tv First Ladies As Influence Makers CSPAN September 1, 2013 12:00am-6:01am EDT
great american middle generatiot american middle class that made our economy the envy of the world. as long as i am president i will keep fighting to make sure that this happens again. thank you, and have a great weekend. >> i am michael fitzpatrick, serving the eighth district of pennsylvania. it is an honor to speak to you as we celebrate the ingenuity of america's workers. we are a nation that builds things, from skyscrapers to apps. anyone can pursue the american dream. but as i have gone through my district and visited 100 businesses to meet with workers and business owners, it is easy to see that workers are frustrated. five years into the obama presidency, the workers who drive the economy see nothing but roadblocks coming out of washington. president obama's health care law comes to mind. premiums and up
forcing workers and their spouses out of the plans that they like. taxescompanies say that and government mandates make it more difficult to hire, and doctors warned that the law does not come close to addressing the real problems in the health care system. this is not working as promised and the president knows this. busy handing out waivers and delays. protectans want to everyone from the health care loss we can focus on step-by- step reforms that actually lower costs. we think it is only clear -- only fair to give all americans the same breaks the president is giving big businesses. president obama's energy policies are not our concern. republicans have in all of the above energy strategy that will lower prices and boost
manufacturing, and improve national security. is blockingident chances to make energy more affordable, such as the keystone energy pipeline. been five years since the keystone application was first filed. this has passed every environmental review. no taxpayer dollars involved, and it has bipartisan support in congress. so why is the obama administration still in the way of this shovel ready project. people in my district are worried about the size and scope of the federal government, and worry that the threat of higher taxes and red tape are choking the engines of our economy. republicans want to get spending under control and simplify the tax code, making it more flat and more fair for everyone.
we have passed several jobs bills to bring common sense oversight to the regulatory process. with tax hikes and similar style policies that have left us with weaker job growth and stagnant paychecks. again, we have to ask, why? if there's one thing we've heard about is that people want congress to focus on expanding opportunities instead of expanding the government. republican tax plan and you can see this at gop. gov/jobs. this is focused on putting americans back in the driver seat. we want to make sure that the workers this weekend -- they can continue to do what they're doing this weekend, building and preserving the american dream for future generations. >> at the next "washington
journal," we speak with the head about the possible intervention in syria and data programs. we will hear from gordon adams, the former policy professor at the school of international services, and the likelihood of u.s. military intervention. then a look at the history of chemical and biological weapons including how they have been the with amy smithin from -- these will be on "w ashington journal" here on c- span. times if the most fun ever had was 2006, it look like democrats were going to take back over the house. it was looking bad for republicans.
and vice president cheney wanted to know if we would come over and have breakfast with them. they wanted to know if we would have rectus with them. it was unbelievable how much -- he had been to so many of these districts over the years. but basically, he was asking us how bad is this? and we said -- this is pretty bad. there were the caucuses of both sides. we got to see the inside players. >> with 30 years as a political analyst, he has tracked every congressional race since 1984. see the rest of his interview at sunday night -- on sunday night on c-span. in a few moments, highlights from season one of our series,
"first ladies." then a conversation with chas fagan, about a painting for the series. and president obama's remarks on the situation in syria. >> our series "first ladies: influence and image," traveled to historical sites associated with first ladies. before george washington became president while he was away fighting the revolutionary war,martha washington ran their plantation and their home, mount vernon. >> it is clear that martha arrived at mount vernon in 1859 and there was a lot of management that she had to do. when she married george washington, she brings with her to mount vernon 12 housemates. that is really almost unimaginable luxury. these are slaves that are for
the most part, not field labor, not producing crops, which is where your income is coming from. they are doing things like cooking, serving at table, clean the house, doing the laundry, doing selling, this is not productive labor in the sense that it is not productive income. she brings them with her and she brings financial resources to the marriage as well as her managerial skills. it makes mount vernon a successful operation and it makes it possible for washington to be away for eight years fighting a war. the fact that he has this support system that enables him to volunteer his time and talents to run the revolution is clearly critical. first, a farm manager, who during most literal revolution is a distant cousin of washington. then run by washington as a nephew. -- washington's nephew. and then it is run by his niece. i think that tells you about the closeness of the family
relationship. it is clear that what they are at mount vernon with martha washington, she does take charge. since her interaction with the slaves, she is interacting with the cooks in the kitchen, the maids serving in the house. there are also slave women who are spinning on a continual basis to produce yarn. she supervises what the gardners are doing. martha was a great lover of gardens and having flowers. she liked having a kitchen where she could go out and bring in vegetables for what they were going to serve at mount vernon. she was the one planning the menus. there were a lot of levels that she is working with. it is a big operation her whole
life. the room that we refer to and show off in the mansion as the washington's bedchamber is the room in the south wing of the mansion that was started in 1775 right before george washington left to participate in the continental congress and the revolutionary war. george washington always referred to it as open quote mrs. washington's chamber" and as "mrs. washington's chamber" and it is always referred to as her area. she spent time in that chamber, doing her hour of spiritual meditation. perhaps later in the date writing letters, talking with her coax -- her cooks to plan menus for the day, giving assignments she also use that room for teaching the children, telling them stories. you can imagine how wonderful it would have been in that room.
one of the most notable pieces is the bed in that bed chamber. that is the bed on which george washington died. but we also know that martha washington's had a role in acquiring that bad. another piece in the room had a very close connection with martha washington, her desk. although very little of the correspondence between george and washington -- george and martha washington has survived, because they savored their private correspondence. two letters had been found that had slipped behind one of the drawers in that desk. that is the preserver of that
little bit of very personal correspondence. it is not just the place where she slept. i can't picture her sitting in her easy chair by the fire -- i can really picture her sitting in her easy chair by the fire with her grandchildren around. and i imagine it must've been very comfortable for her. >> before she became first lady in 1797 and during her early married life, abigail adams spent her time in quincy, massachusetts. >> the story of abigail adams in the revolutionary war is a story of sacrifice, commitment to country, and abigail rose to the occasion. for the first 10 years of their married life, john and abigail lived in this home from 1764- 1774. it is where they raised their four children. that was the birthplace of their second child, john quincy adams, who went on to become the sixth president of the united states. it was also an important home because the primary link between she and john adams, who was serving in philadelphia at with
the second continental congress was the letter writing. it was from this house that she was provided a window back here that he was provided a window back here of what was happening in the colonies during the war. she would report to him about the militia. during the battle of bunker hill and emptied 75, she took her young son to the high point -- the in 1775, she took her young son to the high point of the hill and would watch the battle. she would report to john adams about what was happening. she was literally the eyes of the colony in that area. this room in particular could be considered the classroom for abigail, the schoolmistress, and her four children. one must remember that the schools were closed down. the children did not benefit from a formal education.
instead it was up to abigail to teach the lessons. not only of arithmetic and french, but also plurality, literature, and what was going on in the revolutionary war. she was there educator and this was the room where many of those losses would have taken place. she reported to john adams during the revolution are at -- revolution at one point that she began to take up the works of lawless into history. -- rollins ancient history. i know if anyone has ever read it, but for a 7-year-old boy to accomplish this, he had a very good instructor in abigail adams. ever the patriot, abigail adams opened a home next door, john adams's birthplace, for refugees. she rented out the house to a farmer, mr. hayden, and his son.
they would provide for her here. she reported in one of the letters that she met with have with very ill treatment. she asked mr. hayden to share his house with the refugees, but he refused. by the time she received a response from john adams, like many things, she had taken care of the problem. she had paid mr. hayden to leave the premises and therefore, could provide for the refugees herself in the house. she reports to john that again young john quincy is marching out behind house behind the militia. she welcomed these militiamen to her home and supported the revolutionary war with her actions. in 77, abigail realize they have outgrown their battle college -- cottage. she began to negotiate with her
cousin to purchase the house you're standing in front of right now. john adams enjoyed a lot of peace and tranquility in this home, as did abigail, so he christened it peace field. there were two smaller bedrooms on the third floor and a small kitchen at the back of the house. there were about seven and a half rooms to this home essentially. this was their home base. before becoming first lady, have a bill would spend nine years in this house. the first year, she was essentially setting up the house after just returning from europe. she had remembered this house as one of the grand houses in quincy, but her perception of
grand had changed since living in europe. she began making plans for a way to enlarge the house. she wanted to improve on the size and height of the ceilings and the size of the space. she would tell her daughter not to wear any of her large hats because the ceilings were too low. she began working with architects to enlarge the size of the home, in effect, doubling the size, adding a long haul and along entertainment room where she would receive her guests. the sensitivity to the architecture on the outside and the flow of the home, she had the builder dig down so they could lower the floors and get the high ceilings that she desired without disrupting the architecture on the outside of the house. you step down two steps and you are in a different world. a typical day for abigail would be to rise at 5:00 a.m. she had many chores to do and much of her child -- a time was spent attending the farm, taking care of the orchard, and taking care of the house. she also loved those early morning hours to spend by herself, preparing herself for the day. but most importantly, having a chance to indulge in one of her novels. although this is a presidential
home, it is the home of a family. abigail, instead of having servants do the work for her, even as the first lady, she would also be contributing to the kitchen and the running of the household. this is something she continued throughout her life, no matter what her position was. she was very involved. she had children and grandchildren visiting her here and this was a very active and lively household. she also spent a great deal of her time writing, because their misfortune in being a part was our fortune. in one letter, when he is asking her to come to a philadelphia, have a deal with right of the room she was in and the window and the view that she saw. the beauty that unfolds outside of the window of which are now right tensley to forget the past, an indication that while she was back at peace field, she was on a new beginning as the first lady of the united states, as the wife of the president, and still as a mother. she would describe life here at peace field so romantically that
john adams would reply in one of his letters, oh, sweet little farm, what i would do to enjoy the thee without interruption. >> the lettis letter is one that everyone associates with abigail adams. what is lesser-known and fascinating about the letter is the comments that come quite far down in the letter. the first section of her letter to john is questioning and voicing her concerns about va's role in the revolutionary war. she writes, "what sort of defense virginia can make against our common enemy, whether it is those situated as to make enable the fence, but are not the gentry lords and common people baffles, are there unlike the gentry?"
and she points out more. of this i am certain, that it is not founded upon that generous and christian principle of doing to others as we would that others should do unto us. >> brought up as a quicker, dolly madison was known for her warm hospitality, social graces, and sense of elegance and style. >> if you were a visitor, you would enter at the front door and be shown immediately into the madison's great drawing room. mrs. madison had many lady friends that she would invite your. margaret bayard smith was a favorite of hers, and the daughter of thomas jefferson were also frequent visitors. it also include her own family, her sister's especially, anna
and lucy. they were always welcome guests, who often stayed for extended visit here at mount year. -- montpelier. in the drawing room, you see many of the faces of american states mint, but also entities like the bust of athena, the declaration of independence, and the nurture of homework, and they need -- a miniature of homer, and then you have a painting that was 200 years old even when it madisons purchase it. in blending the classic and the american, they are trying to place in america in the important role of history. this is where they would have
dinner. they would have a chance to meet one another, conversed socially and casually, and then they might be invited to dine in the dining room. after supper, the ladies would then adjourn back into the drawing room. maybe they would serve some coffee and tea. this was the social center of the house. if you were an invited guest of the madisons or part of the intimate circle of family or friends, you would be invited into the dining room from the drawing room. and here, dolly madison would in an unusual setting for the timeframe set at the head of the table and her husband, james, would sit at the center of the table. dolly would direct in, it -- with direct the conversation and james would be able to engage in intimate conversation with the people immediately to his right and left. this table today is that for eight people, but there could be as many as 20 people served in the dining room. that would not be unusual.
and indeed, dolly madison considered dining at maag pier to be so much more relaxing than entertaining in washington. she said she would rather serve 100 people here than 25 in washington. many historical figures were here with the medicines. james monroe is here, general lafayette, henry clay, margaret bayard smith, dolly madison's good friend and writer from washington. once, the vice president offered to do the honors for her what she was sitting at the head of the table. and she responded, oh, no, watch with what each i'd do it, and indeed he said, -- he had to admit the ease with which she did it. it was if, he said, that she was
born in paris. here we have very creation of something that we still have. this is typically of -- typical of the style of the day. a jazz classic lines, a simple trade, and a much more simple and elegant fashion than that either before or after it. this is what she would have worn while she was the first lady. it was the regency style. but many of the dresses were more elegant. this represents what she wore at her inaugural. this was james madison's first inaugural. and it is described as a symbol of velvet. and she wore pearls -- simple, obhof velva it. and she wore pearls. it was an indication of the dining that you would find in the courts of europe. dolly was setting a style that was unique to american fashion.
a lot of people think that dolly set the fashion of the turban. and that is not quite true. it began in persia, and it moved through france and england. but dolly popularized the style and it was considered her top -- a classic look, to where some extravagant turbaned often topped with feathers on top of her head. and sometimes, they thought her fashion was a little too regal. there is one instance where she wore something that was lined in hermine. and she had some guilt edging in her turban. and people said this was overstepping things. she looked to rebuild, to queenly. and they were afraid thatqueen dolly" was setting -- they were
afraid that "queen dolly" with setting the wrong town for america. many people felt that she was the last matriarch of this generation. but others felt that because of the growing tender in her life, she did not have the money to buy the latest fashions. she had to where many of the old clothes. she is often wearing the same thing. >> the james monroe museum in fredericksburg shows a unique perspective of the first lady for her personal belongings. >> elizabeth monroe was a true partner in her husband's career and was a good sounding board for many of the policies and issues he had to be involved with. she was some one her husband to go to for valuable advice. we go through an art of elizabeth monroe's life. mrs. monroe had a very well- developed sense of style, a
heritage of it. she had shoes that she inherited from her mother that she continued to wear into her lifetime. as the is -- the mistress of oak hill, she was responsible for maintaining the household accounts. and she did it on a small ivory memo pad. they are ivory pieces with days of the week inscribed on them. and whatever to do list that she might have could be written on here with a charcoal pencil and then be wiped off. it reflects someone with organized, busy, and making use of a very practical item in her life. the relationship that mrs. monroe had with her sister was a strong bond.
in very much the style of the time in giving a gift of sisterly love, she presented to one of her sister in the 1790's jewelry made from her own hair. joe were made from human hair became very commonplace in the 1800's. later in the 19th century it is associated with memorializing dead loved ones. it is a sign of mourning. but it can also be a sign of affection, a very personal gift. music was a very important part of elizabeth monroe's upbringing and life. she was trained in playing the piano. we have a -- and astor pianoforte a circa 1790. elizabeth did not have as well developed a budget as her style. due to the long years of public service that her husband put in. they were able to make some pretty good deals on a variety of items. her jewelry is a reflection of that. mrs. monroe sought to combine
elements of high-quality with versatility. we have your necklaces and associated other jewelry that are in aquamarine and citrine, and each could be worn with or without a pennant. you have a couple of different uses. a bracelet or a joker is possible with the amethyst jewelry. there is a coral tiara. it gives you several different options in creating her jewelry accommodations. >> the blue room is the monroe'' and one of the most authentic in the house. you can go back to one -- if i could go back to one time in the white house, i would probably go back to the monroe timeframe in the white house, because the
wheels of history begin to come to life. and of course, monroe felt that the era of good feeling, as it was called, would last forever. people began moving west in big numbers. i would like to be listening to what was going on. in furnishing the house, james monroe and his wife were very into french everything. they spoke french at home and they lived in french -- france. they spent a lot of money on things, such as these clocks. these things are still in use, many of them. many of the things he acquired are still in use. when you see our earliest things, many of them are in the blue room. we have these wonderful gilt chairs and sofas. their work -- they were acquired by president monroe from france. he was criticized for buying french things and not american. and in 18 20's, the white house passed a law that the white
house for a juror had to be of american manufacturer. this room is much more of a period room in that sense. it is a place where the munro's would probably feel the most comfortable, too, like teddy it is really a place where the munro -- monroes would feel most comfortable. i understand this room. that iswallpaper vintage. >> the only first lady born outside the u.s., louisa catherine adams, had to adjust to her new life in america and the family of her husband, john quincy adams. >> when the we son john quincy first came to the old house, they had just journeyed back from europe, landed in washington dc, and made the journey up to quincy.
the journey was arduous for luisa. her health was not good at the time. the journey was very difficult. she was brought to this house to meet her father and mother-in- law, and at that moment, she would write, had i stepped onto noah's ark, i could not be more utterly astonished. she had a challenge in winning over abigail adams. john adams was easy. he took to her right away. she always felt very comfortable with them and very well-liked. abigail was more skeptical. perhaps due to john quincy's teasing. he only gave abigail little bit of information about luisa catherine and wasn't forthright in his intentions. it was common in many ways, surprised that he married luisa catherine so quickly and abigail did not get a chance to know her. she was quite concerned that although she was an american citizen, she had never stepped foot on american soil. this is not which he intended adams, son, john quincy
but through time, she learned to grow in love and understand luisa catherine, and through the years, they forged a strong and loving relationship. luisa catherine describing abigail adams at the end of her life as the planet around which all revolved. luisa catherine and john quincy, unlike john adams, do not live there year-round. a would return only during the summer months to get relief from the politics of washington. her grandson, henry adams remembered luisa catherine fondly. in his works, the education of henry adams, he describes luisa catherine and her role in this house and her relationship with the family. was thes felt that she odd man out, if you will, because she was born in england and educated in france. she remained a foreign personality to many of the items, itemsthe adamses, but not to henry.
his fondest recollection is of her entertaining at t in this room. john quincy adams and louisa would inherit this room from john adams. they thought about selling the house, but after discussion they decided it was important to the family story, to hold on to this house for future generations. >> during andrew jackson's brief hiatus from the military in the early 1800's, rachel jackson entertained family and friends at their home, the hermitage. >> they came to this property in 1804. he was just retiring for a while. when they first moved here, he spent a lot of time at home. the primary people who would have visited prior to 18 -- the war of 1812 would have been
friends and relations in the area. rachel had a huge family and they all had lots of kids. there were a lot of them and they were in and out all the time. rachel was very close to her family. jackson being an orphan, grew very close to rachels family. after the war of 1812 when he has become this national hero, there were people here all the time. basically, they were acknowledged to be nice horses, very cordial and very welcoming. -- nytes hostess, very cordial and very welcoming. they have lots and lots of company for the rest of rachel's life. they had many dinner parties and things here at the hermitage. there used to findings in the city, so they -- fine things in the city, so they acquired a
good deal of those things, too. they had quite a bit of silver, such as these punch cups used. they would add some highly liquor out punch. she had very nice things with this dual image of her as this from the country lady. -- frumpy country they. -- country lady. jim was not so much that. -- she was not so much that. i think it was more about living in the country than anything about her appearance or clothing. during the war of 1812, there are letters from her that say things like, yes, do not let fame and fortune blind you to the fact that you have a wife and i am home and i need you.
i think he knew pretty well that she would have preferred him just to stay home and the plantation owner and jackson. this is the earliest letter that we have that jackson wrote to rachel. it was written in 1796. referred to her "my dearest heart." it says, with greatest pleasure i sit down to right with you -- write to you, though i am absent from you. i will be restored your arms, there to spend my days in domestic sweetness with you, the companion of my life, never to be separated from you again during this transitory and in fluctuate -- and fluctuating life. there were lots of comments and visitors about her flower gathering and picking. one lady was here on her honeymoon and she and her
husband were indicted tuesday. she mentioned -- to step -- were invited to stay. she and her husband mentioned the garden. she walked through the garden with rachel and rachel gathered flowers for them before they left. we don't know what kind of health rachel was in overall. it is apparent that throughout the fall of 1828 her health was not very good. but the campaign for president that jackson was going through have a huge effect on her health. this is the letter that jackson wrote on the day rachel actually died, december 22, 1828. he is writing to his friend, richard keith carl. in his letter, he describes the onset of her final illness. he says that she was a few days
hence, suddenly violently attacked with pains in her left shoulder and breast and such was the contraction at her breast that suffocation was apprehended. it was clear that she was very -- in very serious condition. he talks about going to washington, like he is assuming she will get better, and off we will go. unfortunately, she did pass later in the day. according to the stories of her death, jackson called for her to be bled when she died. he was a big believer in heroic medicine, basically that the medicine that did not hear you
did not kill you would cure you. even though was clear that she was not alive anymore, he asked that dr. to believe her. supposedly, there is a little stain that came out when the doctor did try to bleed her. and then some things about his morning -- if mourning, a calling card that he printed in black, suggesting he is in mourning. and then a book that was given to him by a friend of his, mrs. rutledge, that had the wrong inscription in it. it was a book to help him, come for him, to help him along. -- comfort him, to help him along. jackson was completely devastated. he was preparing plans to go to washington on a steamboat and it was up more than he could deal with almost. this is something with her
picture on it that he had with him pretty much all the time. it would be on a chain or strap that he could wear around his neck, on his bedside table at night so that he could see it in the morning when he awakened. and she was with him pretty much all the time, even though she had passed away. this is the book that was very important to jackson. this was rachel's songbook, and she made this cross stitch cover for her book, so it would keep the book nice. after her death, jackson kept a number of things like this very close at hand, so we could refer to them. another way of keeping rachel close. jackson had abbott after rachel died of purchasing were using were keeping the things that reminded him of her. this is a central hallway of the hermitagemanchin.--
mansion. although the house burned after rachel's death, jackson insisted that they repurchase the same wallpaper that rachel had chosen for this space. she had liked it. it reminded him of her, and he wanted it here. this is jackson's bedroom. after rachel's death, she was never far away from him. he kept many mementos of her around. in the early 1830's, he had a portrait that was a special favor of his copy, so that he could have hanging over the fireplace so that it would be the first thing he saw in the morning and the last thing he saw at night, according to the traditional stories passed down in the family. he would go out to her tomb every evening and spend some time out there. >> educated in the graces of society, angelica van buren was well-suited for the white house. later at his retirement in kidder hook, n.y.. -- angelica them during would
and abraham would spend the summer months here. occasionally, also the winter months, but they would spend the summer months here. in the dining room, angelica van buren would serve as a hostess. van buren had many social events, political events. and during those times, angelico would be hostess for those occasions, just as she was at the white house. she was quite refined, being that she was a wealthy and had all the appropriate social graces of the time, so much so that the ambassador from france who was purdue the critical of american social graces complimented her. later, he added another 100 acres on to the 130 acres they had here. typically, the women in the house would engage in a variety of activities, polite conversation, read or recite from memory to one another.
they would often play parlor games in here. anjelica was trained in philadelphia on the heart. there were occasions she would have played a part for the other female guests here in the greenroom. this is the breakfast room here. it is a much more intimate room compared to the main hall. it is the place where the family had their daily meals. the china you see here monogrammed here "vb" is the daily china. angelica could be seen serving some one -- someone here. she suffered a miscarriage, and we know from letters that she wrote that during that time, she convalesced on this couch here in the main hall. earlier, while she was serving as host is in the white house, she had another baby girl -- as
an infant. -- to die as an infant. here on the second floor, they would have spent a great deal of time while bought -- while visiting her father-in-law, president van buren. it is easy to imagine her wearing one of the stresses here, or even at the white house as she hosted president van buren. the parasol is likely would use while strolling the grounds in the summer months on the air -- on their large farm of 240 acres. they had a very close relationship. he was a very amiable man, which was why he was so successful in politics. and she was trained in the social graces of the time. i think they genuinely care for one another. >> while her husband, john, rebuild his political career,
letitia tyler managed the kids and the plantation. >> he and his wife, latisha, and their family moved here to williamsburg to establish the law practice. we constructed his law office, and the foundry.-- the laundry. the house they lived in is no longer here, but here in williamsburg, it was perfectly to traded at the center of the legal part of the town. the courthouse was right across the street. this is sort of the beating heart of williamsburg, even in the 1830's. all of the political activity, the social activity, they are really living at the center of it. this fantastic 18th-century house that they were living in, as john tyler was resurrecting his political year -- career.
letitia was operating out of the house and running the various plantations all over the place. it is right here that she suffered a stroke in 1839 that partly paralyzed her, although she was still able to retain control on the family accounts, of all of the family business, while john tyler was actually getting involved again in the business. it was here that he learned he was elected vice president and also in the spring of night -- of 1841, it was here that he became the next president of the united states. and it was here that she was informed she was the next first lady of the united states. >> julia tyler -- julia gardner was 30 years younger than him. it took a disaster at sea for her to say yes to his advances.
>> when they got to for belvedere, they had put a barge in the bay. everybody was very pleased. the ship turned around and went back to washington. a hard core few wanted to fire the gun again. they sent a request down to the captain. it was turned down. but at that point, somebody looked over and as they are passing, the request was changed to stop the ship and honor -- and fire the gun in honor of the first passenger appeared when-- in honor of our first president. they could not do that, the governor fired a cannon. the right breach blew out and killed seven people, among them senator gardner. also the secretary of state, and the secretary of the navy. everybody downstairs thought the
ship had exploded. all of those handsome young officers that were surrounding my grandmother who was 23 years old at the time, but very beautiful, my grandfather had been trying to talk to her because of -- but could not because of all the handsome young males. they all rushed to do what they had to do and left her standing there. she knew her father wasn't there, so she followed behind them. i've grandfather followed behind. -- my grandfather followed behind. and he was calling out, "don't let ms. gardner find her father is dead." and when she heard that, she fainted right back into the arms of my grandfather. he caught her tenderly. he picked her up and carried her. she came to, and later, she wrote her mother sang the first thing she remembered was going down the gangplank in the arms of the president, and she
struggled and her head fell over so she could look up into his eyes. and she wrote her mother that she relies for the first time that the president of media elite.-- the president loved me dearly. >> she had parties at the white house. she was immensely dedicated to the concept of the annexation of texas to the union. during that time, she was able to sway john c. calhoun, who was a contemporary of my mother's from south carolina, and she was able to sway him to vote for the annexation of texas. and she worked on henry clay, but i don't know whether she was really successful. she took henry clay out to dinner. and this is a woman without a chaperon, a president's wife, alone having dinner with henry clay, and she did not mind at
all. and she wrote her mother a letter, which i think it's priceless. she said, mother, mr. clay was a little insulting. when i told him that my husband wanted him to vote for the annexation of texas, he said to me, i am wide taxes should not be an efficient -- and next but for the annexation of texas, he said to me, i am wide taxes should not be an efficient -- said to but i -- -- he me, i don't think texas should be annexed into the union. john tyler was born in charles city county. he purchased his house and came down here once before he retired from the presidency.
he and julia gardner were married. she said, the hand of god and nature have been kind to my sherwood forest, but i can improve upon it. and she did. she had the moldings imported from italy. she had the mantelpieces brought in from italy. and the knocker on the front door, it has been meticulous the -- meticulously polished through the years. that was one of her contributions to the house. julia and her mother were very close. and we are exceedingly fortunate to have many letters written between juliet and her mother from his plantation. this house is only one room wide because you want the breezes to go from the north to the south and from the south to the north. they would sit in the hall quite
frequently. she sat in the open doorway that led to the south porch and wrote letters to her mother. and quite frequently, she commented on the president, who kept his feet on the banister and would read his newspaper and throw it on the floor. in the gray room is a table, and it is the table on which we are told john tyler fed her breakfast in her bedroom after he had been around the house. after his horseback ride, he would go to that table and have breakfast with his wife, which he would personally carry in on a tray, because she was still in bed. also, her mother writes her and says, i understand form other people whoe believ -- who believe that you sleep until 9:00 in the morning, the
president brings you breakfast in bed. and she says, please, do not take advantage of an elderly gentleman who dotes upon you. in the afternoons, julia rights to her mother frequently what she is doing on his plantation. she records almost every piece of furniture in the house. her brothers -- brothers visited, and became her buying mirror was ordered from a store. when it comes, she is distressed because the edges cut against the window facing. her mother writes her back and said, don't be so picky of minutia. we have record of a ball that she had in honor of her sister margaret, who came here very frequently. and the portrait is a portrait of julia ann margaret. -- julia and margaret.
you can see the water in the background. the ball that she had for margaret started at 9:00. and then, she says, they danced the virginia rail and the waltz until the sun rose, and the finest champagne flowed unceasingly. among one thing that julia did here for entertainment was, they allowed all of the house serving children to play continuously with the children of the big house. in her letters, julia tyler speaks of her children playing with the children in the yard. and she speaks of their dancing with the children in the yard. the supervision of the house servants, and there were many, there were a total of almost 90
slaves on the plantation. i think there were 13 house servants. they would care for her as well as the others on the plantation. they were happy. and she loved it. she refers to the melody of his voice. she always refers to his intelligence. she had a wonderful time here. >> sarah polec took a much more -- polk took a much more active role as first lady, just as she had done throughout her husband's political career as a congressman, speaker of the house, and governor. >> the traveling desk is indicative of sarah's life with james k. polk, mainly as his health made. he had no staff, so sarah took a hands on attitude toward being his wife. the traveling desk she took with her on her long trips to
washington, d.c. as she traveled twice a year, these are troops that could take 30 days. she is communicating with her family and friends back home, so she wrote tens of thousands of letters during her lifetime. the portraits are painted by ralph earl when james and sarah were in washington as congress and lady. is there was a helpmate to him throughout his political career. when he was writing speeches, she would complete them for him. daily, they would read the newspaper and she would underlined passages she thought he should read. she was a fixture in the gallery in congress. it was a great time of speeches of politicians. henry clay and calhoun and others were giving their famous speeches of the day. 14 members of the house of representatives, and the last four or the speaker of the
house. and he was the only speaker at that time to become president. it brings a whole new social status to washington, d.c., and sarah played one of the hostesses in washington. typically, congress would act -- enact a memorial officially thanking him for his service. the congress was so widely divided when he left the that they refuse to do that, but it is interesting. a number of politicians wrote poems in honor of sarah at the time that she left. supreme court justice joseph story road a palm mourning the-- wrote a lengthy poem lamenting her loss to washington society. how sarah looked was very important to her. i think she sought as a reflection on the presidency itself. she was known for having beautiful dresses and looking incredible in a white house that
was equally beautiful. was purchased in paris, france in 1847 by mrs. polk and worn by her late in the administration. it is basically a rover. -- a robe. dress she would wear if she was busy -- ready. the white dress is a ball gown also made in paris, france. the cut in the center was a style mrs. polk used again and again to give the indication that she found style that you like and looked good in. it is a beautiful gown. silk and satin. it has a great deal of lace attached to it. mrs. polk, always the frugal woman that she was, often purchase dresses and would buy a great deal of material to go along with them so she could enhance them and change the way that they look. instead of buying five or six gallons, she would buy one down and buy extra material. master atwas an -- a
excess arising. she had a wonderful collection of handbags and purses. was of the american mode of the 19th century. it was thought to be rather un- american for women to wear precious gems and semi precious stones. instead, she would wear gold and silver enamelware. her addresses are incredibly rare. -- her head addresses are incredibly rare. collection.nderful one unusual piece, turbine, which by the 1840s, would probably have fallen a bit out of fashion, but of course dolly madison was still alive and was a regular visitor to the polk white house. >> this is the inaugural fan. it is an incredible piece of history. it was a gift from president polk to his wife sarah. she carried it with her on the
day of his inauguration. features the lithograph images of the first 11 presidents from washington all the way to james k. polk. she carried it with her during the spring of 19 -- 1845. it features the lithographic image of the signing of the declaration of independence. the polks came into the white house a young, vibrant couple. the white house was split and that was why polk said he would run for only one term only. sarah polk used the white house to enhance her husband's political prestige.
dining in the white house was a serious affair. twice a week, she would entertain 50-75 people. the china news was beautiful. it is considered some of the most beautiful of the white house china. it features the presidential seal. the guinness that is why it embossed with gold. they had 80 said that was blue and a dessert set in green. you will often read that mrs. polk did not allow alcohol in the white house. she stopped the serving of whisky punches at public levees, but wine was one of the largest bills. one of the more interesting on sex in the collection speaks to sarah and her ability with music. we have the music book that has hand written acacias. when of the books inside was the song hail to the chief, she is credited starting to use as the official song of the president. >> eastern new york was considered the frontier at that time. >> eighth time in the home that belonged to millard and abigail
fillmore. they met when they were both teachers. they both had this desire and love of reading. abigail was brought up in a family that had many books. her father was a baptist preacher. he loves to read. she was surrounded by books her whole lifetime. when she moved into this house with millard, she continued that. they have their own personal library. she wanted to let young people read extensively about the world as it was. this room we are in is the focus of the entire house. history is made right here. she independently employed herself as a teacher.
she tutored young students in the evening in the course of history. this room would have been the living room. it also served as their kitchen. here in front of the fireplace, millard and abigail would spend hours in front of the fireplace and do their reading and writing. abigail cook in this very room. it was their kitchen. this is the bedlam. here's the staircase has quite an angle to it -- this is the bedroom. the original staircase has quite an angle to it. as a young wife and mother dressed in a long skirt and with a toddler on her hip, she ascended that ladder into the bedroom. when can this room, we have been fillmore bed and dresser. she was a wonderful seamstress. we have her quilts, a colorful " in a tumbling block pattern. -- a colorful quilt in a tomblin blot pattern.
it was a vibrant community. it -- in atoumbling blc -- a tumbling block pattern. we can envision abigail having a very full life. we see her as a hospitable young woman, young wife, young mother, a teacher. >> after leaving congress, franklin and shame pierce moved to new hampshire to raise their family. >> franklin had just finished serving in congress. he served a full term in the senate. he resigned his seat about a year earlier than his term was up to move back to contour to be with jane and to raise their two children -- concord to be with jane and to mr. two children. this is the only home they ever owned.
-- j to withane and -- to be with jane and raise their two children. >> this couch belonged to jane treat this was one piece they took to the white house. they had 8 rooms they had to furnished with their personal furniture. this was one of the pieces they took to the white house with them. table was known as the white house table. they had to borrow some furniture to take to the white house with them. this was one piece that they borrowed from jane's sister mary. the also took the little writing desk and chair that belong to franklin pierce. this room would have been used as a guest room. this is a small bed. we think this belongs to betty pierce -- benny pierce. it has been refinished and it's
an adult. this is the from franklin and jane would have used -- it has been -- has been refinished. they were devastated by his death. jane was in mourning quite a long time. >> the big house with more than with only one child was too much for jane to take care of. she was that interested in housekeeping. she was not capable of taking care of a house. they sold the house when he came back in 1848. and then in a boardinghouse in concord and lived in a boarding situation for the rest of their lives. >> this is an over -- andover,
massachusetts. mary was jane's system. she was their fourth game during all of the most important times of her life. they came to visit a family. they came here with their son benny. the family stayed at 48 center st., which is referred to as the summer white house. jane would stay with her sister. it is believed that he and mr. it is staff stayed across the road from them. they return so they could get
ready to move to the white house. unfortunately, the train ride was devastating for the family. it was about a mile outside of the city and an axle broke on the train. as i understand it, benny was a child and was moving about. when the train rolled down, he was hit in the back of his hand very severely. benny did not survive the crash. the services to its place a -- took place at mary's hous. jane -- mary's house. mary probably died of a lung disease of tuberculosis. >> raised by her uncle, james buchanan, harriet lane was hostess for many social
activities, which prepared her for a future as a white house hostess. >> this is the home of president james buchanan. in 1848, they moved here. this was the place she would call home until the age of 36 when they moved to baltimore. >> this is the place where harriet lane i have served tea to france, like letters, spent time together. very much like we would use the
family room today. >> this was a gift manufacturers manufactured in boston. as you see, we have her music book. it is embossed with her name on the front. it contains a number of her favorite pieces, including italian classics. we also have some patriotic songs. one of her uncle's favorite things to do was to sit here and listen to his knees playing religious hymns. he was a devout presbyterian. to listen to those hems brought a great amount of joy to him. -- uyms -- hyms brought in great amounts of -- hymns brought a great amount of joy to him. upon presentation to queen victoria, miss lane made a great impression and the queen was impressed with her. as a result, the two formed a great friendship that would continue throughout both of
their lives. this place is actually a gift that the queen gave harriet. it is a beautiful gold bracelet. he has her name, harriet lane, and the date of 1867 when she received a gift. behind me, we have a lithograph of queen victoria and her husband, prince albert. these were diplomatic skills presented by president -- presented to president buchanan. in hong in the white house and were brought back here into their home. -- hung in the white house and were brought back here to their home. one of the most interesting groups that they had visited them was the japanese delegation. the japanese delegation came to the white house in 1860 and came bearing all types of kicks. what can see here are some of the list of things they brought. with the full list of issues.
paper fold and objects. oragami. this is a little dictionary in japanese. jane and her friends found all of these things intriguing. here we are in harriet's lane's bedroom. it is furnished in the same way it might have been furnished and she was living here. these are pieces she moaned loaneownedarriage.-- after her marriage. behind me, you will see her original wardrobe where she would have stored her pitiful downs, european downs that she purchased from paris. he was well known throughout the country for five his clothing. she had a penchant for european fashions. most of her clothes were handmade for her in paris. her signature style of first lady differed radically from this address. she would wear full down with many layers of ruffles. she was also known for her low
neckline. that was something that was not quite in fashion in america yet. she brought it to the forefront of fashion and people started copying her. some of her garments created a bit of a scandal because she was showing a great bit of skin. women copy her hair, her jewelry, and her general fashion sense. over to the right, we have a small -- doll that is not a plaything. it is wearing her signature style of down. in front of me he is a beautiful rose with mahogany bed. she had it specially made to accommodate her uncle. we also have many pieces in the room that are american made and european maines reflecting her pride of country and her interest in european pieces. we have her prayer plant, which is hand embroidered and holds
her mother -- we have for prayer bench, which is hand embroidered and holds her mother's prayer book. we also have her writing desk. >> a very ambitious woman, mary todd lincoln saw great political potential in her husband, abraham lincoln. >> this is the home where mary helped build abraham lincoln's political career. she would invite friends and family over to talk politics, talking tens of the day. this is where he became be the best talk politics, topped the events of the day. he met and married mary todd. she was ambitious. there was something about
abraham lincoln. she saw the potential and encourage it and help develop it. lessons in etiquette in the dining room helped polish him up for washington society. the political parties they had when they invited a lot of important political people. she will get a lot of power over mr. lincoln and where he was going. this is the dining room. when they moved in it was an eating kitchen. that is not something that a polish, high society, upper- class person would do. mary had grown up with a formal
dining room in kentucky and she felt she needed to have one here. she did not want her children growing up without the proper manners. in a lot of cases, mr. lincoln needed that polishing as well. all of her boys needed polishing in minutes. she created this dining room to have that formal space for she and her family and also when they had guessed -- guests over. after he was elected president, there were four months between the election and the inauguration. there were a lot of visitors coming to springfield. one of them was one of stewart, who into the being lincoln's secretary of state. she had trays of something like her famous white cake or the madeleine. from the confectionery -- cake or the macaroon pure myth. maybe you could relax a little bit -- macaroon pyramid. these are the two nicest rooms in the house.
there are moral topped tables. -- marble top tables. there is a walnut shelf with a bust of mr. lincoln on it. that was here in 1860. that everyone in the neighborhood could say they have a bust of their husbands in their living room. this was a fancy place, where she wanted to show off. mary would have held her parties in here where she would have been discussing mr. lincoln's political aspirations. this is where people started when they came to a party. they started at the front door, met mr. lincoln here, maybe went into the dining room and picked up a bit of refreshment and met mary in the sitting room before going out of the dog -- front
door again. this is where lincoln was told he had been nominated to run for president. this was the seat of power in the house. larry helped showcase how far her husband had come from that mary health showcase paul farmer husband had come from that one room -- showcase how far her husband had come. president clinton's cottage was -- president lincoln's cottage was a seasonal home for the lincoln family -- president lincoln's cottage was a seasonal home for the lincoln family. she saw it as helping the family have more privacy than they had in the white house. we are in the living room, which is not part of the typical experience. when the lincolns were living here, mary is involved in a series carries accidents. some scholars believe the
carriage had been tampered with and this was actually an early assassination attempt on lincoln. when mary was about in that accident, the driver seat separated and mary have to leap out of the carriage to save herself. she suffered a head injury. she is treated down at the white house. after she has been treated, she comes out here to make her recovery. we believe she did that here in mary lincoln room. it is the most isolated room and the only one that has windows on three different walls allowing for better cross breezes to make her recovery more comfortable. in 1862, there is the imperative
of having a more private place to mourn and grieve after the death of their son lives -- their son, lily -- son, willy. mary was going about the cultural expectations of a woman in mourning and felt she could not do this effectively at the white house. there was a personal and turn to come out here, to have a place to grieve the loss of her son. one of the best documented the vincent took place here is a seance -- events that took place here is a seance after the death of willie lincoln. lincoln felt that mary was being taken advantage of the she might be subject to blackmail. he asked for some of his colleagues and friends to check out the situation to see if they could figure out with this medium was doing and how he was able to making noises he was claiming where spirits. the noises were recounted and the fact that when the lights turned on, they were able to prove that he was a fraud.
he asked for some of his colleagues and friends to check out the situation to see if they could figure out with this medium was doing and how he was able to making noises he was claiming where spirits. the noises were recounted and the fact that when the lights turned on, they were able to prove that he was a fraud. based on the historical record, it does not seem that mary was aware she was being defrauded in this way. after it was revealed that this man was a fake, she is quite embarrassed by it. it is an attempt to conceal and cover up the event. whenever mary lincoln writes about this place to friends, she talks about how dearly she loved the place and how much she was looking forward to coming out here. she saw it as fulfilling her train of what her family would experience when they were in washington -- fulfilling her dream of what her family would
experience when they were in washington, d.c. >> the personal effects of the lies and johnson allow a glimpse into the life of this ofeliza johnson - of eliza johnson allow a glimpse into the life of this private first lady. >> we have one of the necklaces, here. which is a plain black cross, which shows person plastic case. another is a sewing case. three of her favorite pastimes, being as reclusive that she was, was the embroidery work, reading poetry, and scrap booking. in the broader sense, they received political gifts while they were in the white house. we have an ivory baskets that came from the queen of the sandwich islands. they are now being hawaiian islands. that was the first time in queen
came to the white house. they had the first easter egg hunt on the white house lawn. it stops during the civil war, but he brought it back. he held it on the white house lawn so that eliza could watch. she was not able to get out much. she watched it from the portico of the white house. >> she chose not to assume the role of the first lady. she received many kids that she brought home with her after they left the white house. -- she received many gifts that she brought home with her after they left the white house. one of them was a box that had 50 pounds of chocolate bonbons. we have letters from some of her children say they would go up to mom's room to get a tree from the bonbon box. another item she thought that was a remembrance of a visit. she returned and bought back one
of his books. she was an avid reader. this gave her a chance to remember his visit. charles dickens is one of the most prolific writers of that time. bank -- of that time. 500 pieces of inlaid wood. they would play games. it sits up and rolls up. it looks like a regular table. the craftsmanship is incredibly remarkable. another piece that goes back to them is actually the food container. it was against from the children of philadelphia when they were in the white house. eliza brought that back home with her when they return. >> after falling her husband from one military outpost to another, julia grant was given a home.
>> it was purchased to give to the grand family during his -- for his service during the war. it was furnished with everything good taste could offer. the parlor was being entertaining part of the home. julia was an avid entertainer and loved it. the family spent a lot of time in the parlor. mr. grant and their daughter played the piano. imagine the family sitting here, the general in his favorite chair, the boys listening to their sister and their mother playing songs. julia and ellen played songs for the guests. he launched his presidential campaign from downtown. the day after his election, they open up their home and the parlor for people, townsfolk to come through and congratulate
both of them. this is the general and mrs. grant's bedroom. the bed is the oldest piece we have in the house and probably the most personal. they brought it from white haven. they left it here. through all of their travels, this was always here for them when they came back. this is called a lap book. this was duly's. she probably kept paper, -- this was julia's. religion was important for mrs. grant. her grandfather was a methodist minister. growing up, it was important to her and she instilled that in to the children. they attended the methodist church. the pew they used is still
marked at the church. it was the grant family pew. this is the dressing room, the most personal space in the house relating to julia grant's. -- julia grant. she would get ready for breakfast and get ready for bed and have a little solitude. there are a lot of things that belonged to mrs. grant. her sewing kit that she would use to man's socks for the kids. we haven't -- to mend socks for the kids. after his 8 years in the white house -- grant came back here for rest in relaxation. they decided to go on the world tour. they were gone for over two years. the grants were so popular at that time, they were like
american celebrities. these countries that they went to. they saw a lot of guests on the tour. two of the guests are still here on the mantle -- these were gifts from the king of bulgaria. after the -- the world tour they came back here for a couple of months and then went to mexico in cuba. the paintings -- they were given to the grants by the government of mexico. a very popular artist in mexico. this is the dining room. this is what a family would have their meals. there would have been some light entertaining here. nothing too elaborate in the home. we have some other gifts that were given to the grants on the world tour. this piece was eventually given to julia.
this was a bronze urn given to her by the citizens of yokohama, japan. a little vase, this was given to her by the emperor of japan. on the mantle is one of the most personal pieces that julia liked best. she actually framed it. the leaves were given to her by general grant, leaves he picked up from the holy city. she kept them, had them framed and wrote the whole story on here. julia probably had the time of her life on this world tour. she devotes almost a third of her memoirs to it. she developed a friendship with queen victoria and a very good friendship with the emperor of japan and ended up staying in japan longer than they had expected because they develop such a nice, close relationship with him. after president grant passed away, julia was living in new york and the emperor of japan came to visit julia while she was there. they still kept that friendship and had it for the rest of her life. this was always a place where
the children's family could come back to and this was always considered home and was always welcoming. she speaks of galena and refers to her dear, dear galena. >> lucy hayes was known for her kindness and compassion, not only to her family but the many other lives she touched. >> lucy was very dedicated to her family. she and her husband had eight children. five of them lived to adulthood area we know from letters that this was their gathering space. not only is this their bedroom, but this is where they spent a lot of family time together. this room is important to lucy as a mother because this is where her eighth child was born, right here in this bed. he was the only one of the eight to be born here at spiegel grove. tragically, he was never a very healthy child and when he was
about 18 months old, he contracted dysentery and passed away. it was very hard on the family. this is what she took with her when she was encamped with her husband during the civil war. it was very important to her that she be with him as often as was practical. when he was in winter camp and not actually on campaign, when he was in western virginia, she would travel in him and wrote how important it was for her to be with him. she often wrote that she was concerned about the welfare of the men in his regiment. she took this with her and would actually do some sowing and mend some uniforms. she was a good seamstress. not only did she repair soldiers' uniforms, but she made her own beautiful wedding dress.
one of the things that is interesting that occurred in the space, this is where they had family christmases and they would write about these in the diary entries. they would come in here and the whole family would gather. they had very simple presents, but this is the space where they would do this. a lot of traditions happened here as well as day-to-day activities. this is a watercolor painting of the president and lucy at the white house. there are some very vibrant colors. the same color scheme is reflected here. we know that she liked the color blue, and when we were real and reupholstering the furniture to take it back to the original and what it looked like, we found color swatches embedded within these pieces of furniture. this is the bedroom of rutherford and lucy's only daughter.
her name is fanny. she was named after the president's much beloved sister. this is a painting of fanny with her father. she was the only daughter. you can imagine a little girl growing up in a house like this with a lot of brothers. even though her parents claim she was not the favorite, she had this furniture specially made for her and had one of the bigger bedrooms. she certainly was the darling to her mother and father. this is a painting that shows lucy tending to a wounded soldier during the civil war. two causes that were important to her were veterans and soldiers and orphans, children who had been made orphans as a result of the civil war. this painting was created to hang in an orphanage in ohio where she was very supportive. it reflects those issues that
were important to her. when people associated with those causes would come here and visit, they would sit in this formal parlor. spiegel grove was host to a number of reunions of civil war veterans. the unit that rutherford served in and future president mckinley was a member of the 23rd ovi. he and his family were frequent guests here. veterans' groups were always welcomed. when they would gather on the ground and come to sit and talk, they would sit in this formal parlor. lucy was a wonderful hostess and wanted people to feel very welcome here. this is where they would sit and discuss the issues of the day. they would have hosted a number of political figures, including future presidents taft, and
william tecumseh sherman was a guest as well as a number of other national political figures. as a political partner with her husband entertaining these figures and serving in the role of hostess, that would have been incredibly important. >> lucretia and james garfield had a great love of books and knowledge and created a learning environment for their family. later, she established the prelude to a presidential library. >> this is the parlor, the way it looked during james garfield's 1880 campaign. this was the formal parlor and family room. james and lucretia spent a lot of time with their children. they lost two children in infancy, isabella and edward. those children died before the family moved here. james and lucretia's five children all have the benefit of having two very intelligent parents who strongly believed in education, that education was an
emancipating factor and that led to the keys of success. the children took dance lessons, piano lessons. we have molly's piano, which was a gift to her on her 13th birthday in 1880. she more than the boys practiced the piano, and that was the reward. here in the family parlor, like everywhere else, you see a lot of books. the children loved to read as well. some of their favorite authors were dickens and there are several volumes of his work. also william shakespeare. the family would sit and read to one another in the evening. that was one of their favorite activities.
we are here in the family dining room and in the center of the table is this interesting art piece. it won an award at the philadelphia centennial. mrs. garfield absolutely adored her time at the exhibition. she visited all the tents, the art tents, the science tents, the technology tents. she was specifically interested in the latest science and technology of the day. she would write pages and pages of what she saw at the site. a lot of people think of her as a very artistic lady. but she's also very intelligent and loved the sciences, like most families, dinnertime was a very important time of the day. a time for them all to get together and talk about what they were doing. the garfields would use this time to educate and play games with the children. sometimes they would bring books to the table and words that were mispronounced or misspelled and quiz the children. james and lucretia made
everything an educational experience. >> after james garfield's death, lucretia came back to ohio and started to make her family's life on this property. she started to make a lot of changes to the property. the downstairs summer bedroom, she turned that into other things and started using the upstairs at room. she converted the kitchen into an open reception room and had it moved into the back part of the house. most significant was the construction of the presidential memorial library. just as important as the changes she made to the property are the ones that she did not make. i am standing in the room the james garfield used as an office for the years he was living here in the house.
this room pretty much looks like it did when lucretia garfield came back to the home and really found the room it was in the condition it was when james garfield walked out to be the president of the united states.t words carved into the wood. in memory of james garfield. it does have an interesting double meaning. it was also the title of james and lucretia's favorite poem. james garfield went to washington, became a first-time member of the u.s. house of representatives. december 1, 18 63, their firstborn child, eliza died to choose only two or three years old. this was very tragic. it brought them much closer together than they had been up to that point. james garfield wrote this very sort of compassionate letter to
his wife from washington, d.c. just about two weeks or so after the daughter's death. he told lucretia in the letter that he had been reading this poem, in memoriam, and it was offering him great comfort as he tried to deal with the death of their daughter. he suggested the lucretia read the poem as well. he hoped it would bring as much comfort to her as it had brought to him. he suggested that it become their poem. and it did. when lucretia garfield had that carved into the wood here in her husband's office after his death, she was really acknowledging not only his tragic death at a young age, only 49, but also this love of literature that they had and this very special relationship they had with in memoriam. if james a garfield were to walk into this house right now, he would not recognize this room. when he was alive and living here, this was the kitchen.
after his death, she started to make major changes to the property. this room was converted into this open reception room. the most significant change she made was the construction of the very first presidential memorial library. as we get to the top of the steps, we come first to the memorial landing. it is here we find one of her favorite portraits her husband. this was done by carolyn ransom and it shows james garfield as a major general during the civil war. this is the room she came up with in her mind to memorialize her husband, to keep his memory alive for himself and for their children and the country as well. these are all books that belonged to james garfield. this is a beautiful piece sent to mrs. garfield unsolicited by someone in italy. it is a beautiful memorial
piece. it is all made with small stones pressed together, and it was one of her favorite pieces. we have a beautiful marble bust of james garfield sculpted by an italian sculptor. here we have what she called the memory room. this is a room constructed with the library in which she stored her husband's official papers and documents. it was in this room the papers were organized, cataloged and bound up and stored to keep them for posterity. a lot of interesting items in here. most significant is the wreath on the shelf there, that was actually lying on his casket while he was lying in state in
the capitol building. the wreath was sent to her via the british delegation along with a handwritten note of sympathy from the queen. something interesting about this room is the fact that they used this room a lot. it was not a room where you can't go in and touch anything. she spent a lot of time here writing letters and you will see she did use black bordered stationery. she actually used that for the rest of her life to denote a lifelong mourning for her husband. in front of the large windows, two of the garfield children actually got married in 1888 in a double wedding ceremony where the oldest garfield, molly and the only surviving daughter married their respective fiances in a double wedding ceremony in front of the windows in the library. >> the youngest first lady, frances cleveland, stirred the interest of the american public
and became the fashion icon of her time. >> the public's fascination with frances cleveland -- she was a real icon. women emulated her hairstyle and she popularized everything she had and did. this is a dress from the second administration and this is the most prized piece of all because this is the inaugural gown. this is the inaugural gown from 1893 and it stayed her family and became the family's wedding dress. the bottom of the dress is exactly the same, but the top has been remade. it originally had a satin top with large leg of mutton sleeves with bows on the shoulders. a lace from the original dress was used to re-create a new bodice and make it a more fashionable, modern wedding dress. even her everyday clothes were
very stylish. a lot of them look like something you could wear now. this is a jacket. black with this beautiful blue velvet. it is definitely daywear. this is a more evening appropriate piece. this would have had a matching skirt and you can see the beautiful lace and sequins. slightly more ornate daytime vest. this would have a matching collar and you can wear it with a short waisted skirt. it is 100 years old now. and one of the earlier wedding dresses on display for many years, we changed the dresses around and this dress was on
display. this is a reception dress she would have worn during the second administration. this is when the sleaze became much larger. -- sleeves became much larger. this is a beautiful skirt and bodice with a matching evening gown. these large puffed sleeves and butterflies. a description talks about the butterflies looking like they would alight from her shoulders. you can see the damage light can do. the velvet was originally this color and over years of display, it has faded. frances cleveland is so popular. people are imitating her clothes
and hairstyle, but they want a piece of frances for themselves. pictures of the first lady became extremely popular. you can purchase your own pictures of ms. cleveland to have in your home. advertisers and manufacturers make an array of souvenirs that you can purchase and have mrs. cleveland in your house am in your home -- your house, in your home. you can purchase a small painted glass portrait. you can have plates of mrs. cleveland. ms. cleveland can convince you to buy a product. the first couple together. she is used in campaigns. while we have grover cleveland running for president, we also have mrs. cleveland running for first lady. here is a set of campaign
playing cards where you are electing the president, vice president, and first lady. frances cleveland in the second administration looks a little different now. she's a young mother, a confident matron. this is a pretty piece you can have in your home. the same image is used in this ribbon. you can have a souvenir that not only commemorates the world fair, it commemorates the campaign. the collection is too vast to all be on display at one time. what is not currently on the floor is stored in here, and they can be used for exhibition purposes. this is frances cleveland's wedding dress. frances cleveland was an incredibly popular bride. she married the president in a white house ceremony, the only
white house ceremony for the first lady. the bodice filled in with a neckpiece. it goes around and create a softening effect. it is a long-sleeved dress, and has a wonderful long train. even the underside of the clothes have this beautiful trim and this sweeping train. this collection contains more than clothing. we have the public pieces and personal pieces. one of my favorite things in the entire collection is this box. each of the guests were given a satin covered box painted with the bride and groom's initials to hold a piece of wedding cake. before the wedding, they found
time to sign the card for every cake box. this would have been a piece of cake. and this particular cake box was given to the minister. the minister who performed the wedding. he was the minister at the first presbyterian church in washington d.c. a testament to the public's fascination. this is a piece of sheet music, the cleveland wedding march, composed in honor of the wedding because it was not the wedding march played at the wedding. it's obviously decorated with pictures of mr. and mrs. cleveland. the images of the cleveland together will be part of popular culture for the next 12 years. >> first lady caroline harrison was interested in the painting of china dinner wear, and was the first to establish a white
house china collection. >> china painting became a national hobby because of caroline harrison. women all over the country, once they heard the president's wife was a china painter, they wanted to do that to. i would credit caroline harrison with creating enthusiasm among women for painting. we have other examples of caroline's painting. she loved flowers. i guess i was her number one subject, to paint flowers -- that was her number one subject, to paint flowers. on the bottom shelf, we have birds. she loved birds and nature and she created these beautiful bird plates. we have a couple of things on the wall she painted and gave as gifts. when she was in the white house,
she did this frequently. one of the pieces was given to a servant who retired and she wrote on the back of it, thanking him for his service. then we have a piece the harrisons gave to the stanfords of stanford university. it was a gift painted by caroline and when the museum opened, stanford university sent it back to us so we now have it here in the dining room. >> when she came to the white house, she was very interested in how the place worked. this is still the ground floor but it was considered the basement because the kitchen was down here. the storage for food and tableware and such. she came down and found it was rather dilapidated and dirty,
sort of ominous, and she tried to spruce it up and went through the cabinets and found old pieces of china and asked servants if they could tell how old the piece is. she started the idea of trying to catalog and create a sense of what the chinas were. she had a plan for putting display cases in the state dining room, but that never came to fruition. she is credited with being the initiator of the concept of a permanent china collection at the white house. she was interested in designing china and wanted it to be american. there was not a strong enough porcelain manufacturing industry when she started looking into new china, so she decided they would let a french company make the blanks and she would provide the design. it was not a full-service. she didn't try to order 12 or 15
pieces per plate setting. it was designed with a shape that was the lincoln-era shaped. this is a soup late or tea plate soup plate. she designed the border. she felt represented american agricultural plants. the soup plates and breakfast plates were made in the blue. and then a series of cups and saucers. so there weren't all the other shapes you would have, such as bowls and shapes that went with it. >> you have caroline harrison's white house diary, and this was something we don't have out very often. she kept the diary, and you can
see it's very fragile. she mentioned several different things. she mentions going to arlington cemetery and decorating the soldier's grave site and mentions riding with benjamin to the soldiers' home and hospital. some of the things near and dear to her here were working with the asylum and she continued to do some of that while she was in washington visiting the hospitals and whatnot. she mentioned having the floral arrangements for several different banquets and dinners. one was the pan-american conference of countries meeting
there and mentions decorations for that as well. this was the dinner at the arlington in washington, d.c. and you can see the table setting. we have the vice president, president, and different delegations sitting at that particular dinner. she talks a lot about the centennial celebration for the centennial of george washington's inauguration. things from the banquets and whatnot here. one of the parades was seven and a half hours long. and also very personal and family related things. she mentioned how she's is feeling, what the weather is like. one of the things he talks about is the christening of their young grunt debtor -- granddaughter.
she said they used water from the river jordan that her sister had brought back from a trip over there. we have some of that water in our collection today. we actually have some water in there as well. she was christened in the blue room of the white house in a private family ceremony at that time. she also mentions christmas at the white house and having the tree put out for the grandchildren. they have the first decorated christmas tree in the white house. and she mentions the gifts given at that time, including opera glasses. we have her opera glasses given to her that she mentions in the diary as well. >> even though she was in poor health and suffered from epilepsy, she still contributed by crocheting slippers and donating them to charity and presenting them as gifts. >> what is wonderful about this is that inside, it has a picture
of william mckinley. this is something we see in a lot of her personal belongings. this was her sewing bag. she would keep the crochet items in here. this is one of her crochet needles and it is her favorite color, blue. inside, we have a picture of william mckinley. even when he was away from her, she would have something to remind her of him. she was known for her crocheted slippers and would spend hours crocheting these slippers. we think she made approximately 4000 pairs in her lifetime. these are unique for the soles that they have. they were leather soles on the bottom. she would make them in various sizes. we have pairs from a child size and they were usually made in a variation of blue or gray. or an ivory color. these represent the basic colors she would use. since she was not able to do other types of work as the first lady, this was one of the things she could contribute.
she would donate these to a charity or war veterans or she would donate them to the auctions to raise money. to see some of the more fragile and important pieces, we have to go into our main storage area. this is where we keep the white house dresses and other artifacts. this dress is my favorite. we are in the middle of a conservation process so we can have these dresses repaired, so they will be able to be on a mannequin. this one is my favorite because it's so heavily ornamented. it has silver beads and metallic threads. it has tiny little mirrors. this would have reflected light beautifully. this dress is my favorite. we are in the middle of a conservation process so we can have these dresses repaired, so they will be able to be on a mannequin. this one is my favorite because it's so heavily ornamented. it has silver beads and metallic
test. test. >> the idea because to create an image of the program and show the history. along with continuity. so like i say, c-span decided on four figures. and they would be the first lady to the current first lady with a couple recognizable faces in between. >> the idea was first having them tightly together, which is tough to do in terms of reality,
but it's an illustration so you can. but then was to have the progression of the eye sight, so the progression of the view, go from looking at you to progressing to the right. so going left to right, looking off into the future kind of concept. so it's not just a static of four people looking at you. you have the first one looking and then progressively they're looking farther and farther off to the right. and then just coincidentally, there were just some beautiful references of michelle that came into play for that. and then same with, i think it was mrs. kennedy. in terms of ideal references. so that's how they got placed. >> and how old approximately do you think these women are and why did you choose these versions of these women? >> from my perspective, it was fairly easy. so i was relying on what would
be the public memory that we think of as the first lady in the white house. and that can be easily traced through portraits, so their current portraits were the portraits that they were done fairly soon after they were there. and then of course with michelle obama, that required just opening up the paper and looking at photographs that were current. but they are, i think, best representative of their time in the white house. >> how much research did you do on the four women featured in this painting before you began the work? >> well, in terms of history, i think i'm familiar with all of them. but visual references are what i require the most. so i went immediately to my collection of portraits and first lady portraits and things like that. so i kind of saw what they would like to be seen and properly publicly seen. and then i went through all the various images. with martha, it was a lot harder, but we know this portrait is the best one there
is. so i simply relied on that one. and for the others, i relied on photography, lots of photography. and i pieced together all the images i thought were good and representative. >> what is the process you go through when starting to work on a painting. how much work goes into the project before you start to paint? >> first, i do all the research and background and things like that. for a normal portrait, a portrait of someone i need to almost represent in life size and in 3-d, and sculpting too, i need to get to know them. for this one, i'm using it for a relatively small portrait. but a lot of the work happens first, all that research and gathering images and sketching. but then what i started with as a kid, what i rely on the most, is pencil work, and i paint on the board to make it easier for me. and i draw right on the board with pencil and keep going and going until i like it, which
takes a while. but until i like it. getting the scale right and all those things. and then progress from there. >> so how long did you work on this painting and that's from research through the painting process? >> i have nod idea how long things take sometimes. i work in bursts and i work hard, put them away, actually put them in a closet, away in the closet, i don't see them, don't look at them purposefully, and then when i pull them out, i can be streamly critical. i try never to keep track of how much time i spend on them because i'd probably get depressed. but i just prefer not to. have you remained objective as
an artist? >> i think it's really simple. you want to present the person, especially if i'm doing a portrait or a sculpture of an individual, i need to know what their personality is like, what the personal hook is that i can relate to. and then i go with that. so i'm trying to bring someone to life who looks like someone you want to meet. >> and what other paintings or sculptures have you done of first ladies? >> first ladies are the most public one for me. an official portrait of barbara bush that's in the white house. an absolute favorite of mine, the whole process was great, subject, she was wonderful, very enjoyable. and the end result, i really liked. we revived mille for the painting and put her in kind of in the shadows in the corner. all the details were, they're not grand, but it was just very nicely and subtly done. i love it.
so that's in two dimensions was that then. and then in three dimensions was i sculpted nancy reagan for the reagan library in california. >> how about have you been working with c-span on history projects and give me a little bit of that relationship. >> i smile because it's been a long time. and i'm a history buff. and i think you figure that out pretty quickly. so tantalizing me with projects was not hard. but i think it was 1998, it was a toteville tour, the tv program that retraced the route across the country. and that actually started, it was supposed to be a painting, and then evolved into a sculpture, so a small bust of toteville, and what c-span didn't really know is that i had not sculpted since the third grade. so i smile now because it was kind of c-span that pushed me
toward sculpture just without them knowing. soy that's how it started. and then other projects came along, really fun. president series. so we got to paint every president. and the only tough part about that was the time frame. so typical tv deadlines with 90 days to do the 40-some men. but i love that kind of challenge. and then i also did the writers series. so a little looser, less serious, almost cartoony versions of american writers. and historical figures that i really had to research and really had some fun with. >> when we look at presidential and first lady portraits that are obviously such a huge part of what is now pop culture, history. recognizable to people as you mentioned, as you pick out the images of the ladies behind you. taking your own portrait of
barbara bush out of the equation, what are some others that stand out for you? >> there are a couple. many of them are presidents. one of them is president kennedy, looking to the side, which is completely un-orthodox. and you feel a little detached from him, but you feel like you were there with him. and him having been killed, it adds to that story, his presidency right there. i thought that was very powerful and i thought daring too for a portrait. there's beyond washington, which is a grand historical piece. i think the roosevelt, teddy roosevelt. and that is mainly the freshness of the painting. so it's by sargent.
and he's turning into a staircase, a mill post. but it's that kind of proud, very strong stance. and from my memory, i think there was a struggle on trying to get the composition right and the artist was having a hard time dealing with the president. and at some point, he was walking down the stairs and ordered him to stop. and that was the moment he found the pose. and that's kind of how it happens with portraits. you can live with the person a little bit, trying to discover what they're like, and try to find the pose that really portrays them properly. >> and then specifically, with the first ladies, some of the stand out portraits for them? >> the one that i really love as a painting, and i was surprised at the scale, was nancy reagan. and i know there was a lot, i kind of vaguely remember at the time there was a lot of buildup as to what she could possibly be wearing and things like that. but in the end, it was very sleek red dress.
so nothing truly extravagant or anything. but the lighting and the composition was fantastic. so a dark setting, where you see light coming through a doorway, so there's a little bit of almost action in the painting. but then when you go and see it, you have to step right up to it, it's an intimate painting, it's small. and i think that is probably the stand out for me. i think because it was just so unexpected. >> is there anything that you want to conclude with or any thoughts you have about this project or future project or first ladies in general? >> the first ladies obviously played a unique role. i mean it's hard to put yourself in their shoes and how they would live day-to-day. and each, they developed their own themes and projects and personalities, which we get to know as a public. i think that's an interesting thing to watch. and i certainly am flipping through and doing a cursory look at the presidents' wives, as
c-span is doing now, it's an interesting perspective on the white house. >> as a prelude to season 2 of our series, first ladies image, the museum is focusing on america's first ladies, how the media has covered them through the years and how the first ladies have tried to craft their image in the media. panelists are cokey roberts of abc and npr, chris thompson of the washington post, join us live next saturday at 2:30 p.m. eastern here on c-span. >> the media is clearly a dominant, increasingly dominant criteria for every first lady. but in the end, they're the endless, the biographical, the human stories, you know, which are not limited to the 19th century or the 20th century or
media or anything else. it's how these people endure and prevail. in the very rough world of politics. >> historians richard norton smith previews first ladies influence and image. featuring 20 first ladies from the beginning of the 20th century to the present, looking at their private lives and public roles, monday night at 9:00 eastern on c-span, c-span radio, and cspan.org. >> we bring public affairs from washington directly to you, putting you in the room at congressional hearings, white house events, briefings and conferences, and offering complete gavel to gavel coverage of the u.s. house, all as a public service of private industry. we're c-span, created by the cable tv industry 34 years ago and funded by your local cable or satellite provider. and now, you can watch us in hd.
>> this was the scene outside the white house yesterday with protests taking place between those supporting and those opposing u.s. intervention in syria. the protests came while president obama delivered remarks from the white house rose garden, where he said any form of military action against syria would have to come with the approval of congress. here are some of the protests followed by the president's remarks. [yelling]
>> good afternoon, everybody. 10 days ago, the world watched in horror as men, women, and children were massacred in syria in the worst chemical weapons attack of the 21st century. yesterday, the united states president a powerful case that the syrian government was responsible for this attack on its own people. our intelligence shows the assad regime and its forces preparing to use chemical weapons, launching rockets in the highly populated suburbs of damascus. and acknowledging that a chemical weapons attack took place. and all of this corroborates what the world can plainly see. hospitals overflowing with victims. terrible images of the dead.
all tolled, well over 1,000 people were murdered. several hundred of them were injured. young girls and boys gassed to death by their own government. this attack is an assault on human dignity. it also presents a serious danger to our national security. it risks making a mockery of the global prohibition on the use of chemical weapons. it endangers our friends and our partners along syria's borders, including israel, turkey, and iraq. it could lead to escalating use of chemical weapons or their proliferation to terrorist groups who would do our people harm. in a world with many dangers, this menace must be confronted. after careful deliberation, i have decided that the united states should take military action against syrian regime
targets. this will not be an open-ended intervention, we would not put boots on the ground. instead, our action would be designed to be limited in duration and scope. but i believe we can hold the assad regime accountable to deter this kind of behavior and degrade their capacity to carry it out. our military has position the assets in the region. the chairman of the joint chiefs has informed me that we are prepared to strike whenever we choose. moreover, the chairman has indicated to me that our capacity to execute this mission is not time sensitive. it will be effective tomorrow or next week or one month from now. and i'm prepared to give that order. but having made my decision as commander in chief based on what i am convinced is our national
security interests, i'm also mindful that i'm the president of the world's oldest of the world's oldest i've long believed that our power is in our military might but in our government, as a government by the people and for the people. and that's why i've made a second decision. i will seek authorization for the use of force from the american people's representatives in congress. over the last several days, we've heard from members of congress who want their voices to be heard. i absolutely agree. this morning, i spoke with all four congressional leaders and they've agreed to schedule a debate and then a vote as soon as congress comes back in the session. in the coming days, my administration stands ready to provide every member with the information they need to understand what happened in syria and why it has such profound implications for america's national security.
and all of us should be accountable as we move forward, and that can only be accomplished with a vote. i'm confident in the case our government has made without waiting for u.n. inspectors. i'm comfortable going forward without the approval of a united nations security council that so far has been completely paralyzed and unwilling to hold assad accountable. as a consequence, many people have advised against taking this decision to congress, and undoubtedly, they were impacted by what we saw happen in the united kingdom this week, when our partner failed to pass a resolution with a similar goal, even as the prime minister supported taking action. yet while i believe i have the authority to carry out this military action without specific congressional authorization, i know that the country will be stronger if we take this course and our actions will be even more effective.
we should have this debate. because the issues are too big for business as usual. and this morning, john boehner, nancy pelosi, and mitch mcconnell, agreed, this is the right thing to do for our democracy. a country faces few decisions as grave as using military force, even when that force is limited. i respect the views of those that call for caution, particularly as our country emerges from a time of war that i was elected in part to end. but if we really do want to turn away from taking appropriate action in the face of such an unspeakable outrage, then we must acknowledge the costs of doing nothing. here's my question for every member of congress and every member of the global community. what message will we send if a dictator can gas hundreds of children to death in plain sight and pay no price? what's the purpose of the international system that we've
built if a prohibition on the use of chemical weapons that has been agreed to by the government of 98% of the world's people, and approved overwhelmingly by the congress of the united states, is not enforced? make no mistake. this has implications beyond chemical warfare. if we won't enforce accountability in the face of this heinous act, what does it say about our resolve to stand up to others who flout fundamental international rules, the government who would choose to build nuclear arms, to terrorists who would spread biological weapons, to armies who carry out genocide? we cannot raise our children in a world where we will not follow through on the things we say. the accords we sign. the values that define us. but just as i will take this case to congress, i will also deliver this message to the world. while the u.n. investigation has
some time to report on its findings, we will insist that an atrocity committed with chemical weapons is not simply investigated, it must be confronted. i don't expect every nation to agree with the decision we have made. privately, we have heard many expressions of support from our friends, but i will ask those who care about the international community to stand publicly behind our actions. and finally, let me say this to the american people. i know well that we are weary of war. we've ended one war in iraq, we're ending another in afghanistan. and the american people have the good sense to know that we cannot resolve the underlying conflict in syria with our military. and that part of the world, there are ancient sectarian differences. and they have unleashed forces of change that are going to take many years to resolve. that's why we're not contemplating our troops in the middle of someone else's war. instead, we'll continue to
support the syrian people through our pressure on the assad regime, our commitment to the opposition, our care for the displaced, and our pursuit of a political resolution that achieves a government that respects the dignity of its people. but we are the united states of america. we cannot and must not turn a blind eye to what happened in damascus. out of the ashes of world war, we built an international order and enforced the rules that gave it meaning. and we did so because we believe that the rights of individuals to live in peace and dignity depends on the responsibilities of nations. we are perfect, but this nation more than any other has been willing to meet those responsibilities. so all members of congress and both parties, i ask you to take this vote for our national security. i am looking forward to the debate. in doing so, i ask you, members
of congress, to consider that some things are more important than partisan differences or the politics of the moment. ultimately, this is not about who occupies this office at any given time, about who we are at a country. i believe that the people's representatives must be invested in what america does abroad. and now is the time to show the world that america keeps our commitments. we do what we say. and we lead with the belief that right makes might. not the other way around. we all know there are no easy options, but i wasn't elected to avoid hard decisionses and neither were the members of the house and the senate. i've told you what i believe, that our security and our values demand that we cannot turn away from the massacre of countless civilians with chemical weapons. and our democracy is stronger when the president and the people's representatives stand together. i'm ready to act in the face of this outrage.
that joint statement coming from speaker john boehner, and conference chair cathie mcmorris rogers. you can see the house debate live on c-span and senate coverage on c-span 2. coming up next on c-span, participants from the 1963 march on washington discuss the events of that day and the media's role in its coverage. then education secretary arnie duncan joins private industry leaders to talk about how developments and technology are influencing the quality of education. then president obama's weekly address followed by the republican address from pennsylvania congressman michael fitzpatrick.
>> the everything they do is to stand up on behalf of some victimized minority. blacks, jews, gays, women, doesn't matter, if you're a minority, they're standing up for you. what that means is if we oppose their policies, by necessity, we hate blacks, jews, gays and women. and that is the philosophy they trot out. >> the editor, ben shapiro is the guest. and will take your calls and comments for three hours starting at noon eastern. and biographer kitty kelly on november 3rd. december 1st, feminist critic christina hoff summers. and on january 5th, radio talk show host mark levine. and book club returns in september with mark liebovich's
this town. >> we picture june cleaver with a vacuum cleaner or in the kitchen frying breakfast and bacon in her pearls. that image actually does obscure the trends in the 1950s, which was that america's labor force participation increased in the 1950s. american women workers not only did not go home after world war ii, but they increasingly entered the labor market across the 1950s. a decade that was so powerfully associated with women's domesticity. >> a history of women in the workplace and the years following world war ii, sunday at 1:00 p.m. eastern, just part of the three days of american history tv this labor day on c-span 3. next, participants from the 1963 march on washington talk about their experience that day 50 years ago.
speakers include georgia congressman john lewis, former u.n. ambassador andrew young, and former naacp chairman julian bond. they also talk about the role the media played in its coverage of the event. moderated by former cbs news reporter marvin kelb, this discussion is a little more than an hour and 10 minutes. >> from the national press club in washington d.c., this is the kelb report with marvin kelb. >> hello and welcome to the national press club and to another edition of the kalb report. i'm marvin kalb. and our program tonight is remembering a march, a movement, and a dream, meaning the march on washington for jobs andr freedom. as it was officially called 50 years ago on august 28, 1963.
the civil rights movement that once dominated our headlines and began to touch our national conscience. and the "i have a dream" speech by martin luther king, one of the most powerful speeches in american history. many fear the march would turn violent, but it was in fact amazingly peaceful. here in black and white, on television, and in reality, 250,000 people bound together in a moral march for jobs, equality, justice, probably up to thatrc time, the largest demonstration on the washington mall ever. i was there to help cover this story. one in a small army of cbs reporters. i remember, being aware as i looked out at that swelling crowd, that this was more than a news story. it was also a special moment in our national history, open for the world to behold.
♪ as i mentioned before, this was one of the open wounds of a democracy. and it is open here on this march as we were when we talked openly and freely. if any of this had gone bad, it would be bad. but if it goes well, it is one of the tributes of democracy and it is a thing that stands now. back to you. >> now, 50 years later, i am gray. [laughter] and the world i hope is wiser about inflammatory issues such as racial and economic injustice. for a discussion of the march, the movement, and the dream, we are joined by three civil rights leaders, two journalists, and one college president. to my far left, john wilson, the 11th president of morehouse college, martin luther king's alma mater.
the only private liberal arts college in the country dedicated to the education of african/american males. for four years, wilson served president obama as executive director of the white house initiative on historically black colleges and universities. he's also held top positions at the massachusetts institute of technology and the george washington university. my far right, again, only geography, andrew young, who is a close and trusted aide to martin luther king. young helped organize the march on washington. in addition, he was a congressman, a former ambassador to the united nations. he's currently a professor at the andrew young school of policy studies at georgia state university. again, to my left, a reporter who coanchors the pbs newshour. she's also moderator and managing editor of pbs'
washington week. he -- she has covered seven presidential campaigns. and before that, she worked for nbc, the new york times ,te ande washington post, and in this business, she is regarded as one of the best. to my right, julian bond, one of the leaders of the civil rights movement. while a student at morehouse college, he helped found snicc, the student nonviolence coordinating committee. and he led the naacp. he was also elected to the georgia house and senate. he's been a commentator, and currently he's a professor at both the american university and the university of virginia. to my immediate left, a man often described as the conscience of the u.s. congress, john lewis, a congressman from
georgiang since 1986. at age 23, one of the first to speak at the march on washington. in fact, he's the only surviving speaker. he took a leading role in organizing sit-in demonstrations, fighting jim crow laws, joining the freedom rides, getting arrested, and severely beaten time and time again, trying always to this day to build what he calls a beloved community in america. and to my immediate right, former president of the national association of black journalists. after a number of reporting jobs with black newspapers and magazines, she joined the washington post in 1961. the first black female journalist at the paper. she's been a fellow at thet freedom forum at columbia, at the institute of politics at harvard, and she's been a fellow withnd the t george washington university school of media and public affairs. let me start with the memories
of those who were actually among the leaders of the march on washington. congressman lewis, ambassador young, and julian bond. and congressman lewis, after so much violence against you personally, and against many others in the black community, how did you come to feel that nonviolence was the way to go? >> well, as a student during the late '50s and early '60s, we were taught the way of peace, the way of love, the way of nonviolence. every tuesday night at 6:30 p.m., a small group of students from tennessee state, medical college, vanderbilt university, peabody, american baptist theological seminary, would come together, and we would study the teachings of ghandhi, what he attempted to do in south africa, what he accomplished in india.
we would study the role in civil disobedience. we'd study the great religions of the world. we had a wonderful teacher, a man by the name of jim lawson, and he infused us with the way of nonviolence. many ofith us during those ear days accepted nonviolence as a way of life, as a way of living, not simply as a technique or as a tactic. and that became the wave of the nashville movement. >> thank you, o sir. ambassador young, i think all of us who were at the march realized that we were experiencing something very special. i wonder what it was about the march that left you moved. >> in the first place, coming out of birmingham, we didn't think much of the march. we thought the movement was in the streets and we had 5,000 students take over the city. we collapsed the economy. we got an agreement from 100
business men to change the segregation laws of birmingham. and we figured the fight was over for us. this was a sunday school picnic. the students in birmingham who got out of jail wanted to do a march on washington like ghandhi's salt march to the sea. and they wanted to get on highway 11 and just start marching, taking it town by town. and it was april randolph who appealed to dr. king, and sent meyer ruston down to try to talk a little bit of sense into us. back then, we were what you called freedom high. but there was nobodyes s in birmingham who was particularly enthusiastic about the march on washington. james beville, who i think was probably the main ideologist
behind the march, who didn't come. and so it was a kind of a militant arrogance. that infected us. >> and the march itself... >> the march itself, i was worried that it wouldn't do anything. there have been a lot of, john can tell you, this there was noa lot of harmony. snicc wasn't that anxious about the march. you know, the naacp and the urban league didn't want the march for different reasons. and so it didn't look like it was gonna be fun until the people started. and when the people, i mean i was out there on the lawn at 7:00 in the morning when the buses started coming in. and when they started coming in singing freedom songs, from just about every direction, i mean it
just, you couldn't hold back the tears. you realized that this was something special. and what i think it did was it took a southern black movement and with the kind of telestar imaging and television, it made it a global phenomena. >> julian, you were all, and you were talking about snicc a moment ago, so impatient for justice. and yet your leaders, any number of them, seem to be preaching patience, appealing to white america to catch up, get the message. wonder if you yourselves felt at some point that it wasn't going to happen, that you were frustrated. >> no. i've always been an optimistic person.ca i've always believed the best thing can happen. and there are ups and downs and
so on. but i've always believed that the best can happen. but the people in our organization were suspicious of the march on washington. we thought it was a diversion from what we were doing. we were w organizers. we went into the rural south and share croppers' shacks and helped people register to vote. and we thought this kind of march would take us away from this activity. but we did it. and i had the same feeling that andy did. i got to the mall early in the morning and didn't see anybody there. but the people came and they came and came, t and the numbers grew and grew. and it became something greater than anything i had anticipated it would be. >> dorothy gilliam, in an oral history that you gave, you painted a very stark picture of civil rights america, a segregated america. you spoke of old, nasty, bigoted, racist whites, theirhi look of hatred towards you and other blacks, the culture you said was to kill a black person
if they made a misstep. i'm wondering picking up this theme that we've already heard, did you feel that the march would accomplish very much? >> i felt the march really was an important show of the determination of black america for something bitter, something, a new way, a new, a change, that had to come. and i think one of the reasons that people were so, were such a, i thought a quiet, focused crowd, you know, it wasn't a lot of noise and chatter, you know. were... >> speaking to you? >> on the speeches, on the purpose. and so i really felt that this march, especially in the chain of events of 1963, even as it
happened, was crucial and was going to lead to something important. >> if i'm not mistaken, you were a little girl living up north in relative security? >> buffalo, new york. >> what were your memories of the march on washington? what did you pick up at the dinner table? >> like dorothy, my father is a minister, and probably like her father and all black ministers, they claimed to march with king. [laughter] so he got on the bus. and he came down with the preachers. and they marched in the march, left my mom home with the kids to take care of us at home. but we were the kind of family who sat in front of the television all the time and were made to watch history as it unfolded. that's probably why i'm a journalist today. we were not alouded to go out and play if there was news happening. and in this case, we saw our expression. we were probably o toour young o fully understand what it meant. but we knew it was important and we knew that somewhere out
there, dad was there. so there had to be something don this. and to me, the interesting thing about the march is that it was 20 years in the t making. and that 50 years later, we're still assessing whether the demands that were made were met. because there were demands. it wasn't justss a picnic, its. wasn't just a rally, it wasn't just a series of speeches. there were a set of goals. and something, things that are measurable. i talked to taylor branch today about the march, and of course, a he's the historian who wrote the trilogy about the civil rights movement. he talked about how america has moved in 50-year blinks when it comes toft talking about race ad segregation and civil rights. from james... >> earlier this week, homeland security... >> abraham lincoln and the gettysburg address, to woodrow wilson, and then to the march. and when you start looking at the way we have evolved over time, it's not just the march.
it's that in 1963 and 1964, in part because the march changed the way people looked at the movement, lynden johnson was able to pass a civil rights bill within a year. and a voting rights bill the following year. and this is something, and john kennedy's heart was changed, because as john lewis mentioned to me, he wasn't feeling this at all, until the big six went into his office and told him you have to feel this, we're going to do itnd t anyway. so when you watch how quickly thingsit evolved and how slowly things changed now, it's remarkable to look back at that time and see how much changed in such a short -- and changing minds and hearts as well as laws. >> so what you're saying is the march had a profound effect on the legislation that followed within a year or two, right? >> it did. and it had a tremendous effect on people who didn't realize the scope of the problem or the issue because it didn't affect them. now, they can look at as joan
baez called it, the salt and pepper faces in the crowd and connect. >> battererthy -- but dorothy had a rather bleak vision of america and her experience. what was yours? >> our mission was we had to be better than everybody else. >> did black have to be better? >> oh, yeah. my parents were immigrants in this country, so we were people who chose to be americans. but great patriots. the idea of coming to this conferee to trans-- contree tobu transplant your family and make your life better, but the idea was you couldn't sit back and expect it. and that you had to excel in order to get maybe the same thing. and i learned many years later that sometimes it helps to be underestimated, you can take that too.ofes >> dr. wilson, at morehouse college these days, when your students think about the march on washington, are they thinking
just about king's speech or about the messagemessag of that? >> i think they think about too. but i need to tell my story too. i'm a preacher's kid. >> oh my gosh. >> and a preacher! [laughter] >> i'm a preacher's kid. so i was about five or six at the time of the march. and my father as a minister was there. and more than that, my grandmother was there. and my grandmother had ridden the shoulders of her mother to go hear marcus garvey, and then she showed up at the march on t washington. it was verych powerful. i heard a lot about it. heard those stories. and those stories are still alive and well on the campus of morehouse college. there is an investment in the peace and justice tradition at morehouse. and i stand on the shoulders of the giant, benjamin elijah mayes, who had so much to do behind the scenes with everything that we're talking about today and celebrating this
year. >> it's probably an impossible question, and forgive me, but do you see another martin luther king among your students? >> well, i sure hope so. we are certainly trying to shape the morehouse undergraduate experience to produce the martin luther king of chemistry, the martin luther king of biology, and a number of other faileds, and -- other fields, and still another martin luther king of peace and justice. >> forgive me, but i thought we had the first white president of south africa at morehouse last year. there was a kid from south africa last year who was white who totally immersed himself into everything about morehouse and martin luther king. and it was obvious that he was preparing himself to go back to africa. we also have 10 students from
zimbabwe that were sent by a zimbabwe businessman. paid all their way, a black zimbabwe businessman. he sent also 10 women to spelman, because he said he wants the next generation of leaders in his companies in africa to have an african/american experience. >> congressman lewis, on the day of the march, you had to edit your speech to sort of tone down some of its more passionate demands in order, i gather, to satisfy some of your more cautious colleagues. asr you look back upon that no, do you thinkas you made a mista? should you have kept to your original demands? >> no. the speech and julian bond can tell you much more about this because he was a j communicatios person. and he made advance copies of my speech available. but it was a strong speech.
president kennedy had proposed a civil rights bill. in my original text, i said the bill proposed by the president is too little, and it's too late. and then much further in the bill, i was reading a copy of a newspaper, and i saw a group of black women in southern africa saying one man, one vote. my march on washington speech, i said, something like, one man, one vote, it is the african cry, it must be ours. the kennedy administration took the position that if a person had a sixth grade education, he should be considered literate and should be able to vote. those of us in the student nonviolent coordinating committee took the position that the only qualification for being able to register to vote in our country, especially in the american south, should be that of age and residence.
and so many people in snicc started wearing those buttons, one man, one vote. and then much further down in the speech, i said, you tell us to wait, you tell us to bee patient. we cannot wait. we cannot be patient. we want our fraydom -- freedom and we want it now. we have prepared a speech that represented the feeling and ther attitudes of the people that we were working with, but also the young people that made up the student nonviolent coordinating committee. and at one point, i said, listen, mr. president, listen members of congress, you're trying to take the revolution out of the streets and put it in the courts. and i went on and on and on in the speech. and said we are now involved in a serious revolution. and we were just taking up something that randolph has said. and i didn't mean to drop reference to revolution. and mr. randolph says there's
nothing wrong with the word revolution, i use it myself sometimes. and then i said the party of kennedy is the party of eastland, eastland was the chair of the judiciary committee from mississippi, real segregationist. and i said the party of javis, and i said the liberal party of new york is the party of goldwater, where is our party. and i said, i want to know which side is the federal government on. and near the end of the speech, what people really didn't like... [laughter] the archbishop of the diocese of washington was supposed to give the invocation and she -- he threatened not to give the invocation if i didn't change it. it was something like, if we do not see meaning for progress here today, the day may come where we may be forced to march through thed south the way sherman did, nonviolently. he said, oh, you can't say that,
that's inflammatory. so randolph and some other people came to me, and so mr. randolph, wonderful man, and he said, john, can we change this? and dr. king came to me and said, john, that doesn't sound like you. so i couldn't say no to randolph and no to dr. martin luther king jr. these two individuals i admired and i loved them. and so we changed that. and near the end of the speech, rather than making any reference to sherman or marching through the south, i said we do not see any meaningful progress here today, we will march through virginia, through jackson, mississippi, and several otheria places really. [laughter] but julian, you remember? >> i remember all that.? and i tell you, one of the civil rights organizations that supported the march were asked
to donate staff to the march, to staff the march. and i was donating to the march on washington committee. and one of my tasks was distributing john's speech, the original speech, to members of the press, who were seated down below lincoln, still above on the steps there. and i passed out these copies of john's speech. and i pointed out to them that john would be the only speaker speaking that day who talked about black people instead of negroes or colored people, as was the fashion. id thought, and we thought, tht this demonstrated how militant we were and how different we were and better and superior we were from the other civil rights organizations. [laughter] i have tod say, none of the reporters paid any attention. >> what did you mean by militant? >> well, i meant just aggressive. i didn't mean anything harmful or violent. i've always been upset by people who say, well, they're so militant, because they equate it with violence. it's not necessarily equatable with violence, just somebody
who's in pursuit of his ideas. we thought we were more militan. than all the other groups gathered there. >> what was the magic of dr. king, congressman? >> well, martin anotherrer -- martin luther king jr., more than any other leader of our time, had the capacity and the ability to inspire, but also to get people to share the vision. and the day he spoke, he delivered a speech, he started preaching. he delivered a sermon also. it was two for one? but anyway, he got down there and he said, i have a dream today, a dream deeply rooted in american dream. he knew he was preaching. he turned those marble steps of the lincoln memorial into a modern day pull -- pulpit.
>> i have the real speech here today, and i've downloaded it here today to show off. [laughter] >> but the, in a sense, we've come to our nation's capitol to cash a check. when the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the constitution and declaration of independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every american was to fall heir. this note was a promise that all men, yes black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. it's obvious that america has defaulted on this promissory note in so far as our citizens of color are concerned. america has given the negro a bad check. a check that has come back marked insufficient funds. now, that was totally ignored by
the press. but that wasad the message of js and freedom. >> right. >> and that's still the message. >> i wonder what, just one sec, i just want to take a minute now to remind our radio and television audiences that this is the kalb report. i'm martin kalb. and we're remembering the march, the movement, and the dream with congressman john lewis, andrew young, julian bond, dorothy gillian, gwen ifill. and gwen, you wanted to say something. >> i was going to pick up on what andy young just said. what i'm always curious about, and let me just put on mysa reporter hat for a minute. over the years, when people think about the march on washington, they only think about the in have a dream speec, and that part of the speech. and you're right, he said a lot harsher things than anybody talks about. they don't know who biers ruston
is, and they don't know about the absence of women, especially on the stage, on purpose. and there was a story in the washington post this morning about how the washington post missed the i have a dream part of the speech. they were so much looking for violence, they didn't see it. so i wonder how they saw it, having been there, but then thee noticed how much the white press missed the story. >> what i wanted to do is address that issue of media coverage of the march on washington. and i remember at the time the three major networks were there. cbs covered it. we were all very proud at the time, without commercial interruption. the telestar satellite broadcast the march to europe. the washington post assigned more than 60 reporters to cover that story. so it was really big news. okay. congressman, you once said that the civil rights movement without the media would be like a bird without wings.
what did you mean by that? >> well, i really, i meant that. >> but tell us what you... >> without the media, without especially in the american south, without reporters, without the photographers, without the cameras, to bring the message into the living t rooms, into the, so people could see it, so people could feel it. >> how did you get that into your head, that that's the way they get the message out? >> we knew. andy young and julian bond would tell you that even sometimes when we had protests, we had a demonstration. we knew that we had to get it, do it at the same time to make the evening news. to be on the 6:00, 6:30, or
7:00, 10:00, or 11:00. a sit-in was so disciplined. you had these well-dressed college students sitting there, orderly, orderly, just sitting there, reading a book, writing a paper, looking straight ahead. they were well-dressed. and then you had the other element that would come up and beat us, pour hot water on us. >> the other element, the racest element. and people saw the contrast. but in birmingham, using dogs and fire hoses on young children. people couldn't take it, american people couldn't take it. and they were saying to members of congress, saying to members of the united states, you havee to do something, you must do something. and that's why president kennedy called that meeting in june of
1963. and randolph spoke up in the meeting and said, mr. president, the black marchers are restless, and we're going to march on washington. and president kennedy started moving around in his chair, he didn't like that idea. he said, mr. randolph, if you bring all these people to washington, won't there be violence and riots and disorder? and mr. randolph responded and said, this will be an orderly, peaceful, nonviolent protest. we came out, spoke to the media, and said we had a productive meeting with the president. we told him we were going to march on washington. and a few days later, to be exact, on july 2nd, 1963, the six of us met in new york city at the96 roosevelt hotel, and in that meeting, we invited four major white religious and labor leaders to join us in the issue to call for the march on washington. without the media, the movement wouldn't have succeeded.
we needed the press. and we came of age with many of the young reporters. [break in captions] worked with the national council of churches and had a program on cbs in 1957 called "look up and live." they gave me 60 seconds introduction and a 92nd conclusion and the one thing that is hard for a preacher to learn is to express something in .0 seconds i was not the press secretary, but because i had worked with looked up and live, i was always on this. if you're going to make it on the news, you have to make it short. told him that when he went to the march. look. if it's a 10 minute speech you get news coverage.
if it's an hour, nobody will touch it. it is a hard lesson to learn. i remember the telephone number of the associated press in d.c. i've forgotten it again. overy, ask me when this is and i will tell you. >> martin luther king seemed to have a special appreciation of the pervasive power of the media and am wondering how he got it. >> i really don't know, but his genius was he was able to talk to white and black southerners in the common language of the evangelical christianity and know that both of his audiences would understand what you saying, the references he was making, the things he was talking about, and he had this ability which many people do not have to talk to these different groups of people and make them
understand. the beauty on the march on washington and his speech was that he is speaking to this large number of white people who had never seen a black person an entire speech before. all of a sudden, here is this articulate man explaining why we are marching, why we are protesting, because we do not like the things that are going on. he made it so clear and so plain that you could not help but say, he is making a real argument here and i inc. he ought to be listened to. usee was making much more of the old testament and the new testament though. testament prophets, when he really got to preaching, he would talk about isaiah and jeremiah. the jewish rabbis and the jewish congregations. the whole narrative of freedom was we have been locked in the slavery of egypt and we had
wandered around in the wilderness of segregation for 40 years and we were about to enter the promised land. christianity. that was judaism. and the jewish community was bombed in the south just like we were. africa sore in south that it was an ecumenical movement in the best sense of the word. in the presence of abram henschel on the front lines and , greek orthodox archbishop freedom rights struggle and not just a black struggle. >> dorothy, you worked for the black press corps covering a number of the hottest stories in
the south. how was that different from post?g at the washington >> one major differences was the difference in resources we had a "the washington post". payables --smaller papers had unlimited resources but what they had, i worked for defender ine memphis and that allowed me to go over and be a part of a coverage of the little rock nine. the editor of the paper was beaten while he was trying to cover that story because they mistook him as a parent. he told the rookies to stay on the office but obviously when he was beaten, i went to little rock. we were the staff, you know? that was one of the major differences. the important thing about the black press is that they told
the story before the daily press got there. once i arrived at "the impressed post," very by the resources but one of the major things that was missing was enough diversity in the daily press to really help to tell the story of communities and those stories well. >> forgive me if this is a mean question. you are talking about the resources of ""the washington post"." they had had 60 reporters covering the march on washington and yet the following day, august 29, 1963, and "the washington post," no mention of martin luther king nor of this speech. you were there. i know you were not covering there. you were there as a spectator. what is your understanding?
what was that all about? and tryingstanding to piece it together afterwards, first of all, the focus within the media was on the violence. when i spoke to some of the reporters, the editors were giving battle plans of what to do in case of violence, how to look for bad guys. if any reporters got hurt, how do we get together to get the reporters out? the whole focus was on violence and there was no violence. >> it was a rather great speech. >> i'm coming to that. [laughter] if there had been a black editor among the people making the do not want to knock my old paper because i love the people who run it, but
the fact is that there were three black people on the whole staff and none of them decision- makers. i was on maternity leave and the other two men i'm sure were part of the coverage, but when newspapers make decisions and people sit around the table and talk about what the news is, what goes on page one, what goes on the inside, i think it had there been more diversity around the table where someone could have spoken the importance of that speech -- >> that remains true today, too. it's a problem. you talk about how terrible it was in 1960 three but newsrooms are not that much more diverse now especially when it comes to decision-makers. sensitivity to see the story no matter what it is as it unfolds around them. bottom line is there was a decision made there as
>> hi, everybody. this labor day weekend as we gather with family and friends, we'll also come together as a nation to honor some of our own. the working men and women of america, who across the generations built this country up and helped make us who we are today. on monday, we'll celebrate that proud history. we'll pay tribute to the values working americans embody, hard work, responsibility, sacrifice, looking out for one another. and we also need to recommit ourselves to their cause to securing for them a better bargain so that everyone who works hard in america has a works hard in america has a over the past 4-1/2 years, we fought our way back from the worst recession of our lifetimes. and thanks to the grit of the american people, we've begun to lay a foundation for stronger,
more economic growth. but as any american family will tell you, we're not where we need to be. workers have seen their wages stagnate even as corporate profits have soared. and the quality as steadily risen. the journey of upward mobility has become hard. and in too many communities across this country, the shadow of poverty has cast itself over our citizens. reversing that trend needs to be washington's highest priority. and it sure is mine. that's why i've laid out the cornerstones of what it means to be middle class, a good job that pays a good wage, a good education, a home of your own, health care when you get sick, a secure retirement even if you're not rich, and more chances for folks to earn their way into the middle class as long as they're willing to work for it. the truth is it's not going to be easy to reverse the forces that have conspired for decades against working americans, but
if we take a few bold steps and if washington is able to come together with common purpose and common resolve, we'll get there. our economy will keep getting stronger and more americans will be able to join the ranks of the middle class. so this labor day, while you're out there grilling in the backyard or taking the final trip for the summer, i hope you'll also take a moment to reflect on the many contributions of our working men and women. for generations, it was the great american middle class that made our economy the envy of the world. and as long as i'm president, i'm going to keep fighting to make sure that happens again. thanks and have a great weekend. >> hello. i'm mike fitzpatrick, proudly serving pennsylvania's 8th congressional district. it's an honor to speak with you this weekend as we celebrate the spirit and ingenuity of america's workers. we are a nation that builds things. from skyscrapers to smartphone apps, we live in a land where anyone can create, innovate, and
pursue their american dream. but as i've traveled throughout my district this summer, visitation 100 local businesses in 100 days to speak with workers and business owners, it's easy to sense that americans are frustrated. nearly 5 years into the obama presidency, the workers who drive our economy see nothing, but road blocks coming out of washington. president obama's health care law comes to mind. it's driving up premiums and forcing workers and their spouses out of plants that they like. small companies say the taxes and government mandates make it more difficult for them to hire. even doctors are warning about the law doesn't come close to addressing the real problems in our health care system. it simply isn't working as promised. and the president knows it. he's already signed seven bills repealing or defunding parts of it, and he's been busy handing out waivers and delays. republicans want to protect
everyone from this health care law, so we can focus on step by step patient-centered reforms that actually lower costs. we think it's only fair to give all americans the same delay the president is giving to big businesses. but the president threatened to veto a bipartisan bill that would do so. why? president obama's energy policies are another concern. republicans have an energy strategy that will help lower prices, boost manufacturing, and improve our national security. but the president is blocking efforts to create jobs and make energy more affordable. case in point, the keystone energy pipeline. this month marks five years since the keystone application was first filed. since then, it's passed every environmental review. labor unions want it. it's privately funded, no taxpayer dollars involved. and again, it has bipartisan support in congress. so why is the obama
administration still standing in the way of this shovel-ready project? lastly, people in my district are also worried about the size and scope of the federal government. they're worried that the threat of higher taxes and the almost endless stream of red tape are choking the engines of our economy. republicans want to get spending under control and simplify the tax code, making it flatter and fairer for everyone. as we pass several jobs bills to eliminate excessive regulations and bring common sense oversight to the regulatory process. but the president is still pushing more of the same tax hikes and stimulus style policies that have left us with weak job growth, high prices, and stagnant paychecks. again, we have to ask why? if there's one thing i've heard a lot of these last few weeks, it's that people want congress to focus on expanding opportunity instead of expanding the government. that's the goal of the
republican jobs plan. and you can see it at gop.gov back slash jobs. it's focused on breaking down the road blocks that are hurting our economy and putting americans back in the driver's seat. because we want to make sure that the workers we're celebrating this weekend can keep doing what they do best, building, creating, and preserving the american dream for future generations. thank you for listening. >> on the next washington journal, we'll talk with nick ga lesspy, edter of libertarian views. after that, we'll hear from gordon adams at american university school of international services about the latest developments in syria and the likelihood of u.s. military intervention. then a look at the history of chemical and biological weapons, including when and how they've
been used with amy smithson of the center for nonproliferation studies. all that plus your calls, e-mails, and tweets on washington journal, live at 7:00 a.m. eastern here on c-span. >> one of the most fun times i had is it looked like democrats were going to take over the house. and we went over to the vice president's residence and had breakfast with him. and i had met him before, but i didn't know. and first of all, it was unbelievable how much he knew about individual, he had been to so many of these districts over the years as one of the republican leaders of the house and this and that. but basically, he was sort of asking us how bad is this. and we were saying yeah, it's
pretty bad. but that's kind of fun when you get to do that or talk to the various caucuses of both sides, and you kind of get a glimpse of the inside and the players. >> with more than 30 years as a political analyst, charlie cook has been tracking the trends of every congressional race since 1984. see the rest of this interview tonight at 8:00 on c-span. >> i just gave a talk in san francisco to a bunch of people creating products for parents and kids. mostly stuff for young kids. and i showed them that if they went by the data, parents say they want products that will keep their kids smart and educated. kids don't play with stuff that involves learning. no parent has ever used the safety features on the programs that they buy for their kids. so if you take the data and you just act on the data, you're going to be in big trouble. because people lie, a, said, pet
know what they want until they see it. you can ask them a million questions and then you can give them an ipad. and he didn't take any, there were no focus groups and data in the building of that ipad, it was all in here. >> what will the future bring? this discussion on the digital revolution is one of our featured programs labor day on c-span, just before 12:30 eastern, mike mccurry discusses the future of presidential debates. then a histie and a look ahead at the next digital revolution. and at 3:35, from the international festival of arts and ideas, a look at race in america 2050. >> next, president obama awards the medal of honor to u.s. army staff sergeant ty carter, the afghanistan war veteran was honored for his actions in saving an injured soldier and resupplying ammunition at an
outpost in eastern afghanistan back in 2009. this ceremony from the east room of the white house is 20 minutes. ♪ >> let us pray. allmighty god whom our words may cradle, but never contain. we've acknowledged your providence and prayed your favor upon a military force dedicated to defending liberty and justice for all. and every generation, a continuous line of shed blood and shed sacrifice have borne witness to our nation's first principles of virtue, honor, and patriotism. oh god, our hearts are touched with the privilege of bestowing
a distinguished honor upon an american soldier whose actions sustained his comrades in battle. as we honor staff sergeant ty carter for his actions during the battle of can dis, remind us that this simple yet elegant award borne of courage by all that is noble and worthy, repeals the depths of the patriots' love and devotion. today, we pause to honor an american soldier. give thanks to the memory of the men who fought with him that day, even as we grieve their loss. we give thanks for the strength of this family. for those among us, oh god, increase our faith, renew our hope, that our lives can be marked by virtue, honor, and patriotism, as we ask and pray in your holy name, amen. >> good afternoon, everybody. please be seated.
welcome to the white house. actually, i should say welcome back. many of you joined us earlier this year when we presented the medal of honor to clint romashay for his actions in the very same battle that we remember today. clint could not be here. he's engaged this week in a cause that is very close to all of our hearts, and that's ending homelessness among our veterans. but we are honored to welcome back some of the men who fought that day at combat outpost keating, members of black knight troop and the gold star families of those who gave their lives that day. as these soldiers and families will tell you, they're a family, forged in battle, and loss and love. so today is something of a reunion. and we come together again with
gratitude and pride to bestow the medal of honor on a second member of this family, staff sergeant ty carter. as always, we're joined by many distinguished guests and we welcome you all. today, i want to focus on our most distinguished guests, more than 40 members of ty's family. your parents, mark, paula, and step mom barbara. your wife, shannon, who you call the c.e.o. of your family. you're a wise man, i've got the same arrangement. [laughter] your beautiful children, 14-year-old jaden, 8-year-old madison, in her new dress, and she was telling me about her new room as we walked over here. and nine-month-old sierra, for whom we will try to make this brief because we don't know how long the cheerios will last. before they came, ty said he was hoping to take his children
around washington to show them the sites and the history. but jaden, madison, if you want to know what makes our country truly great, if you want to know what a true american hero looks like, then you don't have to look too far, you just have to look at your dad. because today, he's the sight we've come to see. your dad inspires us just like all those big monuments and memorials do. for this is a historic day, the first time in nearly half a century since the vietnam war that we've been able to present the medal of honor to two survivors of the same battle. indeed, when we pay tribute to clint romashay earlier this year, we recall how he and his team provided the cover that allowed three wounded americans pinned down in a humvee to make their escape. the medal that we present today, the soldier that we honor, is the story of what happened in that humvee.
it's the story of what our troops do for each other. as some of you may recall, keating was not just one of the most remote outposts in afghanistan, it was also one of the most vulnerable, on low ground, deep in a valley, surrounded by towering mountains. when soldiers like ty arrived, they couldn't believe it. they said it was like being in a fish bowl. easy targets for enemies in the hills above. and as dawn broke that october morning, with ty and most of our ir bunks, their worst fears became a reality. 53 american soldiers were suddenly surrounded by more than 300 taliban fighters. the outpost was being slammed from every direction. machine gunfire, rocket propelled grenades, mortar, sniper fire, it was chaos. the blizzard of bullets and steel into which ty ran, not
once or twice or even a few times, but perhaps 10 times. and in doing so, he displayed the essence of true heroism. now, the urge to surpass -- not the urge to surpass all others but the urge to serve all others. he put on his kevlar vest, grabbed some ammo, and he ran into bullets raining down, to resupply his comrades out in that humvee. when they needed more, he ran back, and sprinted yet again, dodging explosions, darting between craters, back to the humvee. the ferocious fire forced them inside. and so it was that five american soldiers, including ty and specialist stephen mace, found themselves trapped in that humvee. the tires flat, rpgs pouring in, peppering them with shrapnel, threatening to break
through the armor of their vehicle. and worst of all, taliban fighters were penetrating the camp. the choice it seemed was simple. stay and die or make a run for it. so once more, ty stepped out into the barrage, and along with sergeant brad larson, he laid down fire, providing cover for the other three, including stephen, as they dashed for safety. but in those hellish moments, one man went down, and then another. and stephen disappeared into the dust and smoke. back in that humvee, ty and brad held out for hours, rolling down the window just a crack, taking a shot over and over, holding the line, preventing that outpost from being completely overrun. ty would later say we weren't going to surrender, we were going to fight until the last round. and then they saw him, their buddy, stephen, on the ground. wounded, about 30 yards away.
and when the moment was right, ty stepped out again and ran to stephen, and applying a tourniquet to his leg, grabbing a tree branch to splint his ankle, and if you're left with just one image from that day, let it be this. ty carter bending over, picking up stephen mace, cradling him in his arms, and carrying him through all those bullets and getting him back to that humvee. and then ty stepped out again. recovering a radio. finally making contact with the rest of the troop. and they came up with a plan. as clint and his team provided cover, they made their escape, delivering stephen to the medics. and the battle was still not over. so ty returned to the fight. with much of the outpost on
fire, the flames bearing down on the aid station with so many wounded inside. ty stepped out one last time, exposing himself to enemy fire. grabbed a chain saw, cut down a burning tree, saved the aid station and helped to rally his troop as they fought yard by yard. they pushed the enemy back. our soldiers retook their camp. now, ty says this award is not mine alone. he will say it was one team and one fight and everyone did what we could do to keep each other alive. and some of these men are with us again. and i have to repeat this because they're among the most highly decorated units of this entire war. 37 army commendation medals. 27 purple hearts. 18 bronze stars for their valor. nine silver stars for their gallantry.
the soldiers of cop keat, please stand. [applause] >> today, we also remember once more the eight extraordinary soldiers who gave their last full measure of devotion, some of whom spent their final moments trying to rescue ty and the others in that humvee. and we stand with their families who remind us how far the heartbreak ripples. five wives, widows, who honor their husbands. seven boys and girls who honor their dad. at least 17 parents, mothers and fathers, step moms and stepdads,
>> finally, as we honor ty's courage on the battle field, i want to recognize his courage in the other battle he has fought. ty has spoken openly with honesty and extraordinary eloquence about his struggle with post traumatic stress. the flashbacks, the nightmares, the anxiety, the heart ache that makes it sometimes almost impossible to get through a day. and he's urged us to remember another soldier from cop keating who suffered too, who eventually lost his home life back home. and who we remember today for his service in afghanistan that day, private ed faulkner jr. at first, like a lot of troops, ty resisted seeking help. but with the support of the army, the encouragement of his commanders, and most importantly, the love of shannon and the kids, ty got help.
the pain of that day, i think ty understands, and we can only imagine, may never fully go away. but ty stands before us as a loving husband, a devoted father, an exemplary soldier, who even redeployed to afghanistan. so now, he wants to help other troops in their own recovery. and it is absolutely critical for us to work with brave young men like ty to put an end to any stigma that keeps more folks from seeking help. so let me say this as clearly as i can, to any of our troops or veterans who are watching and struggling, look at this man, look at this soldier, look at this warrior, he's as tough as they come. and if he can find the courage and the strength to not only seek help, but also to speak out about it, to take care of himself and to stay strong, then so can you. so can you.
and as you summon that strength, our nation needs to keep summoning the commitment and the resources to make sure you're there when you reach out. because nobody should ever suffer alone. and no one should ever die waiting for the mental health care that they need. that's unacceptable. and all of us have to do better than we're doing. as ty knows, part of the healing is faces the sources of pain. as we prepare for the reading of the citation, i will ask you, ty, to never forget the difference that you've made on that day. because you helped turn back that attack, soldiers are alive today, like your battle buddy in that humvee who told us, i owe ty my life. because you urged, you had the urge to serve others as whatever cost, so many army families could welcome home their own sons. and because of you, stephen's mother vanessa, who joins us again today, is able to say, ty
brought stephen to safety, which in the end gave him many more hours on this earth. stephen felt as peace. and she added in the words that speak for all of us, i'm grateful to ty more than words can describe. that's something. god bless you. ty carter and the soldiers of the black knight troop, god bless all our men and women in uniform, god bless the united states of america. and with that, i would like to have the citation read. >> the president of the united states of america, authorized by act of congress, march 3rd, 1863, has awarded in the name of congress the medal of honor to specialist ty m. carter, united
states army, for conspicuous gallantry at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. specialist ty m. carter distinguished himself by act of gallantry at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a scout with bravo troop third squadron, 61st calvary, 4th brigade combat team, during combat operations against an armed enemy in afghanistan on october 3rd, 2009. on that morning, specialist carter and his comrades awakened to an attack of an estimated 300 enemy fighters, occupying the high ground on all four sides of combat outpost keating. specialist carter reinforced a forward battle position, ran twice through a 100-meter
gauntlet of enemy fire, to resupply ammunition and voluntarily remain there to defend the isolated position. armed with only an m-4 carving rifle, specialist carter placed accurate deadly fire on the enemy, beating back the assault force and preventing the position from being overrun over the course of several hours. with complete disregard for his own safety, and in spite of his own wounds, he ran through a hail of enemy rocket propelled grenade and machine gunfire to rescue a critically wounded comrade who had been pinned down in an exposed position. specialist carter rendered life extending first aid and carried the soldier to cover. on his own initiative, he again maneuvered through enemy fire to check on a fallen soldier and recover the squad's radio, which allowed them to coordinate their evacuation with fellow soldiers. specialist carter assisted in moving the wounded soldier 100
meters through withering fire to the aid station and before returning to the fight. specialist carter's heroic actions and tactical skill were critical to the defense of combat outpost keating, preventing the capture of the position and saving the lives of his fellow soldiers. his extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, bravo troop, third squadron, 4th brigade combat team, 4th infantry division, and the united states army.
grow weary. with the valor we have honored today, keep us resolute and stead fast to things that cannot be shaken. and knowing that our labor is not in vein. renew in us that love that never fails, lift up our eyes to behold to see the things that were temporal and the things that are unseen and eternal. all this we pray in your blessed and holy name, amen. >> well, thank you very much, everybody. i hope you all enjoy the reception. i want to not only thank ty, but once again thank his extraordinary family. thank his unit. and thank all of you for us being able to acknowledge the extraordinary sacrifices that our men and women in uniform make every single day.
here's a brief look. >> especially for women in the 1950s, which was an american women's labor force increase in the 1950s. american women workers not only did not go home after world war ii, but they increasingly entered the labor market across the 1950s. a decade that we so powerfully associate with women's domesticity. >> sunday at 1:00 p.m. eastern, just part of the three days of american history tv this labor day weekend on c-span 3. on this weekend's news makers, u.s. chamber of commerce president and c.e.o. tom donahue. he talks about immigration, the health care law, and the needs of american businesses among
other topics. here's a brief look. >> we're gonna have to do some expense cutting to make a deal to expand the debt. because as i said a minute ago, if we default on the debt, we're defaulting on america's position in the world. i think this speaker has got to go out and make a strong case on that he's not going to make this easy or he's going to extract other requirements to do the debt. i think in the end, this is america, we're going to stand up and do it. >> and you can see that interview in its entirety at 10:00 a.m. and again at 6:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. >> the media is clearly a dominant, increasingly dominant criteria for every first lady.
but in the end, they're the endless, biographical, the human stories, which are not limited to the 19th century or the 20th century or media or anything else. it's how these people endure and prevail. and the very rough world of politics. >> historians richard norton smith and edith mayo preview first ladies, an influence and image. featuring 20 first ladies from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. looking at their private lives and public roles on c-span, c-span radio. >> next, energy secretary ernest moniz is on obama's energy policies, which include new climate initiatives which the president laid out back in june. speaking at columbia university in new york, the secretary's
remarks are a little more than an hour. >> so today, i want to say a few words, starting out with an area in which this region, this institution, maybe all of you, can help provide some leadership. unfortunately, a leadership opportunity that partly has a genesis in the tragedy of hurricane sandy. and we'll come back to some of the specifics there. the, we obviously saw the devastation of many of the region's critical infrastructures. energy infrastructures. the effects on the energy infrastructures were amplified by the interdependencies of those infrastructures, such as electricity goes out, it turns out getting fuel was kind of tough. and frankly, that's an example of something that was not fully appreciated until the experience
occurred. so in that, in that event, which is hard to remember, it was less than a year ago, it seems a long time, what are you trying to tell me? okay, great. the president certainly started a strong response with a kind of a no red tape edict that put the full force of the federal government behind the region's response. critical was strong collaboration with the states, the governors, and other leaders. he put together a multi-agency task force working together under the leadership of the hud secretary. and i think since that time, the administration has maintained its strong commitment to
response. and what i want to come back to in the end is that response certainly has a strong focus in terms of helping individual citizens rebuild their homes, their lives, et cetera, but something that we'll again come back to, a very important component, is that we have to help this rebuilding in a smart way, in a way that prepares the energy infrastructures not for the last storm, but for the next storm, for the next possible major disruptions. and i think that's where there's a real chance for leadership here in the northeast corridor as one starts that rebuilding from sandy's impacts. of course, these events, this extreme weather events obviously aren't unique to this part of the country, whether it's hurricanes in the gulf, in the southeast, knocked out power for
5 million people, mid-atlantic, just recent cases in point. and in fact, in the last 10 years, we've been hit by nine of the 10 most expensive hurricanes in our history, costing well north of $300 billion. so this idea of responding to increased resilience i think is critical. since these recent events unfortunately are likely harbingers of things to come, scenes that will likely be repeated as carbon emissions from human activity threaten to alter the global climate, consistent with the long-standing expectations of the climate science community. clearly, one we understand that we cannot label a specific event to warming, but statistically, we also know that the pattern is unmistakably along the lines of those anticipated for quite
sometime. so today, i'm going to talk about the president's climate action plan, what we're doing to prepare for a changing climate, how we are working to try to mitigate its effects, and then after talking a little bit about that, i'll return to this issue of the infrastructure and the resilience that we need in building for a low carbon future, but nevertheless a low carbon future in which we have to expect we will be suffering some of the consequences of climate change. my first day as secretary, i was quoted as saying, and i must say, the quote was accurate, i'm not here to debate what's not debatable. the evidence is overwhelming, the science is clear, certainly clear for the level that one needs for policy making in terms of the real and urgent threat of
climate change. the science community is inherently conservative in its statements about near consensus positions and it's instinctively opening to questioning grounded and dated analysis. and of course, that's appropriate. but still, the overwhelming conclusion certainly for the policy world is that prudence demands strong common sense near term policy actions to minimize the risk of global warming. and that's what the president's climate action plan does in the absence of legislative remedies. last week, the, as we know, the draft findings of the most recent analysis by the un's ipcc, whether it was officially released or not, talked about, again, major issues coming up, including issues like three feet of sea level rise in this century, and a 95% probability that human activity is a
principal driver of these issues. so again, the empirical evidence is clearly continues to mount. rising temperatures, fires, droughts, storms posing serious threats to our communities, but also to our energy infrastructure. with a case in point being the recent california declaration of a state of emergency for san francisco as forest fires over 100 miles away threatened the power lines that provided power to that city. so as most of you know, 84% of carbon emissions are energy related. in july, there was a report detailing these impacts. and here is just a short list of the threats of climate to our energy infrastructure.
mexico produces half of the u.s. crude and natural gas, contains nearly half of the total u.s. refining capacity. rising sea levels, storm surges, could cost these industries as much as $8 billion per year by 2030 in the projections. power generation units are at risk of partial or full shut downs. less water and higher temperatures. last summer, a nuclear plant in illinois had to get special permission to continue operating after the temperature of the water in its cooling pond rose to 102°. unconventional oil and gas production, increasingly vulnerable to decreasing water availability at the same time the u.s. is relying more and more heavily on these energy sources. and renewable energy is not exempt. hydro power, bioenergy, concentrating solar power, all share similar vulnerabilities to water availability. operates less efficiently when temperatures are higher.
fuel transport by rail and barge, growing modes for moving unconventional energy, susceptible to interruption from storms and floods. and as we've seen here along the gulf of mexico, those located along the coast are vulnerable to sea level rises, storm surges, and flooding. so in an effort to adapt to these and other climate related impacts, on june 25th, president obama laid out a broad plan to cut carbon emissions, increase the production of energy and double down on energy efficiency. the president's action plan utilizes the resources of its executive branch in meeting this the president expressed a continuing desire to work with congress on legislative solutions but in the meantime, we will focus on doing all that we can with current
administrative authorities. i'm not going to go into detail in terms of all the specifics of the plan but note that doe does play a lead role in a number of the actions called for and as a member of the interagency team and others. and let me talk about a few of these. one is the need to improve and enhance opportunities for energy efficiency, which to my way of thinking is an absolutely essential element for any credible response to climate change risk mitigation, to the kinds of lowering of carbon emissions that we will need, not just in this decade, but in the decades ahead. in fact, the first official event that i attended after being confirmed as energy secretary about two hours after i was sworn in was an alliance to save energy meeting. i did so to underscore my commitment to energy efficiency as a way to achieve two critical objectives, a critical avenue for near term reductions and carbon emissions with compounded
benefits over time. and a way to significantly reduce the energy bills of american consumers and businesses. this commitment included working with omb to expedite agency review of a range of new appliance efficiency rules that were in many cases long overdue. this more activist dialogue between doe and omb has produced a final rule for standby efficiency of microwave ovens, and two weeks ago, proposed a rule for land fixtures. the microwave oven rule was the first to employ the updated social cost of carbon analysis developed by an interagency task force, estimating kind of a central value of $36 per ton of co-2, well within the spectrum of other analysis, perhaps even on the low end. we have published a schedule to put out more rules. and i think this is kind of a
new way of approaching between doe and omb, and we're on track. we said we'd have two more rules issued this month, august, and we're pretty much on track for commercial walk-in coolers and freezers and for commercial refrigeration. we also committed to a very important proposed rule for electric motors this november. and we intend to finalize all four of these rules by may of 2014, even as we continue to work through a now defined schedule for many, many more efficiency rules. now, the efficiency savings from any individual rule may sound small given the magnitude of the climate problem. typically, it may be a few billion dollars in tens of megatons of carbon dioxide over 30 years but the cumulative impact is considerable, which is exactly why we need to stay on this course of putting through
these technology grounded efficiency rules for a whole range of appliances and the like. in fact, on an analogous point, i would raise a 2001 report from the national academy of sciences that examined doe's fossil and energy efficiency portfolios in their first 20 years. and it concluded that the 22 programs they analyzed, which cost about $13 billion total between 1978 and 2001, yielded economic benefits of about $40 billion. so a substantial return on investment. but i think an interesting part of the story is the study attributed 3/4ths of the benefits, $30 billion, to three efficiency programs that cost $ 11 million. so even relatively small efficiency programs can in fact yield huge results, both in economic benefits and reductions in carbon emissions.
so again, we are going to be very, very strongly focused on advancing this energy efficiency agenda in multiple domains and certainly with our responsibility for rule making, i will assure you that we will maintain strong pressure in this direction. another we provision of the president's climate plan directs epa to issue rules for cutting carbon emissions for both new and existing power plants. power sector, the single largest source of co-2 emissions in the united states, and as such, this action has been applauded by many as the most significant step the president can take to reduce carbon emissions absent legislative action. it's also this directive has also been derided by some as an action that is tantamount to a war on coal. the former is certainly true. that it is the most significant step the president can take. right now, with executive
action. but the charges of war on coal, i argue, demonstrate misunderstanding or misstatement of what is being called the all of the above approach to u.s. energy policy. the reason is that in the view of the administration, the way we are approaching this is we must reduce co-2 emissions. the president has a target, a near term target of 17% reduction from 2005 by 2020, and we're about halfway there. but the idea is that all of the above means we will invest in the technology, research, development, and demonstration, so that all of our energy sources can be enabled as marketplace competitors in a low carbon energy world. that's what we mean by all of the above. it doesn't start by taking co-2
emissions off the table, it starts with co-2 reductions on the table and kind of a boundary condition if you like for going forward. but then, if you look at what are we doing about it in terms of the fossil and energy sources, and then there was a solicitation for up to $8 billion in loan guarantees for fossil energy projects that would reduce greenhouse gas emissions. there could be a whole bunch of them. one of my, going back to my technology days, one of my favorites, for example, something like chemical looping. this is a new technology for utilizing coal in a way that, if successful, will dramatically
reduce carbon capture costs. that's just one example. we have advanced power, very, very flexible, but saying come forward with good ideas to stretch the technology in fossil-based, with fossil-based sources, reducing co-2 emissions. of course, the big one for coal in a low carbon world has to be carbon capture and see sequestration, possibly with use of the co-2, and once again, to be blunt, there was a lot of talking of the talk for many, many years. balls the -- because the reality is to demonstration at large scale, which will be needed for large scale sequestration and deep aquifers, for example, these are not inexpensive projects. they are big projects. so this administration is walking the talk.
$6 billion in this administration put on the table for demonstrating these technologies of scale. so this is what we mean. we're committed to the low carbon world, but we advance the technology development for all of our sources to be competitive. obviously, renewables, which by definition is low carbon, nuclear power as well. i could discuss those later on. but you wanted to take head-on this issue that this is not a war on coal, quite the contrary. it is preparing the way for coal to have potentially a place in the low carbon world that we believe is essential as we go forward. now, i'll take another one on that's been popular. loan guarantee program.
and obviously, no one likes a project to fail and to come on the taxpayers' tab. but since becoming secretary three months ago, i have had the opportunity to do an extensive review of the loan program. and what i have found is that this program first is supporting a large and diverse $34.4 billion portfolio of more than 30 projects, putting one of the world's largest wind farms, several of the largest thermal generation and energy storage systems, first nuclear power plant in three decades, and more than a dozen new or retooled auto manufacturing plants across the country. and i might mention here being in new york, that there are strong new york roots for this program. richard kaufman played a key role in advising on this loan program in our relatively new
director peter davidson is also coming from new york. let me give you an example of the program working the way it's supposed to. 2009, 100 megawatts plant in this country were nonexistence. and commercial financing, particularly debt financing, was simply unavailable. so using recovery act funds, the department financed the first six utility scale pv projects in the united states. since those investments were made, 10 new utility projects were funded by the private investor community, precisely the outcome the president envisioned for this program. so it just had to get a kick start and it's going. another great example, tesla motors, you've probably been reading about.
in 2009, it was generatedded, and it was viewed as very risky, and that was the low point of the american auto industry. it was the same month gm declared bankruptcy. it was the lowest number of jobs in the auto industry we had in a long, long time. it was risky. but the portfolio was supposed to take some risks and push it ahead. now, of course, as we all know, tesla is certainly looking today like a great success. they repaid our loan nine years earlier, earlier than due. they provided a prepayment premium for the taxpayer. they have been called by consumer reports the best car they've tested. not the best electric vehicle they've tested. the best car they've tested. it's a little bit pricey for some of the people in this room. but it's a business model that is introducing this new
place. innovation hubs. so we are also innovating in how we stimulate innovation and i think that these are extremely promising programs. we've seen renewable -- renewable energy generation from wind and solar double and we've seen what's very important, the point i want to make is really critical reductions in the price of several new energy technologies and i'm going to take a moment just to look at those in a bit more detail. is this -- i can't see the slides. there we go. okay. so that's for wind. so what you're going to see are four slides, four different areas for technologies showing costs over time, the blue bars, and green, the deployment. and the basic message in all
cases is going to be dramatic cost reduction, dramatic deployment, deployment increases. this is -- this is wind. just since 2008, wind capacity has nearly tripled and was the fastest-growing source of electricity -- of capacity last year, 44% of new generating capacity in 2012 was wind. and as you can see, again, going back some time, dramatic reductions to where one is talking about levellized costs of about six cents per kilowatt hour. photovoltaics, p.v. modules. again, dramatic reduction. this is only since -- since 2008, deployment has increased by a factor of 10 and p.v. modules -- so they cost about 1% of what they did 35 years ago. but more important -- and we can argue whether this is a true cost or this