has to wait
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because that is a way for the polio virus 2 infected. by the end of the summer, i forgot all about my tonsils. i lost my voice one's from talking too much in lectures. -- once from talking too much in lectures. and then it seemed like my tonsils were gone. >> it is the coffee. [unintelligible] [laughter] if you were stuck on a deserted island, who would you rather be here with? tarzan or dr. doolittle? >> tarzan. i would not be keen on either of them. i would rather have a dog.
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dr. doolittle did not like people anymore, so he probably would not be a good companion on a desert island, except for the dog. >> dogs played an important role in your research. can we talk about that? >> when i first got to cambridge university, one person said there was no time to work with a bachelor's degree. he said i had to do a ph.d. at cambridge. it was very scary. i was also excited. i had collected information. it was a pretty could shock to be told i did everything wrong.
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i was very and i leave -- naive. my dog, taught me some lessons as a child. cambridge taught me how to talk about these things in a way it did not leave me wide open to be torn apart with my arrogance scientific devices. >> a wonder if college students will laugh at that one. >> the most amazing advice. i have a wonderful supervisor. one of my toughest critics. he said two weeks at the
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montgomery taught them more about behavior than the in all his life. i talked about one anibal and her brother that was born. -- animal and her brother that was born. every time another youngster would approach, she would yell and shaker hands and chase him away. you cannot say she was jealous, because you cannot prove it. but i am sure he was. what can i say? he said, i suggest you write that they behave in such a way that had she been a human child, we would say she is jealous.
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i have used that all the way through. i used that same way of writing. there is nothing that anybody can criticize in that sentence. >> we will switch gears. what was your scariest moment out in the wild? >> in the early days, i was about to speak and i was walking on the beach. a gentle wave came towards me. it was carrying a cobra. there is no anti venom for that.
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it is a vicious venom that kills quickly. the wave went away and the snake was by my foot. i looked at it and it looked back at me. i kept completely still. another wave came and gently took it away. i jumped out of the water. [laughter] >> what keeps you up at night? >> cruelty to animals, the suffering of some of these people i have met. unbelievable with children have to see. terrible things.
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thinking about some of the native american reservations this hopelessness and helplessness and the suicide rate is so high. at some point, we need more money to do more things. when you have a recession, it is tough. you know that. those are the kinds of things that keep me awake. >> we have a knowledge to many of your heroes tonight, but is there a hero of all time? >> my mother. when i was 10 years old -- when i was 1.5 years old, i took worms to bed with me.
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my mother said take those dirty things out. if you leave them here, they will die. we took them back and got them together. when i was 10 and reading tarzan, i dreamed of going to africa and writing books. we did not have money. no one was taking goods out to africa and it was still the dark continent. people looked at it like poison arrows and cannibals. the most ridiculous thing about all of this is that girls did not get to do certain things. only boys.
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after you got married, maybe you could be a missionaries' wife, but that is probably the only way to get to animals in africa. my mother never laughed at me. she said if you really want something and you work hard, take advantage of opportunities, never give up, you find a way. that is how i was brought up. when i finally got the money to we got money from a wealthy businessman. they were horrified at the thought of this young girl on her own going out to this potentially dangerous forest
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with wild animals that could tear her apart. they said, she has to cover this and it is really important. she left everything and came out. it was an expedition on a shoestring. these days, we just had a piece of canvas on the floor, a brown sheet, rolled of the sides of the tent and snakes and spiders came in. mama was scared of them, and i left her alone all day.
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she was amazing. most famousworld's chaperone. [unintelligible] [laughter] >> we need to wrap things up shortly. what is next for you and what to the next 50 years have in store? >> we need to grow. we only have 121 countries. we have not done very well so far. there are countries where the you know what can be done to help children. we need to help them out in russia.
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we need to bring muslims and christians together. we have to grow weeds and shoots. we have to save not just the chimpanzees but work with other organizations and work in other rain forests across africa. we have to change the world at the end of the next 50 years, i will not be here.
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we want to bring more of these organizations into fruition. we have not been doing this very long. there is a big job ahead of you. we are lucky that we have this great team. an amazing volunteer organization. i have been looking for you. i cannot see where you are. it makes the difference between a champ being incarcerated for several years and being released on an island.
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the young people, it is amazing what you all are doing. it is incredible. there is a saint. everywhere i go, someone talks. we've borrowed this planet for our children. it is not true. when you borrow, you plan to pay back. we have been scheming and a scheming. it is about time that we do something about that. we talk about the young people taking this into their hands, because this is their future. we cannot expect the young people to do it on their own.
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you need the elders. young people have the energy and the commitment and enthusiasm and the courage, but we need to do it to hand in hand. we need to reach out to more of the grandfathers and grandmothers. we need to get their wisdom. we are in this together. none of us can do it alone. what is so important to me and what has gone wrong in the planet is we have lost and wisdom. the materialistic, consumer- driven society is spreading across europe and across asia.
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they used to make a division based on how the decision today affects our people generations ahead it causes us to make certain decisions. we are poisoning the planets in destroying its for the future of our children. we all have to agree that we get together and involve our hearts as well as our head when we make decisions and think about how those decisions are going to affect our children in great- grandchildren and all of them >>
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we will in a winter evening. i want to thank everybody for having us here. a very proud of lime is on our staff the we also have our friends from disney matrix. you will hear great things about that in the months ahead and i think we will end with that. >> i want to do a different reading so that you can hear it again and hear the difference. the chimpanzees are often sleeping and they like to communicate.
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this is {vocalizing) tonsils have nothing to do with sore throats. [vocalizing a chimpanzee] [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, dr. jane goodall. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2010] thank you. >> thank you. [applause]
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[unintelligible] >> and next a ceremony to honor the slaves to build the u.s. capitol. a series of interviews after that on q&a. then a ceremony marking the 60th anniversary of the korean war.
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>> tomorrow on "washington journal would like a christian science monitor correspondent looks at the relationship between president obama and one of the parties. and a cell looks at the weapons of mass destruction washington journal is live at 7:00 eastern on c-span. >> calm in a time of anger and the leadership in a time of uncertainty. that is what the nation assets of the u.s. senate. >> search farewell speeches in the year from retiring senators
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it is all free, washington your way. >> congressional leaders had a couple of plaques honoring african-american slaves who helped build the u.s. capitol. rentederal government's them from slave owners at a rate of $5 per person per loan. this is one hour and 35 minutes.
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>> good afternoon. we want to honor the work in legacy of the african-american slaves who helped build the capital. our chaplain will lead us in prayer. please stand. >> let us pray. beneath the whistling of saucaw, humminghearts were heard gospel spirituals as they worked. black laborers long for the freedom of all god's children, psalm echoes against these
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halls today. to you, i lifted my eyes. to you who dwells in the heavens. my eyes are fixed on the hand of their master. like the eyes of a servant, at the slightest gesture, so our eyes are on you all lord, our god. show us mercy. have mercy on us. we are filled with contempt. full of overflowing of our souls, because of the scorn of the wealthy and the arrogant disdain for the prowled hearted. oh lord, the secret songs of the heart are revealed only when all celebrate justice together. amen. >> please be seated.
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ladies and gentlemen, the united states representative from georgia, the hon. john lewis. [applause] >> thanks. i like to thank the house and senate for their leadership of the slave task force in making this a possible. i also would like to thank -- take the opportunity to recognize the other members of the sleeper -- a slave labor task force who are here today such as j.c. watts.
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together, we introduced a legislation creating the slave labor task force i would. i would like to take a moment to ask the members of the task force to please stand. all of the members that are here. [applause] s chairman, i would like to thank each and every member for their hard work and dedication. you never gave up. you never gave in. we could not be where we are today without the leadership of upper friend, my partner, and the -- of my friend, my partner, and the leadership of the vice chair. thank you. [applause]
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i must also acknowledge the clerk of the house and both of their staffs for their dedication in this day becoming a reality. i must recognize a young man on my own staff. jeffrie, where are you? please stand. [applause] thank you, we appreciate it. today we shed light on a moment in truth. enslaved african americans used as laborers in the construction of this capitol building. the mandate of the slave labor of this is to recognize the contribution of enslaved african americans in building the united states capitol.
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there were a -- there was a history of slave laborers in the nation's capital -- capitol construction. these plaques and a historical marker will be placed to recognize the blood, sweat and toil of the enslaved african- americans who helped build this embodiment of our american democracy. they constructed this building with their own two hands. they were in the washington oppressive summer heat to chisel and pull massive stone
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[unintelligible] imagine having to fight through the bone chilling winter [unintelligible] just imagine. the united states government's was paid $5 aner month for your labor. not you, but your boehner. -- owner. this is the most recognizable symbol of our democracy. it was not built overnight or by machines but by the slave laborers. this building from which we projected the ideas of freedom
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stands on a foundation laid by slaves. slavery is a part of our nation's history, and we are not proud of it. we will not to run away or hide from it. this history should be completed as thousands of visitors walk through our nation's capital, they leave without knowing the truth of the construction. today, that changes. today this will be one step closer to realizing a dream of a more inclusive and more perfect union. this will help tell the full history of our nation and this building.
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we will remind all visitors of the work of enslaved african americans in building this temple of a freedom. i would like to thank everyone here and their support for the slave labor task force in helping to bring this truth to light. thank you very much. [applause]
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i want to thank many people for being here today and joining us in this incredible opportunity to pay respects to elevate this monumental task that was a part of our great history in this country. i want to say a very special thanks to my friend and congressman john lewis for those remarks, for his passion, for his steadfast determination in his lifetime to do so many good things on behalf of so many people. most of all, his leadership here with the slave labor task force -- i had the privilege of working with him. i have been so pleased and honored to work with him on this initiative. my former colleague has worked hard on this.
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i want to extend my sincere thanks for one organization joining us here today. i want to remember mr. sikes, who was an original member of this task force and a native of arkansas where he was a member of the arkansas black history advisory committee. i am so grateful to his contribution to our state of arkansas and into this task force. i also want to thank in other native of little rock. she joined us today. i am thanking her for her contribution to the task force following mr. sikes after his untimely passing. a special welcome to our distinguished guests for taking time out of their busy schedule to join us here for this momentous occasion. today is a very special day.
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after 10 years of hard work and dedication, we celebrate the contribution made by enslaved african americans in the construction of the u.s. capitol. when it was first being built, enslaved african americans worked from all facets of its construction. for nearly 200 years, the stories of these slave laborers were mostly unknown to the visitors of this building. we forgot to say thank you for these incredible skills and talents and workers. dan in 1999 -- then in 1999, we found old pay stubs that pointed to these workers. we established a special task force to make a recommendation to honor those that worked on this building. in 2007, we went with our
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recommendations of that today, we could unveil these plaques. as we gather here today, i am reminded about a story and the statue of freedom. as we come to work, we look at this building at a statue, the statue of freedom. it was cast by thomas crawford in his studio in italy. he passed away when it was being shipped here. when it arrived, problems arose. a worker got into a pay dispute. when it came time to move it, he refused to reveal how to take it apart.
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a man named philip reed, solved the mystery. he was an enslaved african american. he was selected to cast the bronze statue. he figured out how to disassemble the plaster model by taking an iron hook to the statue's head and gently lifting the top section until a hairline crack appeared. it indicated where the joint was located and then he repeated the operation until five different sections of the statue was discovered. we know about him because the son of the owner sheered the story with historians faction 1859. reed was an expert and everyone knew his work. we stand here not only because of him, but for other enslaved
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african americans like him who worked tirelessly to sacrifice. this will be a symbol of their sacrifice and will be seen by visitors to enter the building for evermore. i just want to personally thank the members of the slave labor task force. senator schumer and others worked to honor these and slave laborers. this incredible sacrifice and contribution had gone unrecognized for far too long. i am so grateful for the opportunity to be a part of this initiative and to thank everyone who joined us today for this meaningful and long overdue event.
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as i think back to what might have been on the mind of those enslaved african americans, i can only think to do justice, to love mercy and to walk home with our god. that must have been in the minds of those inside african- americans as they did their job and had a great sense of pride for so many americans to enjoy. thank you. [applause] gentlemen, the hon. john bellinger. -- boehner. >> we welcome all of you to the capitol today.
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today, we take time from our busy schedules to honor some people who were almost forgotten from history. i would like to thank so many people who served on this panel. the capitol building that we love began its life in south 7093 -- in 1793. the work of the task force is to remind every american of the contributions of african- americans made in the construction of this building prior to the end of slavery in washington, d.c. in 1814, some build the capital.
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both buildings were completely gutted. the effort to rebuild was extensive. a transported the stone here. they cast the bricks. they rebuilt the wings and help construct what we now know his the greatest symbol of the greatest government of the world. the plaque that we are dedicating today says we will not forget. american slaves not only help build the capital, but also the nation. we are very grateful for that. frankie. [applause] parenthood -- thank you. [applause]
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>> ladies and gentlemen, the hon. mitch mcconnell. >> speaker pelosi, senators, distinguished guests and friends. as we all know, we have come here to take the -- tell the rest of the story. the slaves must set suffered in building this great monument. jefferson wrote in an immortal document. because of remembering the slaves who labored here, they were so cruelly denied dignity in life. for all of these reasons, we are
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grateful for the slave labor task force. without this task force, we would not have these plaques and have known the stories that came down here. as one senator already told you, the story of philip reed was so interesting, it bears repeating. as you just learn, he played an unlikely role in finishing the construction. originally from south carolina, he worked at a factory owned by thomas crawford, who designed the statue. many of us are familiar with it.
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s senator lincoln pointed out, the classic model for the statue of freedom was supposed to be displayed in the old chamber until the time for it to be disassembled. it was to be cast into a statute and put up over the dome. there was a big problem. the italian sculptor, he was the only one who knew how to take it apart. philip reed apparently was the sharpest guy in the capital. he was the only one who could figure out how to take this apart without the help of the
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sculptor. it is because of him in march with that this sits on top of the capitol dome. >> that is part of the story and we must continue to tell it. the history of the capital, the history of our nation, should be complete. so we are grateful to the slave labor task force for their work. they are helping us remove -- remember and demoralize its
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import of a painful part of our history and helping to make sure that future generations continue to tell the whole story of this place and of our nation. thank you. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, the hon. harry reid. >> as we have heard, in the same year president lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation, a bronze statue was lowered into the dome. we all know his last name was reid.
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[laughter] but there are lots of different ways to spell it, and his was spelled r-e-i-d. the title of the capital's crowning feature be lies its own history. it describes the foundation of the building over which it prescribes. each of us speaking today recognizes what a privilege it is to call this place or workplace. with countless local slaves who labored here long before we or any senators and congressman before us could enjoy that honor. their tasks for backbreaking. yet while condemned to a sentence of disgraceful injustice, they somehow found the strength to fashion the most graceful designs. through blistering summer is inviting winters, in snake invested quarries, they car and carried the stones that would
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shape and structure in which leaders would shake the nation. their hands build the temple to liberty though many of them would never know that blessing firsthand. they toiled with nothing more than a hope and faith that a promise to be fulfilled inside the halls they built, the rights of their descendants to be free, to be counted as equal citizens, to elect the leaders who would represent them and serve as their representatives. in this place, were so much of american history is written, it is our duty to ensure that none of it, no matter how foul, is erased from our national memory. that is what we are doing here today. we share their stories and plays this plaque, not only for those who work here generations ago, but for those who will work and visit here for generations to come. [applause]
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>> ladies and gentlemen, the speaker of the united states house of representatives, the honorable nancy pelosi. [applause] >> hello again. welcome to all of you to the capital for this very special occasion. imagine having this program, a plaque unveiling ceremony in recognition of the contributions of enslaved african americans to the construction of the united states capitol. because of john lewis and senator blanche lincoln, thank you for being here and so many of you. you have given us this privilege to unveil these statues to correct this injustice. i am glad we are doing so in a very strong, bipartisan way. my colleagues in the house, the
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chairman of the republican national convention, sitting right in front of mr. warrior here. i want to acknowledge the presence of so many members of the congressional black caucus and the associate members of the caucus, congresswoman barbara lee is here today. john lewis and the black caucus have been called the conscience of the congress. today the challenge to the congress that this injustice has presented is at least partially corrected by giving the recognition that we do. has been an honor to work aside mr. cliburn and the black caucus, as i mentioned. i would also like to recognize two other leaders, lorraine miller, the clerk of the house -- and terry who is the ceo of
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the capital visitor center which houses emancipation hall, named to acknowledge enslaved americans who built the capital. lorraine is still working, making sure everything is going ok. over the past decade, the slave labor task force worked to document the history of slave laborers who constructed the walls of the united states capitol. we all know that by now that we know the valuable contribution of the reed family. from a dark chapter in our past, an age of equality deny, rights reduced, a dream not yet realize, these masons, carpenters, painters, and others gave us this house of liberty and this began of hope for our nation and indeed, the world. history books have until now have not recorded their story or describe the pivotal role they played in erecting the capital.
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yet the story will be written for ever into these walls, etched into the structure and spoken from this marble chamber. today it is enshrined in these plaques which state ago this original exterior wall was constructed between 1793 and 1800 of sandstone, worried by enslaved african americans who were an important part of the labor force that bill the united states capitol. for all to see and read and savor and treasurer and value when they visit this capital of the united states. never again will their contributions go unrecognized. this plaque will join the busts of sojourner truth and the bust of shirley chisholm. they are a symbol to all who
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come here that no american is left out of america's story. today we honor men and women who not only constructed a single building became critical threats in the fabric of our country, our country's heritage, and we will continue to honor the diversity of our nation in the months and years ahead. once again, i always love to tell the story that went lincoln made his second inaugural address, which is sometimes speech, thatreatest stree was the first time african- americans had ever attended a presidential inauguration as free people. it was a very changed situation where the great emancipator would make his inaugural address and said those beautiful words and have people there freely
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attending. at that time, president lincoln said we cannot escape history, and with this black, we embrace it and celebrate it. now i would like mike colleagues to join me in the unveiling of the plaque. the chaplain of the united states senate will deliver the benediction. after the invocation, i invite you all to participate in the celebration at the reception following. thank you all for coming. as i look around a room, i see so many of you. i want to come up to each area and ask you to sign my program. you all are very special guests. we are honored by your presence, and now we will unveil a plaque. [applause]
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>> there are many honors afforded leaders in the congress. today is a very special day for all of us because to be a part of this ceremony, to be standing here with john lewis and blanche lincoln who made this possible. come on up here. [applause]
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are there other members of the task force here, too? come on, barbara. i am just seeing that the secretary of labor is with us here today. harry has to go vote.
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>> now we are going to do something and now you all love to do, parade. -- pray. >> lord god almighty, creator and sustainer of the universe, accept our thanksgiving for the contributions of enslaved african americans to the construction of the united states capitol. may our gratitude for their sacrifices motivate us to strive to see more clearly your
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image in all humanity. lord, inspire us to pray that you will truly make us one nation, undergirded by you, indivisible with liberty and justice for all. in the seasons to come, glass and keep us. make your face to shine upon us and be gracious unto us. lift the light of your countenance upon us and give us until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. we pray in your liberating name, amen.
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[applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, thank you for attending today's ceremony, and enjoy the rest of your day. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2011] >> next a series of interviews of comparisons and contrasts between the u.s. and great britain. then a ceremony marking the 60th anniversary of the korean war. after that, the annual culling program featuring the russian prime minister, vladimir putin. >> and wagner joins us from st. louis on newsmakers to talk
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about her bid to become chairman of the republican national candidate. it prepares for the 2012 elections. the chairman's election is scheduled for january 14. newsmakers, sunday at 10:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. >> c-span original documentary on the supreme court has been updated. sunday, you will see the grand public places and those only available to the justices and their staff. you'll hear about how the court works from all the current supreme court justices including the newest justice, elena kagan. also learn about some of the court's recent developments. the supreme court, home to america's highest court, airing for the first time in high definition, sunday at 6:30 p.m. eastern on c-span.
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>> this week, a look at the american and british forms of government. from our recent interviews in london, this program compares and contrasts the parliamentary form of government with our own. >> it may sound treacherous to my media colleagues over here. i think the quality of intellectual discussion in the media is higher in the u.s.. the discussion of political issues is somewhat more dominated by policy rather than created in that minutia of washington life. here you tend to get weeks that are bound up with tiny westminster stories.
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i was struck that the politicians are caught in a superficial level because there were about money raising and everything else. it does not happen so much here in the uk. >> in january we will have a republican house of representatives and a democrat in the white house. hear, explain the difference. david cameron is the prime minister and he has proposed all these cuts. we automatically get these cuts? >> pretty automatically. a mistake a lot of british people who follow british politics make is to think that they are broadly comparable in the american system. your president is like our prime minister in that you have two
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houses of your parliament and we have to of hours. our prime minister has much more power than your president. he has complete power over the lower house, the house of commons. the house of commons has very limited powers. has no power over anything that costs money or raises money. has no power in the revenue department. it can keep sending bills back that it does not like until a year has passed, and then the parliament act can be invoked and the thing goes through anyway. our house of lords is not democratically elected. it is appointed. there are plans to reform that, but no one knows of it will come about or not. it has no real democratic legitimacy. has expertise. it has not been set up to be in opposition to the house of commons. it often looks to us british,
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looking across at your system, as though you have set up to arms of government almost to oppose each other and to slow the possibilities of making any big change fast. >> here, have decided that georgia osborn would be the prime minister of the exchequer? how much appointment power does the prime minister have? how many different jobs does he or she fell. he fills virtually the whole of the government. there are about 100 appointments. >> do all of those come from the house of commons? >> if he wants them in, he puts them in the house of lords, which he can do quickly. >> what is the restraint on the number of people you can put in the house of lords?
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>> there is no real restraint. you would be very much criticized if you put too many men. as mr. brown and mr. blair or criticize today. but there is no legal restraint. if they have the nerve to do it, they can do it. >> how long is your appointment as a lord? >> for life. the two categories of people in the house of lords in my time have been on a limited tenure. the bishops have to give up when they cease to be bishops. because our supreme court was part of the house of lords up until about two years ago, they have now moved out and they no longer sit as members of the house of lords. >> how is a supreme court justice here appointed? >> we have an independent appointments board of which the lord chancellor has quite a bit of influence. they are appointed by an
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advisory committee of people, and a senior judges have a really good say. >> is there any way the public can get rid of a judge by impeaching like they do in the united states? >> i have never heard of it. technically, i cannot tell you. i am sure there must be away, but it has never happened in my lifetime. i think the lord chancellor the head of the gist -- of the judiciary is this a corporate -- would make sure he did not get any work to do. >> what about the cabinet positions for the prime minister? what if people don't like a cabinet officer? is there anyway to get rid of them? >> only if the prime minister wants to get rid of him. he has the total say. the only way to really get rid of them is by having a vote of no-confidence in the prime minister. if the prime minister backed
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them, you cannot get rid of them. but the prime minister is quite sensitive to his own political position and he would not support somebody who had clearly lost favor with everybody. >> if you had the opportunity, would you rather be prime minister of great britain or president of the united states, when it comes to the power and ability to get things done? >> i think the prime minister of this country has a great deal of power, more power than people realize. while the president does have a great deal of power, the prime minister in this country skillfully operating as a great deal of power and can get most things done. some of which the president of the united states would find difficult. >> you have a coalition government for the first time since when? >> there was a coalition government in the 1930's, and of course during the second world war we had a coalition
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government. during the 1970's we had an informal working arrangement between the liberal party and the labor party. almost all those previous coalitions have been weak need things where a government that was in trouble needed to be propped up by another party. nobody alive in britain today has any real experience of a willing coalition between two quite strong parties who, when joined together, when their forces are joined, art in a very impregnable position and who more or less agree with each other on the main areas of policy. this is a hell the coalition that has within itself the seeds of not only being able to carry on for five years but perhaps to carry on the other side of a general election. it is very common on the continent, but not here. >> so i am a member of the
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conservative party. can you delineate between the conservatives or what a liberal stands for? >> if you were to drop a continuous spectrum from what you might call the left to the right, the conservative party tends to occupy the right hand third of that spectrum, although there are wild extremist over to the right who are not in the conservative party. the labor party tends to occupy the left-hand third. the liberal party is in the middle third -- to say that the liberal party is in the middle third would not be correct. there are some liberal mp's to elect of some liberals. the liberal party is liberal in the old sense of the work, not the way you use the word in america. you tend to be left wing by
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liberal in the united states. liberal means a belief in individual freedom and liberty. >> you mean like the libertarians'? >> there are high tax liberals and low-tech liberals as well. it is the belief in freedom, the belief in individual liberty. >> let's say you have the iraq war the afghan war. if you are conservative, what is your position? >> if you are conservative, your position ranges from being against the war all along, as i was, to being a really enthusiastically in favor of them, to the feeling that these were rather difficult foreign policy adventures, military benchers, where we had a duty to support the united states, even if we had some doubts about the adventure. liberals are almost all against both wars.
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this was the first election that we had leaders, like you do in america. we had our prime ministerial candidates, although the public had not got any right to vote for them. they had three debates. i think there were generally thought to be a success. i think they will be regular feature of future elections. there was a great deal of difficulty about it, and mrs. thatcher would never have taken part in them, partly because she did not hold with that sort of thing, but also she would have been told by her in visors that you have everything to lose and nothing to gain. you are in the lead. but this election was quite interesting, really. david cameron was very keen to have them, because he was pretty certain he could hang out debate
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gordon brown in the elections. that is what he felt. and in my view, he completely underestimated the appeal of nick clegg, of the liberals. the first time, the liberal band was the outstanding winner of that debate and the polls went up. of the second one, they had a better way of handling him, and they got it right. it was quite interesting how it took place. >> of the things about the system we have is that once you win the election, but what you don't have is the balance of power. we have an unwritten constitution, for one thing. the party that wins the election provides the prime
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minister and provides the cabinet ministers. >> what does it cost you to run? >> we have really tough campaign finance rules when you are running as a member of parliament. the amount of money you can spend is fixed and calculated according to your population. nobody else, no political action committee or party is allowed to -- you cannot buy television time if you are british parliament candidate. people cannot buy television time on your behalf. and i ran for parliament years ago [unintelligible]
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>> $4,500 -- it would have been close to $8,000. how do you raise that? >> the party raises it. the party raises it brubaker sales -- through bake sales, donations. you do not have a huge budget. nowadays you can have a campaign website. the districts are smaller than american districts. it is very much more door to door. it is a subject of much criticism. we have tough campaign rules.
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i cannot imagine if i had to raise a lot of money that our young black radical woman could get elected. >> how much should they pay you for your job? >> about 55,000 pounds. >> so that would be somewhere close to $110,000? >> yes. >> is that it have to live on? >> sure. >> comfortably? >> it is certainly a lot more than a lot of people in my district make. >> what does a lord make every year? >> he does not get a penny apiece in salary, but he does get expenses which are not unreasonable. i guess that a member of the house of lords could turn in, including all his expenses, maybe $50,000 a year, that sort of figure. sex in the united states, a member of the senate or a member of the house -- >> in the u.s.
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senate, they cannot do any outside work. >> the rule here is that you can do outside work unless you or a member of the government. if you are just a back bencher like i am, you can do outside work. the house of lords is designed to encourage you to do that. we believe that the house of lords should be filled with a large number of people who have expertise in all sorts of different areas, like surgeons, professors, lawyers, and people who are most of the time practicing their trade, but turning up in the house of lords to turn -- to take part in the debate. some people like me who have become politicians are there every day. but then i do not have the sort of expertise that these people have. the house of commons members can do some, but is limited. every penny of it has to be
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declared. that is a pity, too. i do think we are better governed by people who have a least 1 foot in the real world. as long as we know where they are. i would not defend for a minute anybody advocating a particular cause in parliament and not making it absolutely abundantly clear where they are coming from. >> do you have a disclosure requirement on where you make your money outside the house of lords? >> is yes, you do, but you don't have to say how much you make. you have to say what you do, where your interests are, and that is all filed and recorded. >> is there any way to compare david cameron as a prime minister to any politician in the u.s.? >> that is an interesting question. i don't think you would get a similar kind of character. he is quite an establishment figure in terms of his background. he comes from a very as we would
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say posh background. i am not sure who the comparison would be in the states. but he has become known -- when he became a leader he was a fresh face. he was supposed to be a compassionate conservative. in that sense, you could compare him to george bush, but i am not sure he would embrace the comparison. george bush was also from a more traditional u.s. background. the key thing about david cameron is that he has at least given the impression of wanting to change the conservative party, make it more modern and do what the conservative party what tony blair did to the labor party. and also have a more open-minded approach to how to run government. on things like the budget, he is
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pretty traditional in the sense of wanting to cut spending pretty sharply. that is something we see here from conservative governments that we have not always seen from u.s. republican governments. they talk a lot about cutting taxes but they have not cut spending very much and they usually increase it. >> it cannot figure of what is really going on with all the cuts, and refer to cutbacks here is just plain cut, can you explain to us how severe the economic cutbacks are here? >> and have not yet been, but they are going to bite, and people are increasingly able to see where they are going to bite. to explain how severe the cuts will need to be, one has to give an impression first of the bloated this of british government of of the last 10 years or so. we have almost doubled our expenditure on our healthcare,
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on our national health service. nobody doubts that the service has gotten better, but it has not gone twice as good. we have gone up to something like 8% of gross domestic product. i think americans are closer to the 10%, and that is with private health care. we have actually doubled it, everywhere you go. schools, school buildings, welfare, claims for benefits, which is to say the way the state helps you when you are unemployed, have soared. incapacity benefits where it you say you are unable to work due to back a or whatever it may be. maybe serious, but it may not. the malingering claims i think have grown. things have increased, not by 15% but by 50% or 60%, to the extent that the proportion of oh, well that is now being spent
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by the state has climbed from around the 40's to around 50's. we cannot carry on like this. these things have got to be cut. >> how does the percentage of debt here compared with the u.s.? >> i think they are in the same ball park. the question is america with its unique position and having a reserve currency, at least for the moment, for the world, gets special treatment, i guess, so they can get away with more borrowing than we can. our borrowing deficit is similar to the u.s.. this year it was 11% of national income, which is roughly what i think it will be in the states. that was considered to be an outrage by the incoming conservative government. it is much higher than when the imf had wanted to bail the uk out in the 1970's. with this new government making
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such set reduce such strides against some opposition and some concern by economists, but with this government trying so hard to bring it down, i would say our borrowing is going on a downward path. that is at an average level but it is in the middle of the pack, whereas in the u.s. it still looks like it is going up. it will be in the same ball park in the u.s., but it depends on how you treat some of the state debt. there are exciting debates we cannot not have about how you treat the social security fund but we are in the same ballpark. the u.k. has now put forward what most people say is a credible plan for putting the debt on the downward path.
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not just borrowing less but not allowing debt to rise for the next few years. that is not what is happening in the u.s.. >> this is a small thing for you would probably not for the person i was talking to last not who said if you are over 65 or 70, you get free bus rides. >> over 60. gordon brown had introduced -- there were quite a few freebies that now cost a lot of money. free tv licenses for all the people over 70. you have a free ride to watch the bbc. here if you buy a tv, you have to buy a tv license which costs a little under $200, maybe $175. that goes free to people over 75, even if they are very well- off. even more extreme in the case of
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bus travel. absolutely everybody in britain can get a card entitling them to free bus travel if you are over 60. that is a point of contention. david cameron was pressure on the campaign in the election to say he would keep it, but treasury would like to get rid of it. they think is crazy to be giving free travel to a lot of rich pensioners and rich, elderly people. >> what is a direct result of the cuts that people are coming to you with? >> one thing the new governor is going to do is make cuts in jobs in the public sector. some government departments are born to lose 20% or 30%. hospitals, schools, government departments. that is the big thing.
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>> what special payments are there in this country for either children or older people? >> in this country we have a set payment for unemployed people. obviously we pay an old age pension to the elderly. people are worried out how they are wrong to manage and how much worse the situation is going to get kickbacks how much does an older person who is retired get on their pension? how is it determined? >> i think it is about 70 pounds a week for a single person. >> so you are talking about $110 a week. >> they get a payment to help with fuel in the winter. what has happened is, this has altered the basic payment, but
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other payments whether payments for medical conditions or help with other things, they are being cut back, and people are very worried about that. >> what are some of the complaints you get from your constituents? >> they are just worried about how they are going to manage without a job. people are very concerned that the government has tripled tuition fees that people have to pay and people are frightened of that. people are frightened about the future. in my district have the highest turnover i have had in 20 years. but cannot because they wanted to support me and support my party because they knew that this government coming in is not good for poor people. >> we have roughly 2 million people that work for the federal government. when we watched because be announced over here it said 500,000 people are going to be
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cut in the public service. is that like cutting one for the bar civil service? is it the same thing, or how you find 500,000 civil servants in a country that only has 60 million people? >> it may be 100,000 civil servants, but it will be the policeman and whatever. it will be the bureaucrats who are dealing with the different departments. there will be a lot of local government officials. in that figure, it is all the people working for local governments. >> what control does the prime minister have over the local government? >> he is doing a classic trick of saying we are wrong to cut how much money we give to local governments and give you more control over how to spend it. the hated the fact that were forced to spend on certain things. it is like a similar debate in
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the states. the states have -- hate having the federal government control how they spend their money. cameron said you were born to have a lot less money but will stop putting so much control over how you spend it. in that sense, he will have less control over what local governments do that his predecessor. a lot of the cuts will be felt at the local level. most voters will be blaming their local authorities for that, not westminster. >> and the president stood up and said we are wrong to cut money to the states, you may never be able to do that because congress would not go alone with it. what about here? if the chancellor of the exchequer says there are to cut money to the states, does that mean it will be cut? >> that means it will be cut. what they say in parliament, happens.
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in a sense, things are of a different in the coalition government because you have got a lot of debate between the two parties, the liberal democrats and the conservatives, that has to happen behind closed doors within the treasury before these things get an ounce. in the sense, there is now a new check and balance of the conservatives power that would not have ordinarily been there. when she get to the point of announcing it in parliament, it goes through. it is just a very different system. >> if you work for the chancellor of the exchequer versus the treasury secretary of the united states, what would the day be like? what with the attitude and the speech writing be like? >> i suspect is the drying process would be similar. it depends on the person. some leaders are very careful about their speeches and that what everyone to have seen it before hand. i suspect they are in the
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minority. i think most of these people have people they trust and they want to do it at the last minute. people at the u.s. treasury would be tearing their hair out because we would be discussing the crucial speeches at 3:00 in the morning and there would not be time for a lot of checking other rest of the bureaucracy. the u.k. treasury is much more powerful in the uk than the u.s. treasury is. i should have known this going in, but what was surprising to me is how the u.s. treasury does not have control over monetary policy in the u.s.. it does not really control budget policy. the president will produce any budget he wants to produce and even if he has control over congress, the budget he produces in january is kindly received and then completely ignored. the situation here is completely different.
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even in a coalition government, the treasury is pretty much all powerful. a have american friends who have been astonished to watch this when they come here. the chancellor stands up on a certain day in parliament and announce what they are going to do. they sit down, and in a week or so, it will have happened. there is none of the debate, none of the months of painful back and forth that you have in congress. the treasury is just much more powerful. when it comes to the rest of the world, no one really cares anymore what the u.k. treasury thinks, but in the case of the u.s., we did have an awful lot of control over the policies that the imf and others were imposing on other countries. the irony was we had more control over other countries' policies than we did on our own.
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>> the republicans basically have said no for the last two years during barack obama's term. now they are about to get the house are represented back. looking back on what happened during the blair years here, what is the difference with what the tories could do when tony brown -- and tony blair was in charge versus what the republicans can do it in the united states when they were not in charge? >> what happened in our time, we inherited -- we left for the labour government a pretty prosperous economy. they held the line for a bit and then things went radically wrong with spending. we criticize them roundly at the time in saying you are not mending the roof when the sun is shining, and when it rains, we will all get wet. that is what happened. it is much more difficult now, starting from a difficult position to get back in the
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economy. i don't know if i am fair about this because i do not follow american politics that closely. there is one thing i have noticed about politicians. that is that if they are going to lose because they do not have a majority, they can say some pretty outrageous things in terms of criticizing their opponents, knowing their opponents are going to get that thing through anyway. they want to be on the safe route of criticizing so that will be ready in years to come to say this did not work and that did not work. i suspect if they had been the other way around, the other parties would have each said similar things that they are saying. when you are in government, you are faced with some pretty horrendous problems and there is no way of ducking them. you have to try and deal with them. when you are in opposition, you can pick and choose that what
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you will make a fuss about and what you will let get by. from where i sat, some of the major industries in the united states had built up over the years some very deep-seated problems which had to be resolved. we had a little bit in the coal mining industry in this country. we had nine pensioners of the coal industry for every one employee and the company. no company can survive that sort of historical -- big decisions have to be taken. opposition sometimes criticize knowing they may have to do some of the same thing themselves if they find themselves in government. >> we are this thing about -- we hear about this thing called vat.
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a sales tax in most cases does not go above 10%, but there is no national sales tax. explain the vat. >> we do not have a state system in the way that you do so we do not really have smaller units of government within the overall state that are capable of organizing their own budgets and their own tax raises. almost all the expenditure is raised by the central state and spent by the central state. a value-added tax is just a mega sales tax, like a more complicated system. it is value-added so that each individual along the chain from the production of an item to the final sale of an item pays tax on the proportion of by you. it has just been added -- from the point of view of the ordinary citizen, all you know
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is that the prices when quoted, you at 17.5% to them, although most retailers would add it automatically. is going up to 20% very soon in deep. >> everything except food, children's clothing, newspapers, magazines, charities -- there are a few extended items, but about 90% of what we buy. >> vat is going to go up at the start of the year. was the one new tax rise that this administration announced, although there was a payroll tax was that they will not completely implement. the conservatives -- margaret thatcher family increased bad very sharply in the middle of the recession in the 1980's. to some generations, that still has resonance.
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the things people by could well go up as a result of that. we have to remember that the 20% in the u.s. -- this is a sales tax on everything except food, which will be 20% on top of the regular retail price. >> do you have a property tax? >> not really. we pay tax on transfers of property. whenever you transfer property, you pay a portion of that. that is in the lower percentages, as a tax. we have what are called domestic rates. this is for your local authority, your town hall or whatever. you pay tax according to the value, very approximately boarding to the value of your property. all these taxes are very small compared with that an income tax, which are the big ones. >> what percentage of income or
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of your party value would you pay a year? >> i think i pay about 1,500 pounds a year. i have a high value to property. >> something like $2,500. >> the property is worth perhaps $2 million, something like that. it is not enormous. >> in the u.s. to pay anywhere from a $15,000 and up for something like that. what other kinds of tax to you have? how much of this is going to go up decides that a vat tax? >> the other really big ones are excise taxes. that is primarily on tobacco, alcohol, and fuel. we pay a huge amount of tax on fuel. i think more than half the cost of a gallon or a liter of fuel is now tax. >> there are three or four
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leaders to a gallon? how much is a liter of gas here? >> is more than 2 pounds, nearly lit4eer.lars a leade >> sears's three to four times more expensive. >> the government raises a huge amount of revenue on fuel taxes and alcohol taxes. the greater part of the cost of a bottle of wine is the excise duty. that and tobacco are causing difficulties for us. we are all in a customs union together, so people are getting on to the theories and crossing the channel with trucks and coming back loaded with beer and cigarettes. so the exchequer is being deprived of quite a lot of revenue.
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it is a sort of automatic balancing, leveling, equalizing of taxation going on across the european union. if one country causes more tax than another, people will go to the other country to get it. >> what else is different about politics? issues like abortion, we have access to abortion in this country. people sometimes debate about the timing. can i have an abortion in this country easily if the child is too far advanced in the womb. you have the religious right promoting it.
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this whole thing about gun- control is not an issue in this country. it is not a problem for people to have guns in their homes. there is no right to bear arms. the number of people killed by guns in london in a year is probably less than killed in new york in a month. abortion, the right to bear arms, the whole issue of equal partnerships in gay marriage. we have had that for years and years. all of these livestock, ethics issues are not politicized in this country -- lifestyle issues. the british think these are matters of conscience. when abortion came up before that british parliament, people
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were asked to vote with their conscience. the majority are in favor of it. we have not had the death penalty for years and years. the british do not think it is right or humane. >> you have been openly gay and a member of the conservative wing of politics in this country. if you were in the united states, that might not be easy. why have you been so open about it? >> it might not be easy. and the other hand, you could find a range of people on the right in america to basically give exactly the same story as i am giving, which is that to believe in homosexual law reform, to believe that gay people are equal citizens, and to believe that relationships between people of the same sex are not necessarily anti- social, dangers, or personally damaging, is not inconsistent with being a conservative, with
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being a fiscal conservative, with believing in a small stake are believing that the state should not travel to much over people's private lives. bullying and individual freedom of conscience, freedom of speech. these are all things a conservative ought to be able to support. talk to andrew sullivan in the united states and you will get the same story from him as you will for me, and millions of other conservatives. >> explain your thoughts of having a partner and two children. is that accepted universally here in great britain? >> we now have a leader of the opposition who has a partner and two children. ed miliband has just had a second child. i think is pretty common. i think last year was the first time in more than half of the children born in the u.k. were born out of wedlock, as we would say. so it is a very common thing. i suspect i will get married, it is just one of those things.
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in the modern world you end up spending more time looking for a house and starting a family and then you look around and say we are not married, we will have to fix that at sometime in the future. >> in the united states is 30% out of wedlock and in some groups is as high as 70%. what is your philosophy of not marrying? >> i think it is not a conscious decision. we met in our late 30 poet, so you you end up feeling a little more of a time pressure. i have never been one of those people who dreams about what your wedding would look like. i was not sure i would ever get married. it seems like a bigger priority to find somewhere to live together and start a family and to get married. it was just a question of timing. >> one of the things you see in
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houses of parliament is very tight security. when you ride the subways here, it does not look any more secure than any of our subways. you hardly see a policeman anywhere. you had that tragic subway accident where terrorists killed about 150 people. what has that done to this society? >> britain texas lottery different view of terrorists. we had the ira in the 1970's and 1980's. i was right back on the subway, and so was everybody else. we are not going to let terrorists stop us. british people are little more phlegmatic about terrorists than the americans.
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>> a lot of the audience may not remember our previous interviews. i want to run a clip of the one we did in 1988 because it tells of a little bit of a story that they should know before we go any farther. >> an ira bomb went off that was designed to blow up the british government. i was unfortunately in a bedroom that was very near to the bomb. my wife was killed instantly. there were four other people killed and a lot winded. it was seven
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i had to rebuild my life. >> go back to when that happened, please. >> well, i was fortunate enough. i got married fairly soon afterwards. great friend of my first wife's and i have three sons and we have just celebrated our silver wedding, my second wife and i. 25 years ago since that happened. and so i have rebuilt my life in that sense and i have a wonderful family around me. i still have trouble with my legs. i was in the hospital a few days ago where i get difficulties with my legs and they can sort that out. so that side of it hasn't completely cured. but the human spirit does recover and i was lucky.
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>> what year was this? >> 1984. just over 25 years ago when the bomb occurred. >> that is the irish republican army? >> correct, yes. and a lot happened in the political scene as well as far as they are concerned and we are working together with northern ireland and with some success, too. >> are you surprised there is no more of the bombings going on? >> there are still a small element would like to get the bombings going again but don't have much popular support that would have been in favor of you a united ireland. so i think so far, things are reasonably under control. but it's been a lot of hard work gradually getting things going again. >> that was a party event, the
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conservative party meeting? >> the annual convention, yes. >> how many people were killed? >> five people were killed in the hotel i was in. and -- because i was a government witness, mrs. thatcher was in the room next to me but the bomb went off the room above and i fell four stories in the hotel and they dug me out seven hours later and the only reason i was -- i survived was really luck. a girder from the hotel came down and stopped the hotel from crushing me and the springs of the bed gave me enough air to keep me going. but it was a pretty honor douse affair. >> any americans thinking that
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this will never be over? >> i think you have to have a combination of strong security, what is best to try and frustrate the -- you need very good intelligence and so very brave men who can infiltrate these organizations to find out what is going on. but at the same time rkts political leaders have be able have to start some sort of dialogue with these people, because however evil the overall organization might be, there are less evil people in them and some people could be persuaded that a peaceful path is what is required and can't drive them all. in all of these successful things, i think there have been some negotiations where the moderate people are gradually drawn away from the real hard
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liners. >> why did you run for house of commons in the first place? >> i wanted to speak up for people who didn't have a voice and i became an m.p. a few years ago and there were very few women and no black people at all. and i was the first black woman leppingted to parliament. -- elected to parliament. >> first black woman to be in parliament of this count thri? >> yes. and i was elected 150 after the and litigation of shriverry. so there is such a thing as progress. there are a great many more minority members on both sides of the aisle. the conservative party and ruling party has done very well.
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they didn't have any when they came in. and many more than it should be but a big advance. given the system and you are aware of what goes on in the united states, we have over 40 members of the u.s. house of representatives out of 435. i think 3% of 640 -- >> i think it's about -- i think that it's about 20 something now. >> under your system, how do you get more minorities elected? >> well, what the conservative party did is put pressure on the local organizations. and will uvend most circumstances elect a minority member. we don't have the kind of
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history of segregation. in the labour party, they want to see more minorities. in the conservative party, they wanted it more diverse and so they encureged rkts the plightest thing to select minorities and very good people. >> what part of your life here is regulated? do you have a lot of regulatory agencies that regulate the media, energy, all the different aspects of life? >> for instance, in the media, you can have -- could not -- could not? >> could not. all of the sat lights host
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stations have responsibility >> do you feel that the news is balanced here. >> i think it is when you compare it to fox and misnbc. >> americans have said this is freedom, freedom to say whatever you want to say, a gun in your house, all the things that we have been talking about, first amendment protects speech. in other words, you would -- people would argue you ought to spend whatever you want to on politicians and politics. >> it's the freedom if you don't have money, but it's the freedom for the poor but it is spled on truth. how many people believe barack obama barack obama is a muslim. it's a freedom to continue to
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repeat things that are misleading. that is not a stable society. if people are hearing contradictions. >> is there a difference in journalism in the two countries. >> having worked for "the financial times," which is serious. they trust their journalists more or they basically lead the journalists to make their own judgments in the u.k. and that makes that in many newspapers and there is less -- a lot of stories that aren't true. someone once said to me great thing of sundays, they don't have to be as true. you would never hear that in any
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serious paper in the u.s. and i found i was taken aback initially and rather impressed by the amount of attention to detail when i was working for the "new york times." you ran something the complaints board. >> commission. >> what is it? who runs it and who controls it? >> what it was was, to be blunt, it was an attempt by the newspaper industry to demonstrate they set up a body to seek to raise press standards particularly in invasions in privacy and those sorts of things to stop the political party to bring in any control, statutory control of the press. and they wanted me to run it after the first -- very nice man but didn't make much of an impact. they wanted me there and bolster
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up the standards, if i could, by getting the public to complain about anything they thought was unfair, wrong, inaccurate, invasion of privacy. but we had nore legal penalties and couldn't find people, but we could pretty -- criticize but it was free to make a complaint and never got charged. lawyers weren't involved. and we raised the standards. >> who paid for it? >> the newspaper industry and i had to maintain our inspect from the newspapers. i had to be sufficiently respected by people to tay i want there, too, because we are being patriot for it.
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>> which years did you run it? >> seven years and i ran it until 1985. >> you took on someone publicly, piers morgan. he is going to take on the "the larry king show." >> he is a very successful man and i have no hard feeling. when i was first starting and he published photographs of the first spencer's wife who was walking in the grounds of a nursing home where she had gone to for a mental breakdown. >> who is earl spencer? >> brother of princess di anna and from the old school. i'm an arift cat of the new col.
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and this was right at the heart of what we were trying to stop, that the intrusion of somebody in hospital . and i said this was a very serious breemp of the code and right in the beginning of the times so i went to murdock and i said, look, in the end, it's you that you have confidence. >> he ran "news of the world." >> a popular upand he said the conduct of this young man is unsebtable and he shortly afterwards left. he didn't do himself any harm. we had bunch together and we are good friend. no, ma'am hard feelings, but part of a process to demonstrate that a free nape -- newspaper
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did not incruding. >> what are we more alike than different on? >> i think we're like -- you have a written constitution and that written constitution means that you have the supreme court, the president and defense ministers and they balance each other. our common history you haven't fought, to be honest with you, side by side. there's a lot that we have in common sense.
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2011] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> for a copy of this program call 1-877-662-7726. for free transcripts or give us comments, visit us at qq -- >> the one thing we absolutely learned over the last 30 years is that the economists and other
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stages of the economy aren't good at predicting what happens. >> in his column for newsweek and "washington post," robert samuelson has written about politics, economy and social issues and will join us on sunday night on c-span. >> next, a ceremony marking the 60th anniversary of the korean war. the annual call-in program featuring putin and then canadian prime minister stephen harper. >> former journalist for the united nations, she is the author of eight books. join our three-hour conversation with your phone calls, emails and tweets sunday at noon eastern on c-span2 and watch
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booktv dorgan find the entire weekend schedule. >> congressional leaders gathered at the u.s. capitol in june to mark the 60th anniversary of the start of the korean war. representative rangel and representative coble and representative conyers. this is about 50 minutes. >> we are honoring all who served and those who perished in the conflict. please stand for the presentation of the colors.
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[presentation of colors] ♪ o say can you see by the dawn's early light what so proudly we hail that the twilight's last
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gleeming whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, or the ram parts we watched, were so gentlelady antly extreming and the rockets red glare the bombs bursting in air gave proof through the night that our flag was still there o say does that star standingled banner yet wave or the land of the free and the home of the brave ♪
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>> let us pray. eternal lord god who alone spreads out the heavens, we gather in prayer on this 60th anniversary of america's
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forgotten war, to seek your blessings. bless the families of the fallen as well as the shrinking core of aging korean war veterans. remind them and their families that you have kept a record of their sacrifices. bless the korean people whose peninsula was cut in half along the 38th parallel. ease the current tensions and bring reconciliation and co-existence. hasten the day when the barriers that divide north and south korea will be overwhelmed by the
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forces that unite. lord, you haven't given us a spirit of fear, but of power, of love and of perseverance. allow the light of your truth to shine and spread, to restore and heal, to illuminate and rebuild. we pray in your sovereign name, amen. >> please be seated.
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>> ladies and gentlemen, the honorable charles rangel from new york. [applause] >> madam speaker, i cannot thank you enough for making certain that this great nation of ours has an opportunity to thank some of us for the contribution that we have made in korea. and it's not us that you honor but our fallen comrades that did not come back with us. we have the opportunity not only to talk about our veterans that were in korea and those that still remain there, but talk about america and what happens when that flag goes up and everything that we believe in is a part of that flag and those of
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us that went to korea, we didn't go there just as infantry men or marines, but we went there as americans. the only color that we knew was the flag was red, it was white, it was blue. it represented everything that we were and everything that we ever hoped to be. and so for the families that really made the sacrifice as they lost their loved ones, as some came home not to be forgotten, but sometimes not even to be remembered, we thank you for taking this time to pay tribute to all of the young men and women that went to a far distant place. i was 20 years old in the barracks in fort lewis in
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washington when someone aid america is going to korea to stop a police action, which meant the communist takeover of south korea. i had no idea where korea was but i was anxious to get out of fort lewis and police action sounded pretty attractive. but when we got there and understood that here was a democracy that was being invaded by the communityists and communist china thought it was so important to them it was only after we left that we saw the that the land was flattened out and the inspirations by the korean people and in terms of being america's friends, they haven't forgotten. i would ask my korean american
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friends from new york who never stopped saying thank you to please stand and thank you for coming down here, not to celebrate but remivende us that your great nation is our greatest partner, and we thank you for your friendship in whatever you do. and in conclusion, i would say that if you know anybody because we reached that age that there is not that many of us left, that you can walk up to and say thank you, we understand, it's not for us, but our buddies and our friends that we left in south korea, many of whom were taken as prisoners and died in prison. it is an honor to have served with representative coble and john conyers who was a young
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officer in korea and sam johnson who never stopped defending his country whether or not it was korea or vietnam but our leadership in the house and the senate created this opportunity for us to thank our korean friends a very special thank you to the korean angels who i hope you will see perform and provide the spirit and say god is good. [applause]
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>> couth korea continues to be a friend and ally. the bad news is that north korea continues to be a threat upon which we must maintain a consistent, sharp lookout. i appreciate the presence of the democratic and republican leadership. i appreciate the well the presence of all of you who took time to be here to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the korean war. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, united states representative from michigan, honorable john conjers junior. [applause] >> to my leaders in the
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congress, my colleagues, friends from literally all over the world, our armed service members present and former and all those that are gathered here for the 60th anniversary, this is an experience in everyone's life and the service that goes into an active area of military engagement that transforms their life, their philosophy and their attitudes. i too was at fort bliss, washington and we would wake up in the morning and a battalion had been moved out and
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everything was gone, where the bar racks were. they had been shipped out overseas to korea. and the thing that i'll never forget is that the -- some of my classmates at fort lewis, at the engineering school, i never saw again after that graduation. many of them were shipped to korea never to return. i was among the lucky ones. and so i dedicated myself because of that military experience to the question of force and diplomacy in our
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foreign policy activities. it's my deepest belief as martin luther king junior said, jobs, justice and peace, if you had to sum up the career and life and legacy of the one person that influenced me with all due respect to other influences more than any other one person i ever met, known and worked with. and the question is, how do you get the peace? and it seems more clear to me that you cannot get the peace without a full employment, plan without justice, which includes economic and political justice and then you can inch toward
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peace. funny in these several thousand years, we are still struggling toward that objective. and so, it can be said that our military presence and force is sometimes still required. but now as aledge legislator, privileged among the 535 men and women in a nation of 350 people to be a part of making the laws and guiding the destiny of what i think is unquestionably the greatest government and nation in recorded history in terms of
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accomplishment and power, we are in a peculiar and challenging situation, how do we make sure that there are not only no more koreas, but no more vietnams and no more of the other wars, many of whom are unknown, some of which are actually military actions within countries that make it even more difficult for us to determine what to do. and how do we make this grand idea of an organization that contains all of the 232 nations
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on the planet earth, 6.4 billion men and women of scores of nationalities and religions and races and creeds and to me to be able to serve with my colleagues here being honored is a reminder today that that should and could be the goal of all of us if we are to make sure that we understand the opportunity and the challenge at this moment and on this day. and i'm so honored to be here with all of you. thank you very much. [applause]
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>> united states senator from pennsylvania, the honorable arlen specter. [applause] >> madam speaker, my fellow distinguished colleagues on the stage and ladies and gentlemen, i remember june 25, 1950 vividly, because i was one of 2,000 rotc cadets who checked in at an air force base to fulfill an obligation between our third and fourth years of college. and there we were, 2,000 of us, in khaki and a war had just started. and the conclusion throughout the barracks was that we would
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be on our way to korea. we were already in uniform, but that was not to be. we were sent back to college because they wanted to win the war. and i spent two years stateside as a special agent with the office of special investigations and have a deep reference for veterans which arises from the first veteran i knew, my father, harry specter, a russian immigrant who served until world war i and the florist was wounded during action and was looking forward to the 500 bonus promised by the united states government to world war i
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veterans. the government probing the proposal and there was a historic march on washington and i believe, taste hard to figure out motivation that i had become interested in washington to get my father's bonus, -- of speech. as we focus on the events of the day, what's happening in afghanistan, what happens happening in iran, i believe we ought to renew our efforts in a very intense way at negotiations with a little bit tone as we approach our adversaries around the world. it has been acknowledged that you don't make yees with our quends, but bake peace with your
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enemies and approach them with more dig knit and more respect. i visited the north korean ambassador to the united nationses in 2007. there is no ambassador here and i said how can we have better relations? and he said well, you could be a little more courteous and understand our position. but how do you expect us to respond when you have war ships off the coast, where you call us a rowing nation, where you have overhead satellites watching our every move. and all those weren't necessary, regrettably, but caused me to rethink how you conduct our relations. negotiations are not a lost
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cause with anybody. if you bring cadaffly, the sofrled -- and that what put us in a position not to have 27,500 of our troops in south korea given the obligations and commitments that our nation has and the great difficulties we face with the deficit and we haven't been able to conference a supplemental appropriations bill. so today is a good day for a little reflection, a good day to pay tribute to the men and women who served in the korean war and all of the wars which have provided the supreme for this great country. thank you. [applause]
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>> republican leader of the united states house of representatives, the honorable john boehner. [applause] >> madam speaker, my fellow leadership colleagues, my colleagues, hourned guests, welcome to all of you. first, i would like to thank the previous speakers for their service. always good to hear my good friend charlie rangel tell his stories about the korean war. i want to thank my colleague, sam johnson, who is a real hero, having flown 62 missions above the skies of korea. 60 years ago today, 100,000 north korean soldiers crossed the 38th parallel and started a war that technically has not
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ended. the cease fire of july, 1953, ended the bloody struggle that made korea the battlefield of freedom against communist tyranny. reports of that invasion are still burnt in the memories of many americans. just like the news of peril harbor and president truman were surprised because they had little reason to expect an invasion on this front during the cold war. they put in place the leaders, the troops, the bombers and fighters and taverns and everything needed to face the communists and say this far, and no further. america was joined by 21 allies
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to preserve south korea as the fron line of democracy and freedom. in the end 628,000 allied soldiers gave their live in the struggle including 36,000 americans. we remember them. there is an image why the captures were on google. and the pictures of the korean peninsula are very striking. south korea is lit up like the east coast of america. when you look north above the 38th parallel, it's pitch dark and there are no lights because there is no freedom. communist dictators have ruled
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the them with an iron physician content to watch their people starve and widther. the regime is unstable and remains a threat in the region and i think we must stay as vigilant towards north korea than we have in each of the last 60 years ago. the memorial hoped here on the wall but one of the most distinctive memorial. our nation honors her sons and daughters who answered the call to defend a country they never knew and people they never met. today, we remember those events and recall the ten asity of the south korean people and we thorn who americans who lost their
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lives. may their sacrifice be a reminder that freedom is not free. [applause] >> majority leader of the united states house of representatives, the honorable steny hoyer. [applause] >> madam speaker, my distinguished colleagues, senator reid, senator mcconnell, representative boehner, heroes that served for all of us, thank you for your service. charlie rangel is a hero of ours, but all those who fought, who died, who were wounded and who came back are heroes of ours.
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i want to particularly acknowledge those of you who wear the uniform today, who are the successors to those we honor 60 years later. thank you for your service and thank all the hundreds of thousands that you represent in every one of the brampts of our armed services who to this day as those in korea some 60 years ago keep us free, keep us safe, keep us more secure, give them our love and respect and let them know that not only do we remember the korean conflict as it is referred to, but we remember them this day, this hour, as they served at the point of the speaker in harm's way. [applause] >> we have heard the korean war
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called the forgotten war. i would ask forgotten by whom? not by the 5.7 million americans that starved, schiffered through the winter and not by the people who love the 37,000 who never came home. and not by history. which puts the korean war at the start of a half of a century struggle to spread, to check the spread of communist tyranny. it's a war that sits uneasily in our memory and it was a war of shifting aims and uncertain end. and in these words, and i quote, it was a puzzling, gray very distant conflict, a war that went on and on and on.
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and that is all the more reason for us to remember today. the war's uncertainty cannot outweigh the history of its purpose for the heroism of those who fought it. we find reasons not to forget. whenever we look at the satellite photos that john boehner pointed out. as it crossed over, they see the darkness of dictatorship and the holy light of freedom. dramatically displayed on that peninsula. american lives kept those lights alive and we thank our south korean friends for remembering it this day and every day. and whenever we look at the faces of our veterans and hear their stories, we cannot and
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must not forget. as along as those veterans live, the brothers and the sisters in arms, they lost their memory will last forever. and with that resolve, they will be remembered much longer than that. god bless our country that is blessed so well by those who had the courage to serve in danger's hour. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, republican leader of the united states senate, the honorable mitch mcconnell. [applause] >> i mentioned a couple of years ago to my friend charlie rangel,
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david's last book "the coldest winter" and asked him if he had read it. charlie can always speak best, but i'm paraphrasing his response, which was essentially once was enough, an extraordinarily difficult conflict and today we honor the men who fought that war on some of the worst terrain and the most challenging conditions american warriors have ever soon. we remember the assault on in chon and remember the men who fought for their courage and their sacrifices in defending freedom. many of these men were already heroes who had fought nazis, facists and the japanese just a
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few years earlier in world war ii and came from places like kentucky. lieutenant john mag in a was one of them. a football star, he served in both wars and gave his life for his country on march 9, 1951. for his valor, he earned the navy cross for extraordinary heroism and three years ago, permanent place in the hall of fame in lexington. we fight wars where people wonder was it worth it, yet no where is the greem freedom and no more apornte than on the peninsula today. the stakes are on clear display after the men we honor today endured that brutal fight. and the people of north korea
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endured a life of fear and war for entire two along. courageous men are fighting places in iraq and afghanistan. in honoring the veterans of the korean war, we also honor them, the struggle to defeat al qaeda and the taliban is difficult and our nation has made great sacrifices and many of the lessons remain relevant today. in his classic book on the subject, he said after communists understood have the will to react quickly. and the post-world war was not the pleasant place they had hoped it would be degree. and we declared the communist
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threat. this is why u.s. forces are hard at work in afghanistan hoping they never find sanctuary. whether those who fought in korea, american soldiers, sailors, marines, we will see a day will see americans that have made it so possible for so many. in a dangerous world they give us hope and they deserve our profound thanks. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, majority leader of the united states senate, the honorable harry reid. [applause] >> as has already been noted,
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america's sacrifice deserves a better place. we have come together today to prove that the cliches and conventional wisdom wrong, to prove that this war is not forgotten and share the stories that keep its memory alive. the stories i know about contrary are many but center around my friend, michael callahan. i never had a closer friend than mike. he was my high school teacher, my mentor. he taught me how to box in the ring. he helped me get to and through law school. and we served our state together. mike is nevada's governor and me as nevada's lieutenant governor. but before any of that, mike served his country as a marine,
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member of the united states air force and a member of the united states army so he could see combat in korea. he became a platoon leader, a sergeant. like every hero of that war, his cause was not fame, it was freedom. in that bitter cold winter of 1952, which has been called the world's coldest war, he ran head first into enemy fire and in bringing back his men from the trenches. mortar wounds and other wounds hit his group. his left leg was hit very badly. his right hip was broken. others in the squad were killed including the squad leader, but mike kept going and turn a
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telephone wire into a town ket and refused to leave. mike took him a couple of silver star and purple heart but left behind his left leg. but that didn't stop michael. by the time the winter turned to summer, mike was back home getting an education so he could teach kids like me. mike died six years ago, but the curege of that six decades ago that mike and his fellow warriors is very much present today. their heroism lives on in each of the honored guests here today. it lives on in their stories of service and sacrifice and will continue to live as long as we share them. [applause]
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lfere >> ladies and gentlemen, speaker of the united states house of representatives, the honorable nancy pelosi. [applause] >> today, we mark a solemn anniversary for our nation, for the people of the republic of korea and for the world and we honor those who fought with bravery and valor in the korean war. in the words of a resolution passed by the house last week, we recognize the noble service and sacrifice of the united states armed forces and the armed forces of allied countries that served in korea. we are privileged to work alongside five korean war veterans who came home from the war and continued their public service in congress. we heard from john conyers, our
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patriots, chairman conyers, chairman rangel, congressman howard coble, congressman sam johnson who has been referenced and great american hero and senator arlen specter and joined by the former speaker of the house and hastert. [applause] by the chief of staff of the u.s. army, general george casey. thank you and ambassador of the republic of korea, welcome to the united states. the korean war, my colleagues have said have often been called the forgotten wow, but we must remember the heroes who returned
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safely home and gave their last ounce of devotion. they deserve our respect and admiration as we honor our korean veterans. the story is of heroism and self less acts of patriotism. at the memorial day concert, this year we heard about the story of private first class charlie johnson who gave his life saving nine others. as one soldier later recounted, there weren't many men who made it off the hill. if charlie hadn't been there, i don't think any of us would have made it. a flight nurse, she volunteered for the air force and tended to the wounded and her story is a story of many women who served ho


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