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tv   Washington This Week  CSPAN  July 7, 2013 10:30am-12:01pm EDT

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>> for her to heat hit the reduction -- for her to hit the reduction is important. there are about $100 billion down from where it was. for her to capitalize on that is a real message to washington. it will cost you less to move forward. congress is having a hard time agreeing on anything. the financing will still be the problem. i respect the optimism. i think it is a tough share. >> i agree that even though we this iss price tag, still a lot of money that legislators are going to come up with. this is not an area they get into. this is something they're going to have to dig into. need to be offset from
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someone else's reimbursement. it'll be really exciting. thatat else is you hear caught your interest? >> i was interested to hear talk about changes to medical education. that is an area she talk a lot about as a focus. we have a lot of respect for our doctors. interesting to see how these changes are playing out. to learn aboutd the study they are doing of 30 practices. i think it will be interests -- interests to a lot of doctors to learn a little bit more about what other doctors are doing to make that work. >> she is embracing change. change.ple fear some people welcome change. she is encouraging her membership. she talked about silos to
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change what can you do to make that change in how this has to change to become more efficient and help improve the quality. a thing she has a very interesting ideas. >> to help the policy reporter for the washington post. thank you for joining us. >> enqueue. >> some program to tell you about. at noon, a look at online 2012aising from the campaign. they discuss successes and failures. 'sey were part of this year conference in san jose california. at 15, another panel looking at the progressive agenda in terms of voting rights and potential reforms to senate rules. we can see the discussions beginning at noon today here on c-span. a debate between former speaker
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of the house newt gingrich and george papandreou. they participated in the biennial debate where they argued about whether taxing the rich enters or contributes to economic equality. thomas a second from the clinton initiative with a panel that includes the walmart ceo and houston mayor. they took part about the economic benefits that come to communities. this is 35 minutes. ,> please welcome our panel is , president andr ceo of walmart stores incorporated. venture partner, the
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collaborative fund, jessica jack lee. and our moderator, al jazeera america. good afternoon. it is our pleasure to be here. with anicking us off interesting discussion about shared values and shared responsibility. it is a complicated question. whetherto determine shared value is important to us and whetheret there shared responsibility helps us achieve reacher shared value. i have replaced shared value prosperity. i hope you all voted. we put a question out there to say i fully understand the
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concept of shared value. we asked if you strongly .isagree or disagree nobody strongly disagreed. you all pretty smart. agree thatd of you you understand the concept of shared value. it is a necessary concept. i do not think people get up in the morning and talk to their significant other about shared value. 44% agree. three/four of you agree that there is something there about shared value. a third of you disagree. you do not believe that you have a full grasp on the top but. that is what we have here, to determine whether we think there is value.
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tothink there's something be worked worked with in terms toward greater what works? we have representatives from industry. i want to start with bill. to some degree if i'm talking about prosperity, you have a finger on this post. they come in to walmart every week. how they're are feeling about their prosperity based on whether they come in more often, what they spend, and how they spend it. let's talk about this concept of shared value. you seem to have a fairly direct line to increasing and decreasing sets of prosperity. >> thank you. about 100 40 million
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visitors a week in our stores in the u.s.. we see them in their best times and the worst times. i would say our customer base feels like it has stabilized. encouragingly,, i think they're pigging out exactly what to do -- they're figuring out exactly what to do. they're trying to figure out how to make ends meet. they're finding a way to be happy and that environment. we see different purchase patterns. have notustomers who cut back on special events, holidays, christmas, memorial they'reher's day figuring out how to operate in a
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pretty uncertain environment. >> i think politics used to be about how we all lift each other up and increase. the recession has caused them to get in this caveman mentality. you cannot trust other people. the banks pulled one over on you and the regulators pulled one over on you. the sense that we share prosperity i think for a lot of people left. this issue where we have developed into a politics where it is about what more can we get. we bifurcated a little bit. you are in the business of trying to tell a community we can grow to gather. tell me about that. >> i do believe at the
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municipal level we are a level of government that has some trust from the population than some of the other levels of government. cities across america do the same basic function. it is not really matter the size of the city. yet to pick up the trash. link insignals have to the right order. these streets have to be paid. closely fill that feedback loop. people know you are not producing. theyose basic options, have to perform at a fairly high level in order to sustain a population. , not everyone benefits across the economic spectrum. houston has the hottest economy
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in the united states. i am blessed to be mayor of houston. they are the fourth largest city in america. we are experiencing some boom times now. i have one of the largest if not will -- if not the largest refugee population. they work and are medical centers in oil and gas and our high-tech industries. whogees and immigrants come and they are illiterate in their home language is. there very -- barely capable of functioning. we had to make sure that we have a place for everyone. that is a struggle. >> we are going to come back to how you achieve that and what the successes have been. i want to turn to you.
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you have been involved in the funding of enterprises that will help share value. for this create value naturally occurs. you can draw the line between that and an increase in shared prosperity. >> i can draw the line between what? with these are doing enterprises that are entering market failure in the fact that it benefits society's shared value. i think this exchange rain on the last two seconds illustrates what i feel most strongly about. see the line.y i think it is a little bit sad that we have to remind thatlves as individuals you can create value in the world. that is not mean if you create it you cannot share in it. it does not have to be yours or
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mine. it does not have to be a finite thing. bear with me. one of the first things i wanted to figure out as a mom is when is it appropriate to keep an eye on their ability to share. here's the thing. learn to trust each other through the process and that we do not have to fight their every toy. in an applether is is your turn. you can have access to that. , now itt is his turn is her turn. you can have access to that. we forget this along the way. there can be something of value in the world together. it is not have to just be mine or yours. we have to remind ourselves. >> and you said you do not really see the lines, you said
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you should not have to connect to the creation of value for some parts of society with the fact all benefiting? when you're talking about the line before, i believe that appropriations draw a line the thing they're creating for a paying customer and how they can benefit off of it versus the system they are holding overall where many people can benefit. about creatingk value for themselves for shareholders in a way that sometimes overlaps. somebody in corporate america right here. let's talk about this. companies have often had to think about the sharing of prosperity between their customers and constituents, their employees and their shareholders and increasingly
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society at large. you think about this at walmart. going to beer teenagers. everything they learn is gone. i do not what happens when it goes away. we have constituencies that the people who buy from us have a responsibility to shareholders. when we confine things that are good public policy and when you don't and when it does not quite work, it breaks down. we have made some really good strides in sustainability. we have had some dell years as well.
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we can find a way that is good for the environment and good for business. it is good for our planet and bottom-line. when it is missing we tried some product. yet to search to find those intersections. it is an intersection that benefits our customers and shareholders. when you can find that it really works. >> you are one of the mayors challenge which was an incentivized competition. this is one way of having share
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prosperity. -- came up with what >> if you look at the bashan -- basic functions of these have to provide, is there a way to provide this in a completely new way. you have to do something with the trash. we have decided that we will that endthe trash out up in the dump. we depend on individuals to make that choice.
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technology is there. it has not been applied to this skill. want to see if we can prove it. benefit to thee process? this is what started as thinking in this direction. we have been kicking it for a long time. we had a lots of ideas. we said we achieve all these other ones. let's put one out where we do not know whether we can do it. the incentive helped. if that is thinking in a different way. you are a military man. that is an example of shared value.
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others. to depend on work.t is doing the lessonsnse of you are learning. there is an intersection of a lot of good rings. i think there is some brilliant work being done to help our country value and honor the veterans who served. lifereatest pleasure of my was wearing the uniform. this thinking the country for all the values we get. , we haveup hierarchy the truck driver jobs in management jobs in entry-level positions. get them started
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--a career possession position. we have large numbers of opportunity with people working for us. we have opportunity. what keeps you awake at night is always people in staffing. for us it is a win. we have capable people who want to work and come to work every day and they have that in their dna. of those folks do not want a handout. we are pleased to give them a chance. ,hen they found out about it the white house became actively engaged.
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it was both nationally and all across the country. it has been a phenomenal response. we reached out to the top 50 employers in the u.s. 44 of them joined us on the effort. we're trying to build a clearinghouse so if you do not want to work in retail you might want to work in manufacturing or a restaurant. we are trying to build a group of all so when they look for opportunity we can steer them to the place where they will have a chance to integrate or move forward. they have the ability to make us better. >> i am unsure whether we live in a shared economy. i am not sure anymore. i used to be sure. sure, we prospered. people who have money spend money. all evens out there we go through periods like we have in
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the last few years which are a lot less even. you talk about something different from a shared economy. you talk about a sharing economy. can you give the audience a sense of what you mean? you make investments in companies that are about sharing. >> that is correct. bet would be that we do live in a time where there is a sharing economy happening. in as much as we like. it will be harder and harder to opt out as time goes on. iso not know that everybody living in this time and place. in terms of how it looks at what does create value in the the startupvest in stage. organizations really appreciate ,his value of providing access providing services that allow
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people access to resources. underlying all of this is a real appreciation for these values that are so important to how we work and live together and how we can co-create. it is a new version of things given the technology we have today. >> can you give me some examples of what that looks like? >> we have had the privilege of working with this. projects and ideas. you can rent anything from almost anyone. skills sure where anyone can teach what they know. you can see in all these different areas there are pioneering individuals who are
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we can utilize these values of trust and openness and take advantage of the fact that we have so much information about what is around us. more will become the future. >> it is an appealing concept. so many of these problems can the communityen comes together. we have seen this with crime. we have seen it with drugs. there is so much more that can be done when the problems of a new nasa polity are shared by those people. they want a better city. they want a more prosperous city. when you're on this upswing, how do you harness that energy
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to try and get everybody to say this make it even better? , medication,ion communication. you have to have the trust of your constituents. there has to be a transparency and a good medication. i am still caught up on the last answer. what you're describing is true and exciting for a small swath of americans. the america i live in have a lot of have-nots out there if you have no access to the internet or technology, have very few skills and prospects. that is a blessing and a curse. cities are engines of opportunity. traps for a lot of people. the direct answer to your question though, one of the first things i had to confront
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was i came in as mayor decades of underfunding and infrastructure. that werethings considered impossible. i managed to take to my city council and a complete overhaul of our rate system so that we can put money back into the our water replace and sewer pipes. we ended up hiking water rates about 30% in the middle of a recession. had the conversation with the public as to this is what we need to do. this is why we need to do it. these are the benefits to be had. later that november we went to the voters with a dedicated fund for street and drainage infrastructure in the city of houston. 2010 election was the off
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cycle election. we hated everybody and everything. voters imposed a drainage fee on themselves because we had the these arecussion of our needs, this is what we're going to do it he money. good government restraints around the money. one of the things i gave up was the ability to do debt financing. i will not borrow against it. this is the part of the compact. by the way, you talked about the digital divide and things like that. technologye chief officer. he was here. there have been some weather problems. he got bumped from his flight.
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there are some of us wondering that if you work at the white house can you get on bumped -- unbumped? they cannot. to join us.ble that is one of the topics he had that we talk about. there was this fantastic asset -- access to the internet and how social media does really help to enhance this idea of shared value. >> many cities are doing great things. we did our first formal hackett on. we will be doing get on a quarterly basis. that is a great part of the discussion. congratulations for that.
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>> i just wanted to, on e jobs the mayors do. the city is just phenomenal. your leadership has been terrific. could you do something with the heat? is there an app for that? >> not when he have this much complexion. i wanted to respond to something you said earlier. i have an appreciation and a heart for the disenfranchised communities that are opting for these new startups. i get that. i hear you. gave me the work i did an appreciation of how easily and how these are experts at
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making things stretch and having a community really be the entity that is the most important in terms of even one's identity, having been pulled together and most everybody at the same time. maybe what you are referencing is there definitely are some newer versions of this in your to allowsolutions other populations. i think there is real innovation to be found all across the country and the world in terms of how we share what we have. >> i do believe there are shared american values. we believe in fairness and fair play.
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we believe that there are opportunities in america not found anywhere else in the world. we have come together around our veterans. we all believe in the value of education. after you get past those shared bedrock values, how they lay out can be very different. >> i want you to be right. what we have seen in the last few elections israel distinctions being made by people who run for office and real who -- is distinctions being made by people who run for office and those who fund them. i wonder whether we are getting to a real crack and shared values. we talk about what is a fair rate of taxes. we do not all agree on what is fair. .ou are optimistic
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corethink there are a few shared values in america. everywhere in the u.s. except new york city. what you see -- the mayor's perspective is right. -- therock elites bedrock believes are the same. but the wants and desires are different than they have been in recent memories. the needs of people in the middle of the country are different and the desires than they are on the coast. we forget that. one of the great things about our country, it is designed and organized to allow both of those to exist. the people in the cities and the
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coast's to get what they want and the people who live in rural farms can live the life they want all underpinned by these bedrock values. >> this produces another layer to this discussion about shared value. if we have grown different i want to for things, and that is entirely ok, can we feel that we are part of some development of shared value custom? good news is, the more we build the systems on the more we have organizations that champion this way of in, we learn by doing. example, now ir am going to sound hokey, if you are willing to put your home or your apartment or wherever you live and allow other people to use that space and benefit from
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that, most of the time, you will learn that people are trustworthy. participate, the values we are talking about -- >> you are confident that that will grow. it is a small number of people who would agree to put in their house up. >> i do think that will grow. there are early adopters who have been doing this for a while. >> have you done that? >> no. jb, are you in the crowd? what role can entrepreneurship play in promoting a more cohesive america? that is a good way of analyzing this question, right?
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shared values might add to cohesion. you all have had specific experiences and entrepreneurship and creating a more cohesive america. mira, you have -- mayor, you have embraced the effectiveness of public-private harder ships. >> houston is a city of business. we have one of the most open dynamic cultures in america. it is a very open community. wherenians do not a care you came from, they just want to know what you can do. a fluid society in that respect. rism can create a leveled the fact.
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if you work hard enough and willing to prepare yourself, you can achieve. that becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. my timeieve that, from in houston, i have seen that entrepreneurial spirit. you do have a lot of people in your city that are not part of that. -- they look at these guys and say how come i cannot be part of that? >> it creates a crisis of expectation. they get the same message as everyone else does. because we dog attract the best and the brightest. educationge gap in and opportunity for homegrown americans. a level of frustration. the relief valve has been that the economy has and positioned
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to of zorba a lot of that frustration. >> bill? -- to absorb a lot of that frustration. >> bill? >> our company was founded by one of the greatest entrepreneurs, sam walton started the five and 10. we just utter 50th anniversary, built one of of the greatest stories in american business. that spirit is alive and the company today that it is what we encourage all across the business. we seek out people who want to grow their business with us. partnerships with companies and municipalities that want to do interesting and unique things. one of my favorite quotes from sam was, swim upstream. not complying with the conventional wisdom.
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there is an opportunity the other way. that is a comp -- that is how we are made up from a dna perspective. that is what the country is. this country is about opportunity and energy and entrepreneurs, individuals trying to make their lives better and their communities while they are doing that. know you do this. you have a strong believe that entrepreneurship contributes to social cohesion. >> this is such a gorgeous question i love this. as president obama talked about about this great country being a nation of doers. is abouteurship hopefulness and optimism and getting up every day and taking action.
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what can i do and what can we do as an organization to make things better? i love the idea that entrepreneurship can make this country more cohesive because it day,out getting up every deciding how to make things better. >> if it does not do it, cable news will take care of making it more cohesive. i have never heard a question described is gorgeous. you guys are a gorgeous panel. a great run of the supplies -- a great round of up laws. -- round of applause. thank you so much. [applause] >> one of the points we make in this book, it didn't make any difference -- did it make any difference? yes, it did make a difference. the senators again to act like house members.
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that is not something any senator wants to hear. are not outy scavenging for votes. they had to deal with the people . if you of the state legislature, all you need are 14 votes and you could pay off. senators,ay off 14 paying off their mortgages in a couple of notorious cases, to buy their election. >> more with richard baker tonight at 8:00. >> some of this year's pulitzer prize winning photographers share their their photos and stories behind the images. this is 50 minutes. >> hello and welcome to the studio. i'm your host for this weeks edition of inside media. this week's discussion will be with two pulitzer prize winning photographers from 2013.
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to my immediate left is roderigo. he began his career in his native argentina. since 2003, he's been a staff photographer for the associated press and covered a wide range of international tories, from the fighting in kabul, afghanistan, to political turmoil in bolivia in 2003 and haiti in 2004. he covered venezuela's presidential elections and found himself back in haiti in the aftermath of the earthquake in 2010. in 2010, he was documenting the political strife there. and he was awarded the pulitzer for breaking news photography. also with us is javier manzano.
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he was the first freelance photographer to be awarded the award in 20 years. he was born in mexico and as an 18-year-old, much of his work has been based on cross-border issues that define our relationships for better or worse over the years. while he started his career shooting photos for newspapers, he has since expanded his portfolio to include television and the internet. he has covered the drug wars of mexico and fighting in afghanistan in syria. that is where his village surprises winning image was captured. give a warm welcome to both of our photographers. [applause] it is always our custom to ask the audience to throw in their questions. i will give you that opportunity
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in just a while. we have two volunteers with microphones and i will give you the sign and you get one of them and get a microphone and jump in. we're going to start with the fun part because we want to get to the heavy issues soon enough. we always ask: surprise wedding photographers, where were you, tell us the story. >> first, i didn't have any idea on the day the pulitzer prize was announced. i was in peru and they told me, my boss in mexico says you need to go to the office. we have some bureaucratic papers. i went to the office and you are going to receive a call at 1:30 in the afternoon. i received the call and it was the director of photography.
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i said i'm in trouble, this guy is calling me because my paper was a mess. so he said can you keep a secret for half an hour? [laughter] he said we won the pulitzer prize, you and another for photographers. i started laughing. another ap photographer jumped in, and i'm looking at my colleagues. it was a great surprise and great news. after working in syria and working in such difficult circumstances, it is a good thing.
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it's not because now we are better than before, but it's a good thing that someone tells you you are in the right way, continue working hard. it's good. >> you have a very different story. >> it's probably equally bizarre. i found out through facebook. [laughter] someone sent me a facebook message and said congratulations. i ignored the message and then people started tagging me and that's how i found out. i was in my apartment in turkey and my roommate, he was in his room reading and i turned around and i knocked on his door and told them you are sharing quarters with a pulitzer prize winner. [laughter] that's it great we went to bed before midnight. [laughter]
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there really was not much to do. >> and your fillets are was for feature photography. tell us how you happen to enter that image in the competition. >> i entered myself, so i'm not sure which category. the news, i figure the most appropriate place would be the features. sort of a slice of life frontline photograph. that's what i did and -- this was all new to you? >> you had no other reason to make the decision? this was your first time. >> i think your instincts were right on the money.
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>> you are here representing the entire staff. i want to read their names -- they were all together with you in syria. give us a sense of how the day today staffing went. our photographers say you don't wake up and say i'm going to shoot a fillets are today. how did you organize yourselves into what you're going to do today? >> first of all, we covered the year in different moments. that's an interesting thing because we have different moments of the story. my colleagues, at the end of the year, we tried -- it was powerful to have five different ideas of what it was, we never worked together.
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we tried to cover in the best way possible. it's ethical to cover in syria. we arrived to syria and a tractor, trying to arrive in the place where we can cover the story without being killed. you decide things very quickly every day. you have to think about taking
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the best pitchers and telling the stories are also coming back. then how to fight it. you have satellite phones, they were like blocks, basically. sometimes we could spend like six hours in winter. it was not easy. welcome, this is the hotel, it is a totally different environment. >> eating a photographer, access is everything. being a journalist, access is everything. tell us how you develop the relationship so that the people whose lives and effort you are trying to cover will you be the access you need. >> on this side of the world, there is a lot of mysticism
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around covering the war. once you are there, you will find out it is fairly open and relatively easy to photograph. why? because people actually want the coverage. it is surprisingly easy to photograph once you are in sight. the larger issue is just logistics. if you go to the west come he have to walk. if you go to aleppo, you can catch a taxi from the border. across the border, it is rebel controlled. somebody with a kalashnikov on the other side next to the desk. you would be surprised how easy it is to photograph and move around when people actually understand what you are doing and want coverage.
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>> you need to make different decisions. we were in turkey waiting to enter syria. two days before the new york times, the reporter died trying to come back. one day after that, two journalists were killed. you come to make these decisions to what you want and what the agency thinks. you can think about the story for the next week. you have every day to make a decision, the whole agency and whole story. >> let's share some of these images with our studio audience is and put them in the monitor. the first one is a photo you
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took of a child crying at the end of a funeral ceremony. let's find a monitor where we can see it. you know the picture. this is a child crying at the end of a funeral that was not what you expected. tell us what the circumstances were in terms of where the victims of these shootings were buried and how you came to see this child. >> we realized the situation was really changing with syria because that funeral was in a park that used to be where
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people went to drink tea and children to play and was converted to a graveyard. the cemetery was meters from the check point, so they couldn't do it. we realized there was a shooting and four people were killed and we tried to cover the funeral. we walked with people and the population for 20 blocks and we arrived to the park and i tried to make pictures because people were crying and shouting against the government. i respect the funeral like not to be so close, and suddenly i see this boy crying. next to where the father was. after that, i tried to ask more
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questions for the captain of the picture. after that, i spent like six hours in the room with a cell phone. i was sending a picture and did it again and again and again. probably 20 times every picture to cairo. the next day, i tried to check my e-mail and i received incredible news. the new york times, washington post.
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part of this date audience was important to me that finally, we can show what is going on. that was my approach of the conflict, more than taking pictures of combat and how brave the army and trying to find out who is winning the military. i'm more concerned about these children and how people try to survive, how people move to the front line with nothing. that was my concern. that's what i was trying to achieve, like we have two file all different kind of pictures, but that picture reflects a lot of what i was trying to achieve.
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>> the next picture, give us a contrast where you have these young people burning photos of assad. this takes you right back to the nature of the people involved and how different the situation is from one location to another and how difficult it has been from one year to the next. >> it is true. when i was there in march last year, it was totally different. that a cure reflects fathers, children participate in civilian protests. like few people with short weapons, but it was civilian unrest.
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now it's like a military with a different weapons, a military model. that's why i like to cover that story at the time because you can show both sides. the civilians and military together. you see those pictures and its people, normal people you see in the streets. >> on the one hand, the civilian population welcomes you because they respect your craft and want your story to be told, yet you have a sense of media fatigue. tell us about that. >> there are two and a half years of conflict and dozens of journalists have come in and little has changed on the ground.
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they sort of question why you are going there. this is unfortunately typical of conflict after a certain amount of time. afghanistan is a good example. people don't really understand why the media is there and they don't see any immediate impact on their lives. you can't say that media will change things. the minimum you can provide to be able to inform in a way that agreements are made and there hasn't been any change on the ground. it is getting worse and it is spreading. >> when i start taking pictures of that protest, people start embracing, you are a hero.
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what do you need, do you need food, stay with us. the situation changed a lot. >> that started to change at the end of last fall. in august, when i went there, a city north of aleppo, it was a protest right after friday prayers and it was in freedom square. they renamed the square freedom square. i would say 2000 people
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or 3000 people in this square, namely children and women and civilians. i didn't see any kalashnikovs. people were very welcoming. the second day in syria, we are covering this contest, a lot of energy and people waving the flag and all of a sudden, everybody started to run and scatter. then you start seeing a plane going around in circles. then i heard they shot into unarmed civilians, but i'd never expect that a plane to drop for bombs on a square filled with civilians.
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we started running and i get into this car and my colleague was surprised to see the plane diving and then to bombs came out. the blast basically threw me on the ground. all of the glass shattered. and then we kept running. that was my first syrian experience. to did a few circles and then it emptied a 50 caliber machine gun on the square. that was my second day in syria. that was pretty much very clear to me this was a different conflict than we have covered so far. >> there is a message in this next image. one of the most chilling photos, a man with a little boy, and a
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toy grenade launcher because the little boy is too small to handle the weight of an actual one. it seems he believed this little boy is going to need that skill when he is old enough. >> i took that picture at 10:00 in the morning. that was time for school, not for playing war. and the smile of the civilian, it makes you think it is the whole atmosphere of the place is a conflict. shops were closed, people were taking positions, children were playing with toys or walking with their mothers trying to find a place to shelter. the daily life of this people is totally transformed.
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aleppo used to be a really powerful city in terms of commercials and now it is a city that is gone basically. again, this is more comfortable. more comfortable shooting those pictures that show, i also think on what i'm going to show in the newspaper in the next day. some withering in the u.s. or europe or africa. you know, i do think they want to see all the time finding and fighters. they want to see how life is there. they want to think about how these people think about. that is why i try.
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sometimes i fail. most of the time i fail. sometimes you can take a picture that reflects the big picture. the big picture of what is going on. >> you took your camera inside a closed area. we can see some of these civilians and of joining a militia, joining the resistance. they take up arms and do what they can. talk to us about how you get from where you woke up that morning into a place like this. who is with you? what is the strategy? what is going on from the inside of this sheltered place where the sunlight pierces through holes that have been made from previous battles. >> there are various ways on the front line. sort of a behind the lyons headquarters for that, for the put tunes sized unit.
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so each unit, you could have various units covering a neighborhood. they always hold back to this main office. usually you get in there and you check in with them. there is somebody delivering ammunition or food for the fighters on the front line. and you typically run with them. you walk in with them. they walk in through the tunnels made from holes on the walls in that way the snipers from the regime, they do the same exact a strategy. sometimes you go in vehicles with the free syrian army as well. once you are there, this neighborhood where the photo was taken, there is only two sniper
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alleys. you do not run very much. it is from here to be first row. a few meters. you sprint across and then you go into another tunnel and you go to a warehouse where this unit was standing. you finally cross one last alley and you go to a small warehouse. i believe it used to be a shop. like many of the shops, it is very typical in those neighborhoods. and so the tynwald was peppered with shrapnel and bulletholes. the sunlight was coming through, creating these photographic, photogenic pictures. i positioned myself in the middle so the perspective would
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draw the reader back into the subject. >> in the meantime, so we understand, there is a cat and mouse between these two sides in what used to be a residential area. people shooting from shelter from both sides. >> yes. some apartments are still inhabited, some are not. that neighborhood was largely abandoned and almost completely destroyed. so you can have a neighborhood and sustainable bard meant for two months and you would still see some structures. talking about six-story buildings. this neighborhood was smaller, two or three story buildings. after four months it was completely decimated.
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like i said, largely the civilians have fled. you are walking through these tunnels and you see how people left and you realize they left in a hurry. everything is -- you can see homework on a desk. you can see photographs because you can tell they went through some personal photographs and picked the ones that mattered to them most and then they fled very fast. >> how do you feel being and then enclosed area, and not with a weapon but a camera, as the fighting goes on? >> as long as i have cover, i feel safe.
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i may be simplifying this. i have answered that many times. you are very close to the opposition, in this case the army. the closer you are and in some cases you can hear their steps under broken glass. sometimes it is only a wall. that separates you from the government facilities. [no audio] [inaudible]
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>> i used a very wide [inaudible] >> rodrigo, as you go throughout the city, what array of equipment do you carry? what is the strategy before what kind of cameras you have and what kind? >> when you are going to enter and when you walk a lot in the mountains, sometimes to reach
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the places we thought that the best idea was to go with a very light gear, light equipment. so i carried a couple of cameras, small lenses, something really liked. and last night for example we walked six hours in a field. we put on all of our gear with a sleeping bag. we could not have big equipment. the first reason is you have to walk with all of it. the second is because all of the pictures were really near s. we did not need big lenses, heavy gear. but the idea was to be really light just in case we have to run, just in case we have to move from one place. for example we changed locations four times in one week.
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we started sleeping in one house day and now, trying to avoid the attack of the army. you need to be like really quick. and fit. >> i do not know if we have a microphone in the audience bid i am going to move, we have a request for one. i am going to move to your next image. it is another intimate look, it is a woman with her hands over her face. you talked about how you were trying to tell the story of the people within this conflict. tell us about this woman. >> we were covering the army and we took some pictures and then we realized the more important place was the red cross.
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so we'd stayed outside of the clinic where the wounded civilians were coming. after taking some pictures outside, it was really chaotic. no medicine. it was really setting chaotic to see that clinic. we went into a room and we saw that woman crying, full of blood. next to her three daughters. they were in two separate beds, all of them crying. so we took some pictures. the relatives were there. some doctors were there. and with the camera guy, who covered three weeks of the
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searing conflict with me, we checked what happened. what happened that day. one of the relatives said don't ask her anything because she did not know at the time her husband and two of her sons were killed in the attack. so she was in complete shock. it was a really sad moment. again, civilians, the most vulnerable people in this conflict and all of the wars in history. and this woman was crying, i received so many e-mails of people like, but looking at this picture, i think it is a very direct image.
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it's only her eyes and face. i tried to reflect that panic in her face. and i wonder what is the life of this woman now? i wonder, i tried to find out what was going on with the family. where they are now. because i do not think they stayed in that city anymore. >> let's go to our audience. >> hello. thank you first of all for your candor and for your tragic but interesting stories. you are obviously very fine photographers and you probably take more than a few pictures of an event.
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when you get back to your studio or wherever, how do you decide, what do you look for in a photo to make a prize worthy? what do you see and what kind of shots -- i know people but will kind of shots was make you say, this one is the best? >> there is a lot of discussion, most of you like photography. we have discussions about photoshop and technique issues. what i think is important for us when we choose a picture, that we use a technique in a way that we can transmit the idea of what we think about the conflict in the most powerful way.
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whether in black-and-white or in color or with more or less contrast and with photoshop, i don't care. we need to select the picture that can show and attract people to look at the picture and to ask questions and to think about the issue. to have a reflection, when they look at the picture. to have any fueling after that image. so i tried to think about that. i tried to think about pictures that tell the story in the most honest and powerful way.
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>> i think the answer for me would be you have the subject matter and you have the technical aspect. the tech glass back, our job is to stare at people for hours. for many days, four years. we stare at people. after a while you get good at predict in reactions to certain situations. you try to position yourself in something that is going to yield the best framing and tell the whole story. it is all about information in one frame. what frame should tell the story? that is what we strike for. number one is going to be a photograph. you work on the aesthetics of the photograph. the information needs to be there.
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as far as the subject matter, you try to cover as broad of photographs you can. unfortunately in syria you can't cover both sides. you can't go into damascus and the bed yourself with governments troops because they will not give you a visa. unfortunately it is one side of the conflict. other people are trying to cover it as best as they can, the site of the government. in conjunction, a newspaper should give you a fair and balanced story. for the most part, in my mind, syria is civilian casualties, civilian casualties, and then there is a revolution going on.
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the people that lose the most at the end of the day are civilians. they did not choose any sides. they are just getting bob. by both sides now. both sides are killing each other. the numbers in the opposition are the ones being punished the most. >> this last image we are going to look at shows you the moment where those civilians where the fighting has come to their neighborhood. we have families and you can see them about to flee. tell us about this picture. >> i tried to explain this conflict, there is little organization. people react very quickly.
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there are really calm days where nothing is going on. nothing is going to happen. there are some negotiations in the europe and the u.s. and russia. people continue to live in the same apartment and suddenly, very quickly, things change. very quickly. in one morning. it is really chaotic. these families were taking whatever they can take to run. they were bombing their houses. if you see the smoke in the picture, it was really near. they were fighting in the corner. they did not know where to go basically. the rebels organized some kind of shelter but there was nothing for all of the civilians.
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so everybody was running and trying to take cover basically, without any organization. that is why so many civilians are killed because the rebels fight among the civilians. you have to understand here is a phone line, here is where they fight, like a conventional war. in the army is coming here. so that was another picture that was important to find. if then they are iconic or not, we tried to show, we try to select the pictures that tell the story. i do not know where the families go. and some of the guys say, where am i going?
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i will stay here. this is my house. i have nowhere to go. my brother was killed yesterday and i am going to stay here in till the end. it was really strong to see people that were basically waiting to die. that was every day. >> you talked about that also. a fundamental loss of human dignity where you have to flee your home but you don't know what is going to happen. >> absolutely. some of the flareups and the meeting points were opposition soldiers. there are civilians there. they do not want to leave. they are not going to leave, the shelling is so bad they have to.
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their apartment might be hit two or three times. so unless the apartment building is completely destroyed, they are not going to leave. they tried to go to and family apartment block. and once that is shelter bomb, then essentially they are refugees. and then they go to the border. they go to the border with turkey and some of them apply. most people i know do not want to leave syria. syria is their home. they do not want to live in turkey. it is a different country. i do not want to go to jordan. they can't stay. for them, it is a tremendous loss of dignity because they see their family living in a refugee camp. this is a society that is
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conservative. very little privacy. it is a huge loss of dignity. as i said earlier today, in refugee camps. you go inside of a tent and it is clean. they clean their tents. they wash their clothes. they tried to keep as much dignity as they can. in a place that, in a country that robbed them of many dignities. >> it is a really tough decision. it is the u.s. trying to help us to find out -- we are talking, come with us. come with us to turkey. my mother is going to turkey.
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my girlfriend is here. if they get killed i am in turkey, how can i leave? how can i be in that situation. they ask these questions every day. >> where are the men of fighting age? they joined the opposition. they did not want to maybe, they did not want to fight, they did not like both sides. aleppo was not joining the fight, for example, until the fight came aleppo. once you lose everything, you see your mother and your father, in a refugee camp, living with very little ditty, then your
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choices are very clear. and most likely you lost family members. that would turn anybody into -- >> >> it is important to take pictures of the complexity of the situation. it is not the good and the bad. it is everything is really complicated. there were engineers, somebody killed in a bomb. you want revenge but you are not politically involved in the rebels. so for me, those complex pictures tell the story in a different way and show that confusion because the war is confusion. it is not good and bad. >> it is never black and white.
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it is always a shade of gray. i met this young 20-year-old through this place. i met him at the border. his father lost his legs in artillery. a mortar shell fell inside their living room. the mother was blind, by the same shell. and they lost a sister and a brother. they were still in shock, figuring out what they're going to do. 22 months later i met that young man again on the front lines and he had been fighting a week after i had met him. he joined a group and started fighting. i think anybody would do that. >> you are involved in journalistic photography, which, at a risk of your own lives, and now you have won a pulitzer.
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what impact is going to have on your career and how you are perceived by your colleagues, on which you think as you go out the door for your next assignment? >> rodrigo said it well. i am flattered and i am honored to receive this award. it does not make it any better than our colleagues. a lot of my friends i have a lot of respect for that worked in many other places. it does not have to be conflict. it does not make you a better photographer. it is really nice when somebody points the finger at you and says, well done. but it does not make you any better. it is important to keep your
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feet on the ground. for they pulitzer, specifically for some reason people listen to what you have to say more than they used to. [laughter] i don't know why. nothing has changed. i am the same guy. but now for some reason people listen to you. >> even relatives. [laughter] they did not call you in 20 years. oh, your son. >> for all of the people, you are never going to amount to anything. >> human nature. javier manzano, rodrigo abd, thank you for your photography, your courage, your dedication and commitment.
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i appreciate you giving us insight on what it means to be a freshly crowned pulitzer winner. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> if you missed any of the event, you can watch it in entirety at the c-span video library. >> the house and the senate both back at 2 p.m. eastern on their july 4 recess. chambersbills on both 's agendas. you can watch the house live on and -- live on c-span.


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