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tv   Aspen Security Forum--bin Laden  CSPAN  September 2, 2013 10:00am-11:01am EDT

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terms of training and upgrading of workers and rebuilding the american middle class. we support him 100 percent. host: what said, what should he advocate? guest: we want him to stand with the fast food and wal-mart workers trying to form a union. we want him to advocate for tax policy and education policy that will help revitalize the american middle class. we think that the president is framing the right debate by saying we need to grow this economy from the middle out and we expect the secretary of labor will help shine a light on the thing that your callers have said this morning. host: mary kay henry the president of the service employees international union, thank you. coming up tomorrow, we'll continue our look at what's going on with syria with steve clemons. we'll look at what he expects what's happening
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internationally. we'll be joined by john hoff meister and at 9:15, the american made movie, a documentary looking done by nathaniel mcgill. you can find that on tuesday "washington journal" which will start at 7:00. see you then. ....
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how you believe your members should vote. looking at some of your facebook responses, it cheryl maddux says they should vote no and going in there. this has been mishandled from the beginning.
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innocent lives will be lost. a says they will vote for limited strike if there are no consequences. what about charging syria with international war crime atrocities? the murder of men, women, and children should be addressed but i do not know what the response should be. we would like to know what you think. share your comments at facebook, .com/cspan. kids they win by the data did not play with stuff. parents said they want to keep their kids safe. no parents have used the safety features on the programs they buy for their kids.
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if you just act on the data you were going to be in big trouble. people live. do note jobs say, people know what they want until they see it. you can as in a million questions and then you can give them and i've had. -- an ipad. there were no focus groups in the building of the ipad. >> this discussion on the digital revolution is one of our future programs today on c- span. will discuss the future presidential debates. then at 1:30, and look ahead at the next digital revolution. a look at race in america in 2050. the media is clearly an increasingly dominant criteria
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for every first lady. human stories. they are not limited to the 19th century. endurehow these people and/o in the very rough world of politics. >> richard gordon smith preview season two of "first ladies, influence and image." looking at their private lives and public role. tonight at 9:00 eastern on c- span, c-span radio and c- >> up next, a look at the pursuit and capture of osama bin laden with peter bergen. he turned the book into a
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.ocumentary for hbo this is just under one hour. >> hi, everybody. this time you do not have former government officials here. you will find we have two very well informed tests. the two men behind manhunt. he might see this tonight. "manhunt: the search for osama " is the film title. today it was nominated for two primetime emmys for best documentary and for best cinematography. congratulations to the two gentlemen with me who are here today. you probably know peter bergen. you have seen him a lot. . best-selling author
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he set up the first television interview with osama bin laden back in 1997. "the holyinclude " war." mr. barker lived in england for 18 years. he lives in los angeles now. making films for the pbs series "front line." the new york times loved your contest in egypt here it you learned a lot about the culture. debut on hbo.s that is what we are discussing. this is just over 1.5 hours. i think it is terrific in large tot because their ability
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get people to talk. let's start with an example of that. four excerpts. one. watch excerpt number ♪ patience and and we are not always looking for the payoff immediately. trying to keep track of all the threads and which ones are real
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and which ones are not real, you know, people say why did you connect the dots? .ecause the whole page is black >> to pull a story out of all this information but there is no single intelligence looking at all this information, it is a lot of different brains looking. the more you can bring people together and share what is important, the better it works. at the time the people who had deep expertise and al qaeda they were women. at first it not make them very popular with their managers. in awas counseled once performance review that i was
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spending too much time working on bin laden. they said we were obsessed crusaders, it using all the women stereotypes. cry.hrow chairs, women which one is better? you a sense of the tone of the film. one of the women use all recently said that women are better analysts in counterterrorism because they understand relationships and terrorism is about relationships. the way it operates and is formed. if they better at perceiving patterns. well. how did you get the women to speak to you? ,ven after they were identified how did you persuade them to talk? >> it is great to be here.
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was a long process notches for the women but for everybody in the film. that shine a films light on how our government actually operates. of subjectlot matter might be classified, human emotions are not. i made a point of talking to some people in this room and people in the clip. spending a lot of time with them and building trust saying i want to tell your story. in a full as way as possible. if we need to set certain for amateurs we can talk about it. that is fine. , we can talk about it. that is fine. peter was a traffic help in that. you'd are made introductions. twoo on camera they have trust me. when she walk away with the footage i can do whatever i want
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with it. >> let's bring you in on this. when you develop a source for what we do, which is getting people to talk about delicate work, you have to get than the sense that you are on their side. is that part of it? was able toreg correctly say that he was going to let people have that say. one of the interesting things is there is no narration. there's no one telling you what to think. one of the messages of the film shows you're not thrown to think it is 9/11 was not an intelligence failure. it was a policy failure. providedould not have more strong warnings. it is almost a case of perfect strategic warning. think of the august 6 daily brief.
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graphicnot get anymore than that. illustrated in the film by john mclachlan who is probably in the room, putting up the pieces of papers and you could see where they were. as providingil strategic warnings. they are not able to save time and place. the women in the film and other people at the cia felt very strongly that this story had not really been told very well. that is one of the reasons they spoke. >> a lot of people in this room to get asked by folks like us will you give an interview, whether it is for print or a book. >> my advice is don't do it. [laughter] >> you think what is in it for you. you illustrated one thing, the ld well.d not been towe
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have either of you come across someone who wanted to talk? ?because they were disgruntled >> as an example of someone in the film who wanted to talk to they cia, were not disgruntled. five. the mother of she was the first person in the u.s. government to write in 1993 a warning about a guy called osama bin laden who is going to be a problem. she wanted to talk. she is a public figure. she's not undercover. the agency would not let her speak. thehe end of the day, american public has been trillions of dollars on this since 9/11. osama bin laden is
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a huge success story. why not talk about it? >> it was interesting. .e began shortly after i got the rights to peter's book. it was a wall before we started filming. i the time we are starting to film, all the controversy over the zero dark 30 was breaking. the door started closing quite white house, at the cia in particular. can talk whate we want but the documentary is where we really wanted to just let people tell their story. that is where he faced a lot of roadblocks because of the cooperation with the movie. andn both intelligent work in intelligence related journalism, we are in a post-
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snowden era. what do you predict will be the effect of snowden's lee when we ask for interviews and information? >> i do not think it will be a problem. in some cases it might be. people ultimately always want to tell their story. i have a much longer lead time with a documentary. 1.5 years or sometimes longer. a golden age for documentary filmmaking right now the decline in covers of some of the more mainstream media. done as much as it used to be. it is a great time to be making these films. there is a desire to get the story out in a way that we can tell it through first-hand accounts.
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in the short term, with some people it will have a chilling effect. >> i think snowden is just one example. if you look at what the four years in the zero dark 30 , it was an investigation of the pentagon, it might vicker's-- mike conversation, they are all out there publicly. in this sitting position or anywhere else and i felt like if i am going to talk to a journalist or a book writer is afilmmaker and there chance it will become public, do the math. i think snowden is just one element. leak investigations, all
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these things have a chilling effect. >> let's have another expert from the film. it takes of how do you get information after you found someone who was detained. where do you take them? enhanced interrogation techniques. let's watch excerpt number two. [video clip] >> we were empowered more. we did things more aggressive. my job is to kill al qaeda. get with us or get out of our way. we had been focusing on capturing. he knew who the leadership was. thatw method of attack
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targets. he was the highest we have ever captured. we captured him in march. he was severely wounded. we knew we had to get him out of pakistan. the way they had dealt with issues like this was to transfer the terrorist to a investigation. we needed to take responsibility for high-level terrorists ourselves. we understood what we had to do. we did it. we took a lot of bad guys off the streets. they got put up and now it is public knowledge in a nice locations.ique
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[end video clip] was a cia field officer. he introduces the word ," the ones out there in the field. you took up the controversy. what do you think you were able to add in the film that was new in the debate about waterboarding? >> i try to place the audience in the mindset of the people who were making the decisions at the time. to hope that the general public would ask themselves what they would have done. when i have these long discussions with people in the
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film about being in the film, i never want talked about what i thought about this. i think that is one reason they decided to be a part of it. one man from the fbi has a substantial role in this section as well. for believing that water boarding does not work. many point to this as an example of how it can work. just breaktrying to new ground per se. i'm trying to add contacts. how decisions are actually made as told by the people who were there at the time. it is what gives a film like this its value. >> your book and film are about searching for bin laden. the type of interrogation that took place, a to finding bin laden? >> there is a 6000 page answer
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to that that is still classified. any public discussion of this matter is made difficult by the fact that we do not really have the factws. in the course of my book i found wiki leaks to be very useful. keysummary of the guantanamo detainees were in the wiki leaks dump. you can piece together what these people were saying and to some degree when they were saying it. what you cannot find in there is a very specific analysis of what this information was given up to four or after interrogations. there is no doubt. there is no doubt that played a role. we will never know if they could have been solicited another way. it is part of our history. on the question of did it lead to bin laden?
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for a somewhat skeptical couple of reasons. a lot of things led to bin laden. there was no detainee who said he is living here. that was one of the reasons of their. there were fragments of information that came from a lot of people. one person was interrogated. he was the real 20th hijacker. hijacker. he went to bora bora. he fled to pakistan and then he went to guantanamo. and guantanamo he said he was in fact to stand because of his interest in falconry. after a few month they realize he was the same guy. then he was subjected to a pretty severe regime that susan crawford said amounted to torture. he was kept up for 43 days. he was subjected to hot and cold
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of white noise and lots christina aguilera music at loud volumes and he was discomforted. [laughter] it seems he is the first person who identified the current year as being someone who was important and al qaeda from what we can gather. i think there is a public interest in having a 6000 page report that the intelligence committee has done. there is a 300 page summary that is out there. the cia is trying to compose a response to it. i think it is in the public interest for us to know to what is whether these methods are ethical, were they efficacious.
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it also takes is in great detail into the successful search for owls are carly -- the leader of al qaeda in iraq. the woman we met early we see her there. a jordanian doctor pulled the americans. let the expert number three. [video clip] pakistands his way to and disappears. somebody expected him of being an informant most likely. nobody knew anything for three months.
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sediment his back on the radar screen. he is saying -- suddenly he is back on the radar screen. beginning to trade the number two member of al qaeda. the place goes crazy. even the white house gets briefed. he is going to take his right one.mber two or number the meeting has to take place in a place where the cia can completely control the environment and becomes the cia basic coast. they come up with a plan to get inside here without being detected. the problem is that nobody in the cia had ever met with him.
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they made arrangements for him to come into the base without being checked because they were afraid someone might recognize him and his identity compromise. >> [indiscernible] [end video clip] >> that story was told by the triple agents about that. he is a well-known newspaper men. was this just a case where you could not get an official told the story? >> yes. othersn the sequence
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will speak about it. , it we talked about for cannot get access to some of the people who were around right the final years or so. nobody in our film was directly khosted with the operation. those i wanted to talk to. >> some of the people including the women had speak about jennifer matthews. we just saw a still of her. she was killed in that blast. she played a very integral ale in the fight against qaeda. >> the reason we focus on coaskt is when i started this so may people told me you cannot underestimate the impact of
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khost psychologically on the cia. >> the setback tummy tuck. >> it became personal. they lost some of their own. there is an indication to seek justice. >> does that work in your narrative too? every story needs a good story arc in the cia is closing in on bin laden and they got beheaded out qaeda and then this major setback. it is a strong part of the real story. >> absolutely. sne of the female cia analyst she'she great irony is i been 15 years of her life trying to find bin laden and bin laden killed her. this is a woman with three kids and with a very rising career at the agency. the portrait of her in zero dark 30 is extremely misleading. she's me to be an idiot he is
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stuck in the cold war. it was an unfair but trail. in this sump she's given her due. the stakes were certainly made. this is a more accurate treatment. >> we're about to turn to you for questions. another man who is here, general michael hayden, is in the film as well about khost. he portrays it in a war you're are going to have casualties and losses. it is the sad truth that some on our side would die not only on 9/11 or on the obvious battlefields. he raisesl on anyone their hand. we you will probably get a microphone brought to you. if you do not have questions i will continue. i want to ask you then, in the 16 months from khost to abbottabad, you have about 60
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seconds. what is the key there? what really moves ahead that takes us to that one place in pakistan? >> there are a lot of keys along the way. let me try to lay it out briefly. they have an alias. the there were several million. he was the career working for bin laden. sometime in 2007 we get the real name. sayed is a john smith name. not a kuwaiti. he is a pakistani. that is twice the size of california. it is something that it is not great. , this guy makes a phone
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call to someone in the gulf tummy tuck. the content lead the agency to believe that this guy is still in al qaeda. several is about million people. he is back to sing careful -- practicing careful security. he takes the battery out. there's no way to track him. they have to put people into the city and eventually track and back 2.5 hours away to the city of abbottabad. what surprised them was the mysterious third family he was living in the compound. they began to think it might be osama bin laden. in august of 2010, they go to president obama and say we seem to have a good potential lead on osama bin laden. khost has just happened. december 30, late december 2009. there was no great excitement in
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the oval office. leadast really good lead to some cia officers dying. clearly this was a good lead. whole agatha the christie story about how that lead, how they try to get a sense of how to make the lead rather. .here was a debate at the end of the day when you under percention there are 100% not there. s were saying 40% or 80%. it is an interesting case of presidential decision-making. the stakes were lower. if you think about president kennedy's decision in the cuban missile crisis, he made an extremely mature decision in a difficult circumstance. you can say the same thing about president obama. it is easy in retrospect to say
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this is the decision because you know the outcome. there were civilian casualties. .hey plan for every eventuality there the reasons why were an precise in the immediate aftermath. they have not told ripper paired for themselves there for success. -- they have not really repair themselves for success. it is a classic case of presidential decision-making. securityrget that his advisers were on either side of the issue. >> in your book, do you dwell on that and take of the decision- making issue? we all know the outcome. i was hoping to do that.
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it was my intention initially to do that. at is hard to put drama in the because we all know what happens. it did not work. it is funny. you you make these films, have to follow your access and course of the movie. the film is exhausteive. we do not have all the information on this. there are a lot of big gaps.
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>> anymore questions otherwise we will go on. abbottabad, how is it handled in the film question mark with what excerpt number four. [video clip] >> the hunt from the carrier to bin laden makes complete sense
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to me. it was based on all of the years of experience in a tightknit group of people who really cared about this and supported each other. the technique that works. it is the technique that got bin laden in the and. >> i got a call from a former colleague. he said turn on the news. i was at home. turn on the news, the president is going to make an announcement. i had a feeling that it had been a good day at the office. >> good evening. .> finally, it is him they got him. they got him finally. that was really something.
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[end video clip] >> isn't that terrific? all of you know where you were. we see a lot of the old, everybody we met in the movie, saying where they were when they got the news and how they reacted. but me come to you on this. that little bit of video we saw on osama bin laden like an old man in it like it watching wheel of fortune or something, whic -- >> he's watching one of his own videos. >> wow. what was the decision to release very little abbottabad of what they found in the -- what they found in the abbottabad home. >> that is the answer. i would have loved to see more. the documents are fascinating. the him not read them, i
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encourage people to do the so. i'm sure there's other footage that has not been released. >> you got to go there before the house was leveled by pakistani authorities. it was controlled by pakistani intelligence. you went there first. you must have expected hitler's bunker. >>-working on osama bin laden for the first time. i was the only outside worker to get inside the compound. they must have known they were going to demolish it. i did not know that. i thought it might be like visiting hitler's bunker after world war two. he was surrounded by his three kids -- three wives and a dozen kids. he was certainly not living large. there is no air conditioning. there's very little heating.
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people were were sleeping on beds that were basically bit of cardboard put together. they were growing their own festivals and raising their own andkens and cows vegetables. it was very self-sufficient. they did not have to go out very much. for the world's most wanted man, it was not a bad life. .e was there 5.5 years he was surprised. he thought he was safe. there has been a 300 page report by the commission. there's more detail about what he was doing that night. he told his family that as soon as he heard the helicopter crash that they have arrived. he understood what was happening. there was no moon that night. there's no electricity in the building or the neighborhood. uphe did not try to set defensive action. >> he had no plan b. when people look at the compound they were worried there
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would be tunneled out. the water table was very high. would there be a safe room? they had a sense of what it looked like from the outside but not in sight. was able to retrace the steps of the seal that night. it was interesting to see the physical evidence of what happens. there was a huge metal door almost the size of to the season -- ceiling here that separates the second and third for where he lived. seals blew through that door. on the thirdliving floor. there was another big metal door that had not been blown through because bin laden poked his head out and enclose it kind him. then you go into the room where he died that was relatively small and i could see that somebody has shot in such a way that there was a big blood spots are on the ceiling.
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there are different narratives about what happened but a lot of commonality. annan had 15 minutes to surrender. he didn't. he had two weapons but he did not pick them up. the wife try to intervene. the seals mood teresi. this is the consensus version. there is a dispute about who killed him and at what point. that is probably too arcane to get in here. i do not think we are going to have a particularly good answer to that. --was a diffusing the confusing situation to the seals. it is a firefight. there was a lot of internal pumping. differ.accounts can there's more commonality than differences. >> have you concluded whether it was just a killed mission? is there some circumstance in which they would have taken them captive? >> yes. if someone surrenders it is a
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work crime to kill them. >> hands up? >> he did not surrender conspicuously. when the helicopter crashes in your house it is a loud event. surrender yetto 50 minutes to do so. he did not. -- 15 minutes to do so. he did not. want tond he did not end up in guantanamo. he chose to die essentially. >> your big decision as a filmmaker, not to attempt what we call a tick tock of how that raid went down. did you think of having that and decided not to? >> of course i did. when we began i thought that is the obvious piece at the end. >> there have been a tv documentary last year. maybe he thought it was already
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covered. >> i would only do it if i could do it better. when i make these films, i used to make "frontline." those are investigated friends. they would have that. they would have the question if he would have surrendered or not. this is the movie. i made a decision a few years ago to make documentaries that appeal to the widest possible audience. that means at the end of the movie you have to have a strong ending. if i did not have the great stuff that needed needed to really advance the story somehow and make people feel like you're watching something they have never seen before, i was not going to do it. khost material became so good. the only -- the other thing that was so interesting is the point of view he came that of the became that of the
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people who have been hunting bin laden going way back to the mid-90s. a lot of them were not involved in the final -- >> he wanted to get their reaction. >> none of them were high- fiving or cheering at the end. they all had this melancholy reaction. that is why there is a cello going underneath the final graphics. it is intentional. it creates the sense that this was a long, very difficult, very painful chapter in our countries history but also in the lives of the characters we come to know. that is how it played. eventually it worked. we were able to do it rather elegantly without having to do a tick tock of the rage. >> it was elegant. there someone with a question. thank you.
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hi. did youreporting, uncover any new information or speculation about the 15 minutes? people trying to defend him? there seems to be a whole -- hole. >> he thought what protected him was the position of pakistan where he was. .> 15 minutes he doesn't do anything? >> it is impossible to do anything now. it is not clear. he must have been confused. it must've been surprising. you cannot see anything. your opposition can see somewhat with the night vision goggles. one antidote i thought was interesting is he told, and i confirmed, the last words we know he spoke was "don't turn on
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the light" which he told his wife. she did not know the electricity was down. that this wasnt not a visit from the local police man. >> a gentle man not far from there. >> wednesday the wise will speak. -- one day the wise will speak -- wives will speak. >> the cia tried to speak with them. there are very few things the pakistanis and americans agree on. the hostility of bin laden's wives is one of them. did youestion is request access to the helmet cam video? like my understand is that there was no helmet cam. for the resize reason that people like you would be asking
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for footage forever. this is what i was told. there was no helmet. >> there's one interesting thing. we are in a new era of warfare. it was revealed. the bin laden rate is a tactical operation at the end of the day. the president was watching in real time. it is the first time in our history or that is the case. there was a stealth drone. sitting in the situation room you could see this thing unfolds in real time. admiral mullen that i interviewed for the book was very concerned that somebody, if things started going wrong, that somebody in the situation room was start to intervene on a tactical operation on the other side of the world. that did not happen. .ou could easily imagine we have the capacity for the
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commander-in-chief to watch a testicle operation unfold on the other side of the world. it is something we have never seen. >> a different level of that is the unmanned, pilotless vehicles, the robots we are going to have. we may be defined in on the real-time cameras. -- depended on the real-time cameras. >> thank you. if i read a report correctly that surprised me was that mohammed was very much involved with the family of the courier. >> the pakistani reporter? >> yes. if that is true it is interesting. here is a guy he was interrogated perhaps more than
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anybody else that was at guantanamo. what do you make of that? ofthere is a mention i think them being in touch with people from captivity? >> my understanding was that was the red line despite all the interrogation techniques. ksm made it clear you would never speak about the shake -- he would never speak about that. >> just a few minutes left. we will move a bit more rapidly. i will get you for sure. promise. high impact when it is a later question. chad sweet. former cia. nice was thet was operation to get affirmation of who was in the compound. what is hard to understand is
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why he was not excellent rated once the operation went down? phil traded with the operation went down? >> i think it was brilliant on two ways. it is ethically dubious for them to be pirateing doctors. >> we're talking about the doctor who helped set up up the rage. >> he had no idea he was involved with the bin laden operation. he had no way to know. he thought he was being recruited to people in a particular neighborhood and he is working for the cia. they never succeeded in getting dna from the bin laden compound. that herote last week is still in prison and pakistan. >> he is not a hero. is still in the united states prison. it does not matter if friendly countries are spiking. if they are still spies.
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the pakistanis had every right who wasup someone spying for someone else. the reason i think it is ethically dubious to put it mildly is in pakistan people are being routinely assassinated because of the view that they work for the cia. this is a common urban legend. we added to this. it is true. the cia is employed people to do best in nation programs. before it was an urban myth. it was a creative idea. you can applaud that. at the end of the day, the cia of george the idea of using of cover.s there are certain categories saying they would not use. i think one of them should be people engaged in medical activity. >> a lot if you are in the intelligence field. it is perfectly understandable wants toone in the cia
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be good to this doctor and get him out, someone to the ways demand that pollard be released -- similar to the ways people demand that pollard be released. >> i am interested in national security. a common question. , thenvisible war documentary on military sexual trauma. now your phone. the invisible war has achieved unprecedented policy changes that are being debated on the hill for legislative changes. with respect to your work am the sisterhood and bring out the stories of these courageous have anylysts, do you policy aspirations with respect to your work?
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is telling their story enough? >> it depends entirely on the phone. really he just got into that whatct not knowing at all was the tip of the iceberg. it has taken over his life. the film that she will make has an account of this but will portray him as a hero. predict that. >> i do not want to say that. i think it will give this perspective in perspective. >> we will decide. >> figure it out for yourself. gomade a film called " several ones -- ghosts of
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rwanda" of those in the white house or the un when the genocide happened and why they did nothing to stop the killing. it was impossible not to feel like i was on a mission making that film. the reason people were talking to me were to try to prevent similar officials from making the steak they may. they cannot believe what people have been through. they're not going to let happen on their watch. with manhunt it was different. i spend most of my life living overseas. based in london for on most 20 years. coming back to the states a few i wasago i fell like
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stunned by the devices. also a sense that the night of the raid everyone was cheering and then it went away. i knew enough. i have been around the world enough to know there was a dark, painful history that ultimately led to abbottabad. i knew we can learn from the people who were part of that history tummy tuck. -- part of that history. he said did you know there were a lot of women? i have been tracking bin laden sent 95. i did not. that was something i wanted to put trey. that is a human story. >> only have about two minutes up. you are one of the best known analysts. where do we stand?
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bin laden has been killed. is al qaeda finished? are they more than just the bin laden core? >> i think al qaeda is going the way of the dhs tape. any have not conducted attack on the united states since 9/11 or in the west since 2005. all most all their top leaders are dead. we are not playing whack a mole. we have them freely destroy the central al qaeda organization. there are maybe three or four liters -- leaders that. the number two is dead. they are under in norma's pressure. there'll always be some takers. there were always be some
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disaffected young man somewhere who thinks this is a solution. beenn 1121 americans have killed in the united states by jihad the terrorists. that is not a lot of people. we have this conversation in 2002 or 2003, because a lot of the work of a lot of people in this room including jose rodriguez and general hayden and others who are interviewed in this film and others who are not. >> i did want to fit this in. enough not adversarial almost by instinct? some of us are. we need someone to work in the cia. we know he's not telling us everything. are you skeptical enough? >> about what? what the story and the way they tell it. are you setting them up as heroes? >> i do not know. ado not see myself as an
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for serial person. i do think that is a particularly -- adversarial person. i don't think that is particularly beneficial. i think was more useful just to hear what they had to say. declared war on cnn in 1997 in an interview i produce. >> on america. >> imagine the high commander said we are planning to attack the united states and if pearl harbor would have turned out differently. where is the business of trying to find out what people think and believe? being a see adversarial useful trait in all of this. did you try to leave us with a feeling, with the cello and all that, that the war is not over, that is going to happen again one of your main characters says.
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>> it is such an interesting point about how you tell the stories and interact. i do not take an adversarial approach. some people may not like films. to get into the world of the people who stories i'm trying to tell. here's what i tried to do at the end. god forbid there is some other major attack -- we all instinctively want it to be about justice done. there will be people whose names we do not know that are hidden away somewhere, making the decisions on our behalf on how to conduct that war or whatever you call it. by telling the stories of those who were there at the time, it allows us to better understand how our government works.


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