tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN November 24, 2014 2:00pm-4:01pm EST
decisions the president makes with other military strategies. we are not talking about a secret order. at least in this case, there is the kind of guidance the president assured with u.s. military is entirely consistent with the mission they will carry a wide for announce ideas settings particularly when they are serving in areas-esque dashed as dangerous as it continues to be in afghanistan.
made substantial that we have one pointed peaks the american it's on the ground in afghanistan over 1000. by the end of this year over 10000 and that is part of a trend that at the end of 2016 we will have our military personal act into the embassy. the kind of fulfillment to wind down in -- to wind down at a very responsible way. >> last week the administration and you took about great pains to talk about executive actions. there has been a tremendous amounts of fact checking at the washington post. understanding it is preference that george bush take action not nearly as statistically
represented by this administration. will you either retract that or stop using that in the future? >> i will not, major. the fact of the matter is the bush administration to take an executive action and did have an impact on 1.5 million people living in this country and that is about 40% of the population at the time. that has beening reported by the associated press, new york times and the congressional research service. we did a little digging on this because i anticipated someone might ask. it is a fair question. thejury 21st 1990 in archives, mr. jean mcnary thomas serving as ins commissioner. testified before congress and was asked the question why senator morrison i assume who said under your recent
administrative order these 1.5 million people are here to stay with work and travel the villages, isn't that right tackle mr. mcnary said under oath, we think you are right as to the 1.5 million being here. is 1.5 million to become as a result of the change in definition. he follows up by saying you think there is another 1.5 million that you think would be eligible? his answer was yes. the associated press congressional research service and according to the under oath testimony of the commissioner of -- ins.st subsequent numbers from those who apply are far far lower. those were estimates of what might happen.
we are talking about the number of evil a legible. there continues to be a take-up rate about how many people will come forward and apply for the action protection. there are 1.5 million people, 40% of the undocumented population that would've been eligible for the executive action that george w. bush announced and 40% will be popped to the -- eligible for the executive action president obama announced. a number of the lawmakers who said they want additional sanctions have said it would only take effect if the talks failed. any lack oft signal seriousness over the talk's? far we have felt we have gotten all the leverage we
needed from regime to engage in serious conversations with the broader international community principally because we have had brought a agreement about the enforcement of the sanctions. that has had a substantial impact on the economy. that is why we have suggested additional sanctions at this point are not necessary. >> a lot of lawmakers said how is it that they have made the commitment necessary to reach the agreement and he is letting them play for time you go it has proven the fact they're secretly willing to try to do the same thing. >> we're fine full of that. of that.l secretly they have developed a nuclear capability with the cover of talks. what is different in this instance is there is an inspection regime that has been more thoreau and transparent
than has been previously in place to confirm their abiding by the agreement they have committed to in the agreements they may have succeeded in rolling back the program. they eliminated the stockpile of uranium enriched. that is important because uranium can rapidly be enriched further to weaponize. they are notseen continuing to develop the water in iraq. we know that not because they tell us that but because -- international inspectors have been there to verify it. >> assuming all that, how do you get to the argument that the incentives did not produce an agreement in a very likely amount of time, how is putting additional incentive on the to?e, how is that not going
>> that is an important question. has been our assessment that adding additional sanctions would cause others who are helping enforce the sanctions to break apart. saying we have had a very tough sanctions regime and piling more on even though they roll back the nuclear problem is indication you are more interested in punishing them then reaching an agreement. there is substantial pressure, and that is why we have been able to make as much progress as we have so far. we want to make sure others continue to enforce the sanctions regime. the other important -- because of the important points you have raised the bidding raised by other members of congress, this administration will continue to closely coordinate and communicate with leaders that are very interested in the issue . i know there are senior members
of the administration who have been making calls on this in recent days and will be over the course the week as well. >> the reason we are lessons about -- we are less concerned than we have been in the past as we do have an inspection team on the ground and we have much greater access than they have in the past. we are not in a situation where we are trusting the iranian regime but we are verifying that they are not making progress. in the context of engaging in the conversations we made some very difficult asks of the regime to take some steps to roll back the nuclear program. we are not in the position as others have been in the past
where they have been playing for time and engaging in diplomatic conversations while they try to develop some aspects of the program secretly. as worried about that because we know the inspections team has been able to confirm their living up to the agreement. >> you said earlier the president and secretary arrived at the decision together. that suggested. .olely secretary hegel's >> yes. something they're right that together. the president did not try to talk him out of the decision. in essence, this was also the president. >> i would say this is a decision they made together. said you doon, you not know the grand jury's decision but the white house math -- had a message.
he cited the words of mr. brown's parents who indicated the proper way to remember and pay tribute to their son's for people to express their views peacefully and that is a viewpoint the president wholeheartedly embraced. the message that is the president has for the people and in communities all across the country. defense hasnt of been engaged with local law enforcement communities in the st. louis area and across the country because we are mindful -- i am sorry. the department of justice. correct. , thet me ask you quickly
president said friday that congress should just pass a bill . how did the prospects dim? by the president taking executive action. why would the congress race out and pass a bill now echoplex a great question. feeleason congress would motivated to pass legislation now is they have had such a strong him and make it up reaction to the president's executive action that they could pass legislation that would supersede the president action. house republican leaders are holding the trump card in their hand, they just have to decide whether to play it. the fact of the matter is, the president has artie said if they want to allow the bipartisan senate bill to come up for a vote, it would pass. even if john boehner and others who have been aggressively critical want to vote no, let them come up for a vote. the president will have what they signed into law and will
completely supersede in the executive action the president announced last week. just the executive assessment, political assessment is not likely. congress passed a bill given the president just took executive action. no reason to think they will now because the speaker of the house will not commit to bringing it up exterior. the fact is, what motivation do they have for passing a bill? if they feel as strongly and negatively as the president executive action as they say, the easiest way for them to counter it is to take the president upon his offer to pass the peace legislation that would fulfill the principles generally and the president has indicated he would tear up his own executive order and their i using the strenuous concerns raised by republicans.
>> is this negotiable in any way ? what it automatically supersede the executive action no matter what the congress passed atco >> what we would need to see congress to this take action along the lines of comprehensive commonsense measure that the senate passed. doesn't have to be the senate bill? not necessarily. certainly it would do it. it is the way republicans can counter the executive action they feel so strongly about. this is not a matter of me opposed to this but being republicans and the leaders of the business community, evangelical immunity and law enforcement officials all across the country. house republicans, i can understand why they are feeling defensive because they are awfully isolated.
[inaudible] is very proudnt of the important work the members of the national security conducted.at they're i would suggest when you look at the crises that have emerged from the evil outbreak to the unrest in ukraine that has been the russian neighbors to the emergence of isis as a significant threat to the middle east, it has been a very tumultuous environment. mentioned in briefings prior to the election that this is a natural time for people to announce their decisions to leave. i do not have knowledge of anyone else planning to leave. i indicated that before the election, too. i did not do that knowing that he was engaged in conversations with the president. at the time i said i would
anticipate other members of the team may take advantage of this opportunity to depart so someone else can come in and the fill the responsibilities for the remaining two years. i do not know of anyone planning to leave but i would not be surprised if someone else made a similar decision. >> it is hard for me to characterize the timeframe for something that i'm not sure will happen. i think it is possible but i do not know for sure it will. detected -- secretary hegel agelid secretary h indicate a desire to stay on? this was a mutual decision. i am not aware of the twists and turns.
>> chris. >> you said you do not know of anyone else planning to leave but said it does not sound like he is leaning to leave but have given indication. is this the first shakeup in the national security team? >> i do not know of any other staff changes being contemplated either national security team or domestic holocene team either. that said, i would not be surprised if there are other individuals that decide someone else should serve in the role for the past -- last two years for the present time in office. i am not aware of any impending announcements on this front. at the time he was nominated he had the particular skill in combat experience. what is important now as you look at the things that if indeed a changes being made because the situation is
changed, the focus on the priority has changed, what is the skills and the background of the person you are looking at? specificasking for a name, but what are you looking for and the white house looking for in terms of meeting the new and emerging needs. there is another way we know secretary hagel was the right man for the job. that is to look back at his nearly two years of service as the secretary of defense. if you look at his record of accomplishment we know he was the right man for the job. particularly a specific answer to give you but the president certainly wants to make sure the neck secretary of defense as someone who knows the inner workings of the agency well and someone who will bring the kind of leadership and management skills and leadership skills necessary to guide such a large organization at a time of crisis.
that there are emerging situations across the globe from mean we need that a strong steady leadership to provide. >> the conversation centered mccain had with secretary hagel does need to reflect the same mentioned in the book from secretary panetta and gates. the white house would manage that there was a difficult decision making process that the white house dominated it. given three secretary of defense , is there orenity does there need to be an assessment of the relationship in front of the pentagon. >> he read out the conversation in this -- in a way that is
consistent should not be a surprise to anyone in the room and not to me. >> i do not have insight to the conversation. i am just going to observe it should not be a surprise to anyone that senator mccain would characterize the conversation as consistent with criticism we have received from others. said, i can tell you if you look at secretary hagel track record of success in the agency, i think it would lend many people to the conclusion that the department of defense and under secretary hagel's management work very hard -- well with the white house. the prompt and efficient and
effective response to the emerging situations in west africa in the middle east and theine are a testament to careful and successful coordination between the white house and department of defense. not totally of his own accord. is leaving based on a number of conversations he in the president convened over the past month or so in the conclusion they arrived at together. >> you suggested it as part of two years, two-year. there were three defense secretaries in the clinton administration just too over the course of the bush .dministration is there some concern there is not consistency at the pentagon atco >> know, there is not. what the president has been looking for is people that are highly qualified, skilled and effective managers who understand what it takes to use
the element of the department of defense to keep the country safe . we have that individuals in the role who performed at a very high level. >> now that we have confirmation there will be a announcement today from the st. louis prosecutor's office, is the decision based upon what it is, based upon what happens on the ground there? i do not have an explanation for why the president will speak because i do not know whether he will speak. after we have made the announcement we can certainly have a conversation about why the decision was made. fax regarding the iran talks, does the president personally sign off and could you tell us when? >> i can tell you the president was in close touch with the negotiating team indiana, including secretary kerry. the president was frequently
updated on the conversations over the weekend and also even last week when the talks were reaching a fever pitch. i do not have any specific tick-tock to tell you about what the president's reaction was to the briefings or what sort of conversations he may have had other than to say the president has been aware in a very detailed fashion of how the conversations were proceeding. >> you said a minute ago the up hisnt would tear executive orders if congress passed a bill he could sign on immigration. there are no executive orders associated with the immigration ask, right? >> i meant executive action. why there arel us no executive orders when the president road town specifically and wrote down what he was ordering be done at his direction? i can follow-up with a more
detailed answer on this but what i can tell you is the exercise of prosecutorial discretion is something implemented by the department of security. what therecall administration could do to address the shortcomings of the immigration system and my understanding is the changes could be implemented within the confines of the current law discretione use of that resides with the homeland security office. >> the idea of the three-year in deportations for certain people, isn't that something that warrants an executive order? >> apparently not. our lawyers look carefully at this but we can follow-up on the more detailed legal questions if you would like. >> you just praise the iranians for salvation.
iaea in the last report criticized them for a lack of cooperation. how do you explain that? >> i have seen the reports. what i am suggesting is we have more insight into the iranian program that we have ever had before, and that is because of the inspections that have taken place to review the facilities and have a clear understanding of how they are complying with the agreement. investigations that have occurred we have a high degree of confidence they are living up to their end of the bargain. >> how do you see the president strategy to fight isis? decisionected by the for a prominent iraqi-sunni leader and does it hinder your fight against fight against isis in iraq?
the reportst seen about that specific sentence. i can tell you as a general manner -- manner we have long identified as critical to the success of the broader operation the ability of the iraqi central government to unify the country, and that means even a leader leader to govern the country that makes it clear that the central government, even though it is led by a shiite, has the best interest of every iraqi citizen of -- at heart. there are plenty indications the prime minister has had success in winning over saudi -- sunni leaders that he is willing to use the resources of the central government to protect their interest, too. that was one of the principal interests of the prime minister maliki. that he was willing to use the
military to protect his own .nterest the prime minister has taken a much different approach and has had much different success on bringing on board and earning the support of sunni leaders across the country. paul, last one. >> went back to what you said about afghanistan. --aid troops will be there you said that troops will be there to mop up remnants. if you drive an hour beyond and taliban is controlling, why are you downplaying the true threat the taliban poses to the country? >> i am not. there is a sleight-of-hand in the question. there is a difference between taliban and al qaeda. the difference in the mission after 2014 is the u.s. military will not be engaged in specific
operations targeting members of the taliban and just because they are members of the taliban. any combat operations carried out by u.s. military personnel will be for protection or to go orer remnants of al qaeda other extremes that pose a significant threat to the u.s. homeland or u.s. interests around the globe. that is the change in the mission that will move forward at the end of the year consistent with the directive the president has been discussing for quite some time now. >> so you can see the taliban still represents a tremendous --eat to afghanistan in afghanistan stability as a whole. >> absolutely. thank you, everybody. >> one of the big topics today, chuck hagel and his resignation. take a look at the shop from
2008 when the chair of the senate foreign relations committee joe biden and john kerry were in the photograph defense secretary hagel. this was tweeted by john kerry and reeves chuck hagel is a great friend, patriot, no one cares or about men and women in uniform. members of congress reacting to the resignation of chuck hagel. harry reid released a statement saying it is my hope that senate republicans will work with democrats to get swift and fair consideration to president obama's next nominee to the critical post. personal boehner, the change may be part of a large rethinking of the strategy to the threats we pose abroad. thus far the administration has fallen well short. on facebook we up and yielding your reaction. bruce writes -- another facebook comment from jien --
you can weigh in as well. live today, president obama will award the presidential medal of freedom tonight team recipients at the white house, the nation's highest civilian honor. some include meryl streep as well is the first asian-american woman elected to congress, pat seeming of hawaii. ailey awardedlan this award as well as andrew wernern and michael shorn o when they help people register to vote. fromg from live coverage the white house. scheduled to start a few minutes ago. he will have it live for you here on c-span. -- we will.
>> ladies and gentlemen, the recipients of the presidential medal of freedom. [applause] on the half of albert ailey. endu, thomas j brokaw, angelo the list receiving on behalf of her father james earl david goodman receiving on behalf of his brother andrew goodman. chwernerorte receiving on behalf of her husband. the honorable john d dingell junior.
event to celebrate people who have made america stronger and wiser and more humane and more beautiful with our highest civilian honor, the presidential medal of freedom. this year we honor 18. sondheimtely stephen could not be with us today. i will present in this award at the 2015 ceremony. give thanks to public servants who have devoted their lives to fellow citizens. o'neill he told tip was starting of hispanic congressional congress there were so few hispanics the joke was they could fit them in a phone book -- phone booth. he saw beyond the times. the congressman of los angeles for 30 years he taught for filing cordial -- bilingual
education and to make sure they were counted. literally. because of him the senses was revised to more accurately count with keynotes. although his roots in america went back hundreds of years and he championed the cause of immigrants and spoke up for vulnerable communities. few in theof the early 1980's calling for more aids research. he left us nearly a decade ago remains a herohe to not just hispanics that all americans. every girl in little league, every woman playing college sports and parents including my sense -- including michelle and myself who watches their water on a field or in the classroom is forever grateful to the late patsy. i am particularly grateful because she was my congresswoman from long-time. denied admission to medical school because she was a woman.
she went on to law school and co-authored title ix banning gender discrimination in the schools. she was many first, including the first woman of color in congress and to those of us in hawaii she represented the very best of public service and the spirit of hawaii. she dedicated her life to making sure she was not the last. championing civil rights to fighting against gender discrimination, patsy was a passionate advocate for opportunity and equality in realizing the full promise of the american dream. when john dingell father a new democrat. and over the course of the six decades, longer than history, he built a fearless record of his own -- his own.
he helped lead the fight for the civil rights act. he introduced a bill for comprehensive health care. that is until he did not have to do it anymore. [applause] i could not be prouder to have him by my side when i signed in the affordable care act. at 80 eight he is still going strong. his wife reminds us that change takes time and courageous persistence but if we push hard enough for long enough changes possible. as the university of chicago student at north stock by the local democratic headquarters and asked to volunteer.
the committeeman said we do not want to know what he sent. we do not want nobody sent. that is chicago for you. [laughter] bites the abrupt dismissal, he went on to devote his life to public service -- despite the disruptive dismissal, he went on to devote his life to public service. gaysruck down the ban on in the military. he was overturned on that one but history proves him right and inspire the next generation, including me. after i graduated from law school he offered me the chance to be his law clerk. i declined but was extraordinarily grateful and he for gave me for which i was also grateful. recentanscends any moment in political history that has a hand in shaping some of the best of it.
we have some extraordinary public servants on the stage. we also give thanks for innovators who have served our world. house's highsel school yearbook contained commentary from her classmates. they printed a mathematical tribute. mildred equals blaine -- brains plus one. math and science she is second to none. growing up in new york during the great depression this daughter of polish immigrants have three clear paths open to her, teaching, nursing and secretarial school but somehow she had something else in mind. she became an electrical engineer and physicist and rose at mit's ranks and performed ground raking experiments and became one of the most celebrated scientists and her ex
-- her influences all around us and the cars we drive, energy we generate and the electronic devices that power our lives. arrived at m.i.t. in 1960 only 4% of students were women. today almost half are. robert solow's father was a businessman who handled a lot of documents. when he became an economist his dad joked, we do the same thing, deliver papers. his influence extends far beyond the page. any living about economist he is shaped policy and the lives of people everywhere. his insight has transformed our thinking for how to transform transparently we need to research and investment and education. or investment in people. wrote -- won the nobel prize, my colleague wrote faces lit up around the world.
this is not a group that usually gets real fired up. just admired by his peers, he is adored. he continues to be the leading voice on economic challenges of our time, especially when it comes to bursting income inequality and growing it for everybody. so we give thanks to public andice, innovators performers who have captivated our hearts and minds. ran the headline, court rules meryl streep unable to be tried as to read -- she has no peers. [laughter] [applause] i think this is the third or fourth award merrill has got since i have been in office.
i have said publicly, i love meryl streep. her husband knows i love her, michelle knows i love her. nothing either of them can do about it. [laughter] she has done it all for her craft. she learned violin. she wore a nun's habit, face down a charging lien. mastered every accent under the .un she inhabits her character so fully and compassionately saying , the the greatest gift power of empathy. off the screen as an advocate for women and girls, she uses the gift to help others write the stories of their choosing. is truly one of america's
leading ladies. .hen there is stevie don't get michelle talking about stevie wonder now. copies of stevie wonder's classic album talking book had a simple message written in braille. here is my music, it is all i have to tell you how i feel, know that your love keeps my love strong. the first album i ever bought with my own money. i was 10 years old, maybe 11. cash.y own i did not have a lot of it. that thing got all worn out. young people will not remember this but you would have album and they would get scratched. more than 50 years he has channeled his inner visions to messages of hope and healing and becoming one of the most
influential musicians in american history. a musical prodigy with an electrifying voice his blend of r&b and jazz and funk and blues speaks of love and lost , justice and equality, war and peace. what would really define his lasik is the warmth and humanity that resonates in every note. some of the songs helpless to fall in love on the others mended our hot -- our heart. because of stevie all of us have been moved to higher ground. he was born during the depression in the small town texas. by the time he was 27 he founded the dance company of his own in new york city and become a place where all artists had a hope. the dances he cori draft work andd of modern, ballet, jazz. through him african american
history was told in a way it had never been told before him with passion. performances that transfixed audiences worldwide. he said that dance came from the alwaysand that it should be delivered back to the people. alvin ailey delivered through his life and the dance company that will forever bear his name. learned her grandfather in chile was dying she started writing him a letter night after night she returned to its until she realized she was writing her first novel. she never really stopped. but in her hand it became familiar and human. an exile from chile, she made the u.s. her home. today the foundation she created
to honor her late daughter helps families worldwide. she begins all her books on january 8, the day she began her letter to her grandfather years ago. right to register history she says right? the forgotten. the night the berlin wall fell, only one american network anchor was there reporting live. reporterr -- a watching tom brokaw at the brandenburg gate and wondering, how do we beat that? brokaw's got this. it.ivotal moments, tom got he reported on watergate, snuck a camera into two newman square. sat down with the goal corporate job with an american tv reporter. covered every presidential election since 1968. we have welcomed him into her home at dinnertime and sunday
mornings. we trusted him to tell us what we needed to know in to ask questions that needed to be asked. been onecause i have the receiving end of some of those questions. chroniclerim as the of the greatest generation, and today we celebrate him as one of our nations greatest journalists. to trailblazers who benchmark of our nation -- to vent the ark of the nation toward justice. charlie sifford won the negro national open five times in a row by the time he became the first african-american to earn card, some of his best golf was behind him. folks threatened him, shouted slurs, kicked his ball into the rough. charlie is laughing about that but my ball was always -- is always in the rough.
[laughter] and because golf can be a solitary sport, he did not have teammates to lean on but he did have his lovely wife, rose, and plenty of the cuts and grits and the trademark cigar and he won on the tour twice, both after the age of 45. he said i was not just trying to do this for me but for the world . speaking of trailblazers, to some are low thomas will always be that girl who followed her dreams to new york city. running around manhattan. having fun. to others he is behind that she is behind the creative mind of free to be you and me. as the founder of the foundation
he helped to term limits hopes and aspirations to concrete economic have grass. she has helped build the hospital her father founded, st. jude's, into one of the premier tdf trick hospitals in the world. she recalls her dad think there are two types of evil in the world, the givers and takers. the taker sometimes eat better for the givers always sleep better. i love that saying. well thomas leads very because she has given so much. raised on the oklahoma reservation via cheyenne mother and the muskogee father shoes harjo becamesusane one of the most effective civil rights advocates. preserve aped million acres of indian land. she has helped develop balls preserving tribal sovereignty,
repatriated sacred cultural items to the child -- to the tribe. because of suzanne and more young native americans are growing up with pride in their heritage and faith in the future. on june 21, 1964 in the three young men to white and one black sets out to learn more about the burning of a church in mississippi. james earl chaney, 21 years old. andrew goodman, 20 years old. michael henry schwerner, 24 years old. young men. summer, thesem three americans refuse to sit on the sidelines. their brutal murder by a gang of ku klux klan membership of conscious of our nation. took 44 days to find their bodies.
41 years to bring the league perpetrators to justice. while they are often remembered for how they died we honor them today for how they lived with the idealism and courage of youth. andrew and michael could not have known the impact they would have on the civil rights of mint or on future generations in here today, inspired by their sacrifice we continue to fight for the ideals of equality and justice for which they gave their lives. today we are honored to be joined by james this daughter angela and michael's wife rita. give thanks to a person whose love for her family is matched by her devotion to her nation. host americans ethel kennedy is known as a white mother and grandmother. in many ways it is through the role she has made her archon history. as bobby kennedy's partner in life, she shared his commitment to justice.
after his death she continued their work through the center she created in his name, celebrating activists and journalists and educating people around the world about threats to human liberty. fromman rights issues juvenile justice to as hermental destruction family will tell you and they basically opera -- occupied this half of the room, you do not mess with a full. she has gone to extraordinary link to build support for the cause is close to her heart, including helping to raise money for als research this summer by pouring a bucket of ice water over her head. as you may know, she nominated me to do it as well, and as you may know, i chose to write a check instead. i do not in hawaii,
like pouring ice water on top of my head. is probably the only time i have ever said no to alpha -- ethel. many of her children and grandchildren are carrying on the kennedy tradition of kennedy public service and is an emblem of enduring faith and hope even losse base of unimaginable and unimaginable grief. she has touched the lives of countless people around the world with her generosity and her grace. it gives me great pleasure to and herthe award brother-in-law, president kennedy reestablish more than 50 years ago. ladies and gentlemen, these are the recipients of the 2014 medal of freedom. let's give them a round of applause. [applause]
dance through the african-american experience weaving traditional songs and stories with jazz, ballet and modern dance to create something entirely new. he founded and served as artistic director of the them -- alvin ailey artistic dance theater renowned world wide. an advocate for the importance of art to the soul of our nation, his life in pioneering legacy reminds us of the limitless potential for creative self-expression. [applause] endeu, a below the daughter of chile in the
united states. forced to flee after the overthrow of her cousin she spent years abroad filling her books with stories and flavors of home. she is now one of the most widely read and cherished spanish-language authors in history. she also writes and speaks forcefully about the human rights of women and children and her foundation supports formidable families. with creativity and conviction she continues to move and delight the world. [applause] thomas j brokaw.
[applause] one of our nation's most admired journalist. thomas j brokaw has helped americans better understand the world and each other. from today to nbc nightly news to meet the press, americans have relied on his authoritative reporting and keen analysis for decades. at moments of great consequence from the fall of the berlin wall to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 he was the nation's eyes and ears at the scene. he has lent his voice to the nation's heroes from the greatest generation to the latest generation of servicemembers and their families. thomas j brokaw's work remains the model for responsible journalism and his insights continue to enrich the public this course. -- discourse. [applause]
voters in mississippi during freedom summer. their work was fraught with danger. commitment to justice was so strong, they were willing to risk their lives for it. deaths shocked the nation. and their courage has never been forgotten. cheney, goodman and swarner still inspire us. have been written into the moral fabric of our landmarksom the enacted days after their death to our continued pursuit to a more perfect union. [applause]
dingellonorable john jr. tenurengell jr.'s surpasses that of any member of congress in history. his legacy is evident all around safer water,r air, stronger protections for workers and greater respects for the americans.s of all he summoned his fri grit and determination for legislative battles over health care to the affordable care act. thanks to his efforts, millions more families now have the peace of mind that comes with access to quality, affordable care. grateful nation honors john
has helped uncover the mysteries f to our world. of the most distinguished electricalts and engineers of her generation, her experiments into the semi metals of transformed our understanding of breakthroughs to in electronics. as a leader and mentor, she has women tocountless pursue opportunities in physics and engineering. mildred stresslehouse's example a testament to what we can oureve when we follow curiosity and our dreams. [applause]
hardro is a poet. all her life for the treaty rights of native people's. as head of the congress of american indians and a founding national museum of the american indian, her returnedefforts have native lands and improved native lives. suzanne pushes us to always seek justice in our time. [applause]
>> ethel kennedy. [applause] ethel kennedy's life is a story of perseverance and generosity. tireless advocate for the causes she holds dear, she the center for justice and human rights, where she advances her husband's visions as to imagining the world as it should be, whether on gun control, humannmental protection, human rights or public health, she tackles difficult issues with a relentless drive and
to public service and love for chicago. as a congressman, federal judge counsel to president clinton, he helped shape the national debate on some of the challenging issues of the day, always insisting that government live up to its citizens.lities to he has imparted his sense of civic duty to a new generation, minds as ag legal law professor to challenging young people to give back to their communities through public service. thanks to abner, our laws and our nation are more fair and equal. [applause] >> wendy mink, receiving on her mother, the honorable patsy mink.
[applause] patsy mink was ahead of her time. the first woman of color elected congress, she entered office determined to do all she could fornsure equal treatment every american, regardless of race or sex. of theuthored title 9 education amendment of 1972, educational equal opportunities for women. she was an advocate for civil aghts education and for sensible end to the vietnam war. she served her beloved hawaii grace all ofy and her life. an american trailblazer, patsy nation thatbuild a lives up to its promise, and her example challenges us to make progress in our time. [applause]
lucille allard, theiving on behalf of honorable edward allard. woible served in the civilian conservation corps and war ii andring world on the los angeles city council. first2, he became the fist hispanic-american elected to congress in california in almost a century and served there for 30 years. he stood up for people who needed a champion. he founded the congressional caucus to ensure that the voices of hispanic-americans heard.lways be edward roybal believed that our weion is strongest when harnness the talents of all of our people.
his legacy will always live on. [applause] charles sifford. play golf.ted to at a time when the pga appeared have a caucasians-only rule, he challenged the discrimination that plagued his beloved sport demonstrating his extraordinary skills on the court, winning six national opens before receiving his pga tour card. he went on to win pga events, was inducted into the world golf received anf fame and honorary doctorate.
education, health and scientific research. and millions of americans have benefited from the economic helped tohat he spark. contributions's have molded public opinion and policy, and he continues to engage with the most pressing of the dayestions with his commentary on income and economic mobility. [applause] meryl streep. [applause] greatestr nation's actors, meryl streep has an unmatched ability to bring a
life.ter to her performances have earned her the most academy award nominations of any history and her audiences the chance to see the world through someone else's eyes. portraying a famous chef, a holocaust survivor or a conveys herer, she characters' stories with every empathyand dignity. offscreen, she brings that same thing to the humanities and the arts. meryl streep invites us to theore the full range of human experience, one story at a time. [applause]
>> marlowe thomas. marloer half a century, thomas has opinio been defying expectations. she broke barriers in television "thater iconic role in girl." through her stories and songs, children that we are all free to be you and me. jude's work with saint children's research hospital has of theit to become one top children's hospitals in the nation. marlo has taught us to be true to ourselves and to lead our ands with confidence compassion. [applause]
we thank all of them for the us.s they've given to the incredible performances, the theedible innovation, incredible ideas, the incredible spirit.ons of the human and not only have they made the world better but by following they make us a little bit better, every single day. grateful to them. and on behalf of michelle and myself, please enjoy the reception and god bless you all. thank you! [applause]
missouri, arguson, grand jury has reached a decision on whether or not to indict police officer darren wilson for fatally shooting an unarmed black teenager, sparking violence.nd the county's prosecutor's office and the missouri governors office say they're preparing for conferences likely to be held later today. we'll keep you updated here on the c-span networks. of authors recently discussed the impending decision an-of-view ofing the state -- overview of the u.s. of race in the their conversation does contain language which some viewers may find offensive. [applause] >> this is beautiful. what's up, brooklyn?
r yourselves a big ol' round applause! >> white people, be very careful. be very careful. awkwardng to be that all night. [laughter] >> you signed up for the conversation about the conversation. so i just -- i was hearing a beautiful intro. fo -- give it up for the brooklyn historical society? [applause] back stage.as she was very glad to hear how her name was pronounced, which cepeda.ly raquel what do you think when people call you raquel cepeda? >> it's really irritating, because it kind of puts me like like i'm american. i'm very comfortable being american. very comfortable being latino. hyphen is not
something is that separates but kind of bridges me to pott. both. when i hear raquel cepeda, i feel like you really are not open to receiving me fully. and i'm here to be received fully. we meet outside or you buy my book, please don't cepeda.raquel >> rachel. >> and if you call me rachel, not even going to pay attention to you. >> and tanner, you wrote a book of my best friends are black. >> yes. out?w is that working >> it's been great, actually. i have three, four now. since publishing the book. 400 percent like a increase from zero. much better. latinos?w about >> well, one. one. she's right here.
i went on a date with a ago.ican girl ten years >> how come you held on to that until now? >> i don't know. me.how it just came back to >> we are learning about each other right now. you fans... >> exactly. destroyed it by showing up. amazing. we're so glad to have you here. are.ally >> and i want to apologize to for the shit's and stuff we'll say. >> we couldn't use any of the footage, waste of the taxpayer's money. >> the prom w proposal we have,e to moderate each other, which has worked well in american history. propose to address one topic, news,is right off the ferguson. come to a solution, like three
from now. and then many of you have noticed on your chair, there are cards with topics that you want to discuss. we've been looking at the hashtag on twitter about race, dip into thatof virtual hat or the physical hat at some point, asking you to pass those to the aisle and hear what you have to say. then we'll actually share the microphone with you and verbally what you have to say. that plan, is that okay with you guys? ournd when you see us on iphones, we're totally looking at twitter. >> exactly. >> so you guys ready? >> all right. ferguson. >> ferguson. to jump off, again, maybe possibly -- we don't know. the governor of missouri, it's a predeclared state of emergency. >> and confirmed on fox. >> which -- so you know it's true. >> yeah. so you know what shit is going down. indid anybody hear mayor
new york? >> insofar -- they are all prime coming ofxt carmichael, hewey newton, to erupt out of this in ferguson. and it strikes me as -- when i immediately ofht the circumstances in new haven. i was reading about it the other day. >> what in new haven? >> bobby seal was on trial back new haven. and it was going to be a huge protest. all the whites, all the leftists, all the black panther radicals were going to come to a bigwn and do demonstration, just a huge violent demonstration, all over the country. of connecticutr and the president of yale were all petrified this was going to what weo something like saw in ferguson. , iin august. but the governor of connecticut new wisely to send in and prime
of the fact. so they quietly assembled the national guard. and they just told no one. they just said, go have your demonstration. nothing happened. they got a demonstration. everybody went home. over.t was >> but that's not what is happening here. >> no, it's not. in missouri is doing everything he can to precipitate what he says he in that he'sd, giving everyone prime for the that black people are going to be crazy. >> can i ask you to speak for people?e >> done. >> i'm so relishing this moment. for white doing this people? is this like, hey, white people, i got you. know you're nervous. let me send in guns to protect rabble rousers.
sideways, butd go got aaying, oh we've council with all the black ministers. and we're going to do everything this. to avoid buyall you white people go pie handguns just in case. the budgett ahold of appropriation from the ferguson police department from last $50,000 int's like rubber bullets, beanbag guns. for all ofparing this. and, of course, you know, we saw what happened last time. >> how are they going to miss all the white protesters when they unleash, you know, the military on the community? for selling out? know -- i mean, they're just going to go -- who knows what's going to happen? really. >> well, you sent me this link
the show on fox. he was using this -- did you see it? did. >> he was using -- it was just crazy. >> it made my day worse. same was using this terminology that i heard on the news, after 9/11. situation. you know, threatening violence. something is going to erupt. just --his like really just to scare people. on there andwent said they had situations like this before. incensingas really me, because situations like these are not situations. god for him that 9/11 having because he became a 9/11 made $52-plus million on 9/11. he was talking about this situation. he was very dismissive. it brought up to me the whole phrase that's been thrown around a lot, white
privilege. you despise that term and you have a good reason to, and i want to get into that. people have tons of advantages in this society. whoe are a lot of people deny that this exists and deny that white people have is stupid. which but to me, you have to sort them into two different categorize. ill-gotten gains that white people should not have. and the other is things that that everyoneave else should be accorded also. >> so human privilege. privilege, yeah in we should start saying that instead of white privilege. it here first. >> white people can walk around in the society without the fear facetting shot in the every day by the police. some people would define that as white privilege. would define it as citizenship. it's just the base line of how we should be treated as a society. so i feel like you get that word attached, that word is very now.ar right and you get it attached to something like this, and we start focusing on all the things
that tanner has that are bad because he has them, rather than focusing on, you know, the true is what happened to michael brown. >> well, i mean, when you talk about white privilege, for me, not about white people. it's just a reminder of what born non-white kind of confers. >> it's like a substitute for disadvantage. >> exactly. just an easier, cooler, sexier white privilege. exactly. white privilege! yes. >> but, you know, i think it's a misnomer to think that just because you're born white, you're born with a silver spoon, part of the 1%. lookingwe should start into we lack basic rights. for example, we both are parents. know, when ir, you first held my son, first i was had, wow, i can't believe i another kid after 15 years. second thought was, oh, my god! so cute! he looks chinese. man. a baby with a haitian
the third thing was, well, damn. i'm going to have to worry about going to theoint store. my daughter is right there. she saw me panic. so -- i had no postpartum depression. i was really happy about him being born. but i just started panicking. my husband and i had this with everybody left like i have to think about people not respecting him or loving him the way i love all my neighbor's children, regardless of what color they are. think about him going tto the store and not coming pack. not coming back. don't go tooch him far with authority, because he can get shot in the face. that are all the things kind of lead to the stress. resentment.lead to i think this whole idea of don't shoot and what's going on in just, like you said, about human privilege. white,out people, black,
whatever, being upset at what we when non-whites are born into this world. >> there's so much beauty in terms of the creative response, because i playbook, the government playbook is the same, right? it's like arm up. threaten force. then apply force in measures.ionate but the response on the ground has been this black youth muchent, has been this more gender-open in terms of the roles people are playing. artist-driven in a way we haven't always seen before. me i am like -- it makes feel old. and i don't always feel that way. but watching some of these young people in ferguson respond so creatively and so persistently, fergusont's the october weekend, whether it's the pretending to be dead and street. the these new forms of creative
protests that kind of marry the internet with art. they're still very nonviolent but they're very poignant. state hasn't changed but the people are changing. i find that pretty interesting. a lot of people talking about that, certainly not on the fox newses. >> of course not. >> what's the difference between what happened with michael brown and nameon martin after name, in the response? >> i think there is -- there's a little bit less coopting by traditional organizations. you have new groups forming out of this. a creativeted, as example. you have the -- i mean, art is there. there.ways and i'm not here to necessarily dis die-hard al sharpton, is in a goodeart place most of the time. but it's not his show. the reverend show any anymore.
who rappers from st. louis, are on different mics, and they're using -- i remember it's mccassen.nk can't remember his last name. but there's a start-up product called launch rock, which tech companies use to launch their products. if you're interested in a cheaper way to get lu luxury car wevice, you know, a problem can all identify with, sign up here. this is the problems of the 5% tech is oriented towards. werehese young activists using that same platform to build their mailing list for a new moment. new -- a new movement. different. it's not for the knighthood being bestowed upon someone, oh, let's go to obama and see what he thinks. the president is kind of in all of this, and i think that's good, because he's not going to be the president for much longer. >> right. that everybody else that you point out on the fox
lemons -- ween always talk about the stupid daily. says on the >> so what do you think is going to happen with the grand jury? >> well, i think that he's going to be acquitted. >> yep. >> yeah. you thinkour hand if indictment? indictment. no hands up for indictment. minority! >> not deserves indictment. but -- >> exactly. psychic powers. we're all americans. we've seen this play before. yeah. think he's gonna walk. >> yeah. >> the problem is, is that, you nothing that happened that day justified the shooting of michael brown.
brief intervalis inside the car that we don't know exactly what happened. and anytime there's that sliver uncertainty, it goes the cop's way. and that's just what's going to happen. is, what we do with that information once it comes out. governor stands the truth down, sends in cupcakes. [laughter] and true officers of peace. and actually, what i'd love to showhe governor do is just up, open mic. right? like the british prime minister does. and just take it. right? just physically hear the people, because he seems to have been so tone-deaf. and so much of what is needed is grandiose and requires funding and negotiation. but so little of what is needed is just the knowledge that you're being heard. and i feel like if he sat in a room like this, and just took it hours --five [laughter] right? and just hear people.
just hear people. it would be beautiful press for him. >> but i don't think he cares. i think he's like another -- likecoming off to me another slightly less evil giuliani. i think there may be violent reaction. but on the positive thing, if you can even. glean something positive from the situation, i do see a new political movement happening. i do see what you were talking about, which is libertarian and liberals coming together, think this whole crap is-republican nonsense. i'm from harlem. ofre are dozens and dozens people of different political parties. i may not agree with what you're saying. i'll just start my own party. that's what is happening. i think we need to stop looking things in boxes. as americans, we're just obsessed with cramming ourselves boxes.these thethe fact is -- on positive -- i mean, but on the positive side, we are seeing alliances, you know.
you see a senator from paul?ky, rand i was saying some shit that can rock with, the war on drugs. >> what are these new activist organizations asking for, vis-a-vis ferguson? shooting black and brown. >> but there's also representations in terms of you disconnect about who who thece are versus populous is. you see there's a very perverse relationship between how the government is funded and the imposition of petty fines on people, which encourage the cops a basically have stop-and-frisk type attitude. thatt paid for it and funds the whole court system. there's cameras on police. request pretty specific that's come out of this. and probably seven other things i can't remember, but many of probablye audience know off the top of your head. >> i thought it came out of
garner, staten island, the whole thing about equipping policemen with cameras. don't have footage in ferguson, so there's a question of what happened. >> the main thing i have a with, what the activists at, in that they're saying, oh, with this town, it's amajority black, but it has white city council, white police. we need more black representation so that we our own destiny. to me, that is a false tack for they'retake, because not questioning the basic premise underlying that, which to-- and this was explained me by the principal of a high school, because i used to live suburbs ofhe birmingham, alabama. and the reason why cities work is because you have a broad tax broad array of social services. you have old people paying taxes they're not using the schools. young people are paying taxes using the medicare. businesses use the roads and theges not they don't use
schools. you have a broad and varied tax base but not everyone is taking advantage of the services. easy little towns and suburbs, you have no industry. you might have light retail tax base for sales tax. but your primary tax base is property taxes. these like fees and stuff that's coming from the -- taxes. so meanwhile, instead of this very base where people are using of the city services but not all of them, everyone is there for one reason. exploit your most expensive public service, which is the good public schools in the suburbs. it's a completely untenable system. only way that works is if you wealth.reme the bronxvilles, the these really wealthy places, they can afford out, andhe world support an excellent public school based on nothing more taxes.operty doesn't work for anyone else. middle even work for
class white people. doctors and lawyers, people who have accumulated wealth, would you like those communities to continue to expand and sprawl? places like ferguson, it's a completely untenable model. people are coming in, saying, well, we need to run ferguson. well, once black people are running ferguson -- i mean, you think white people don't give a now.about ferguson wait until it has a black mayor and city council. all-black city with all black leadership, then shrink base is going to even more, because white people are really going to be gone, and tote people are going decline even more. you've got black police, so more darren wilson and that's great. but black people and working-class white people are saying we need to win that game. it doesn't make any sense. the only reason black people need to take political control in ferguson is to say we want to
city ofed by the st. louis. the bulk of the city, states we have organized problem. to say black people need to take care of ferguson is to misdiagnose the problem. >> and it just can't be a black body. the right black body. it's a bunch of george zimmerman. you have people that have this -- they're not the right people that get pushed into jobs. >> right. here's another -- you went to of money. and like borders. disenfranchise people. there's this very protective wall built around police officers. do no wrong.
but they can do very much wrong, because they have guns and allows them to get away withen wrong. a friend of mine from brooklyn, map that i wish i sketched out for you all. a cop that has a bad day can get away with killing you, if you look like you, probably not if you look like me. and no oneuper drunk is looking, maybe. but in general -- >> just a slap in the mouth. gonna get killed. >> it's like they're perception of your threat and their mood life.ines your >> right. >> that's a really flipped-few equation, c-span. math. a really bad set of and there's a psychologists -- psychologists out of ucla. try to promote his work as much as i can on things like this. has basically studied racism. neura little bit of a
neuropsychologist. it's very tempting to think cops racists, but they're not. that's out of fashion. out not really cool to be really hating black people. you can't walk around just shouting those things anymore. the implicit thing poisons all of us, the association of that they're less than human, seeing 14-year-old men.as 30-year-old that's all programming that the media has done a very effective job with us. he found ing that one of his studies, is that the a copst predictor of if is going to shoot a black boy or boy or man, is not their explicit racism. sense ofr implicit masculinity. inically cops that are weak their own manhood, they gotta flex. if you challenge them in any way, they gotta put you down, because they don't know how to men. themselves as grown
>> can i just add one thing to that? that's why at least in my community, where i grew up, seeing many of my friends being theimized by the cops, thing we were always talk to look out for were black and theno cops, because of demassn history of being emass cue lated. we are a very young country, of the slave trade. our memory, part of our dna, is ptsd. part of that is with black and emasculatoin. them, i will f somebody up if they did me wrong. of times i have to be careful, more so with people who familyke me and my
members. of things from the bottom that we're not dealing with, not only in the penal also inwith cops, but our community that we have to deal with. i think that's at the bottom of this, ptsd. look at -- i think ptsd is even correlated to crime andlack brown-on-brown crime. stopre you going to committing acts of violence on other part people when you don'e you see in the mirror? how are you going to start liking other people when you what you see in the mirror? i think a lot of that stuff is really at the bottom of this, is how we're not talking about race we're here.d and these kinds of things in our society a little more openly, right? being afraid, >> the most interesting thing i've seen regarding sort of the implicit, you know, biases people have, is the guy too -- in north carolina. matter? >> whoa. sorry. talk with tanner after.
>> i'm from the south, so i can. [laughter] >> no. of my -- >> some of my best friends are from the south? book?t your next [laughter] >> this video went viral. cop pulls the guy over, a black guy. guy hops out of his car. totally like, hey, what's up, friendly? just total like like it's a tuesday. >> because he didn't get the talk. what's up,e, hey, officer? the officer is like, i need to see your driver's license. gets his driver's license. he shoots him in the gas station, just because he reached where he couldn't see his hand. he said, excuse me, you asked me for my driver's license. i'm getting my driver's license. but the tape kept rolling for like the next hour. a few days later, it came out. was audio recorded, the officer explaining to his boss what had happened. like, if you watch the video it's literally the guy of the car like, hey, what's going on? sure, i'll get you my driver's
license. description was "he lunged at me" and it was like so and dangerous. was that cop, a, lying to cover his ass? or b, was that his actual this everydaywhat guy was doing? that just speaks to what that perception of the experience was. and what was equally theinating, it was like same week. there was the incident with that l.a. actress in the actress was detained by the was a because there report of lewd behavior in her car. this huge martyr statement about my rights were violated, so horrible, disgusting. just this diatribe. and all these civil rights leaders come out and get behind it's racial profiling, the way black women are treated in society, blah blah blah. l.a. pd releases the tape. and the officer is totally
civil. the book.ays by ma'am, there was a call about a disturbance. i have to investigate. sorry.lly i don't want to be doing this. show me your id. at one point he says to the look, if she just bywed me her id, i'd be gone now. she's like a spoiled brat. she actually says, a, do you know who i am? b -- and she said, my daddy you. to talk to she tries to put her daddy on the phone with the police officer. in that instance, her perception of it was she was going to be wasnext trayvon martin and the greatest victim of all time. he was like, ma'am, i just need id, then i'll leave. so these encounters between minorities and police are so and so loaded at every antance, whereas i never had encounter with police like that in my life. i run a red light, the guy gives i leave.et and that's it. >> and i don't drive.
my husband does. i get tense, especially out of new york. i start to shake. i'm always afraid something is happen to my daughter or son, even though he's two years old, if any of us step out line. it's scary. >> it's not an unreasonable expectation. i heard a story from my older sister. my oldest sister, belinda and me. in theer wasn't really picture. he didn't live with us. he was killed. i was very young. handful of memories of this guy. car with --s in the actually -- yeah. my sister was in the car with my father. up.cops rolled this is washington, d.c., circa 1976. cops rolled up. they decide they're just going full force. he was doing something they like. and principally talking back to them. car,grabbed him out of the beat the crap out of him. take him away. seven-year-oldmy sister in the car alone for
hours until a random lady on the street rolls up and convinces my sister to roll the window down. are you okay? she remembers something about her address and she's able to is home to my mother, who livid obviously at the time. so, yeah, your concern about your small child isn't totally misplaced. >> to protect and serve. yeah. >> that's what they do. >> and, you know, not to belabor this, but you just brought up another memory. when i was in labor with my daughter, i was living in the bronx. and we took a cab to lennox hill. us out cops just stopped of the blue. when they opened the door, they wanted to prove that i was in stomachven though my was out to here. so my husband said at the time, her.e don't touch the guy was like, get the f out smartass., i had to fall on my knees, to my stomach, and beg them to stop, them who i am, you know, i'm a writer. they didn't care. they were white cops.
because of the civil union board, to write names, know where they have -- they covered andadges the license plate to their vehicle was turned down. and i was really young. thinking act,sn't about, okay,ng act, what next? they threw the baton at my husband at the time and said night.nice when i got to the hospital, i almost lost her, because of the stress. in, day in,we live day out. and it don't matter what the do. you it doesn't matter if i was in slave" and that is what i think people are getting fed up with. and i think people of all and races should be fed up with, as our country and your grandchildren are becoming more and more and more non-white. by 2043, it's over. >> we're still going to have a
2043. the money in >> is that a promise or a threat? >> just a fact. .1111% we have? >> we have a lot of money. toit's going to take a while nudge us out the door. lawsth the voter id especially. >> hey, those were my ideas. >> ha ha! [laughter] the police isbout there is a phenomenal arrogance. in thecultural problem police department. i have a friend who is a cop. and he, you know, explains to me about how it works. was notoriously corrupt, even up through the the crack's, all years. so many cops were on the payroll. when bill braden and kelly came in, under giuliani, as bad as they work for the racial element in policing, in terms of in,uption, they went arrested the top corrupt people, saidaway their badges and
anyone else does this, you're fired. of course there's still some corruption in the police department, but that systemic corruption we remember from the largely rootedas out, because the leadership said no tolerance. nypde leadership of the said tomorrow nine who commitments a civil rights suspended without pay for the first one, fired for endsecond one, it would rather quickly, because whether it's steroids in baseball or politics, when there's a cultural change at the top that says this is not do change,things especially in a paramilitary type of organization like the nypd. >> i think yes and -- >> yes and? my improv people at? thank you. i knew it! front and center. of course. it's paired with the training. because i think we also expect -- like we make broad that are not backed up by our intrinsic behaviorment
don't see color! but we do. like i see it, you know, and i am trainedto but i by the same stimulus that has trained the rest of us. i am also racist, right? against me, because i've been conditioned. >> don't do that to ourselves. >> i don't want to, all right. the mirror -- i look in the mirror, i'm like, ah, you so much more handsome. there's a level of the ptsd. therapy.ike a mass we skipped some steps. we've got great words, really beautiful language about equality and about the rights women. and congratulations, ladies. from time to time, you get heard. ourour nature and socialization and our habits have been built up across generations. from the topment of the police force saying this to also tolerated needs be supported with some psychological retraining efforts
beyond, you know, conflict resolution, diversity training. up.heads are messed you know, we've been really psychologically violated, all of us, whether you're the oppressor or oppressed. that's going to take some doing. i thought about this. chart.a i like charts. that you're not going to see. i got frustrated with our own impatience. we expect so much in so little in the great sweep of just american history. years ofl hundred legal disenfranchisement and the segregation, socially acceptable years, 400 300 years. we're 50, 60 years post that and a deficit of good will, of equality. to project out to maybe like the year 2300. about things like equity, but it takes some real like time investment.
a part of the currency here. >> it is. i remember when i was researching my book. came across -- i think it was like in time magazine. magazine. segue, time >> it was about why there were no black executives on the boards of fortune 500 companies. this is 1982. it was like because we're years apartheid.gal that's why there are no blacks in the boardroom. when i think about sort of my relation to america's racial history, i'm poorlly not -- i'm just white trash. my great-grandparents were louisianaouthern share croppers. so there you go. my grandfather got to leave the with theget a job administration and then got some v.a. benefits after world war ii. and, you know, we built up and built up. and now i'm this, you know, middleclass -- upper class white guy in 2014 who kind
of gets to do whatever i want. i'm not rich, because it's kind of like i chose to not be rich, somethingchose to do that doesn't pay me any money, but i could have chosen to make money. so -- but that process, start to finish, was about 80 years. takes 80 years to go from, you know, share cropping to upper middle class total freedom and opportunity and privilege, as some people would say, it takes 80 years if you're a white man. >> yeah. like you say,ly, 50 years out from the end of apartheid. gauge yourself on that spectrum. worked hard and did everything right. since, you know, 1968, plaque been -- black people have been kind of unlucky in a lot of things and we continue to many things wrong that retards that progress in i think people in america should do what they're doing in the caribbean, which is getting together, having conversations
suing their former colonizers. know thathough we all nobody is going to win, the good that comes out of it is di dialogue.and when i actually read in the talkinghat they were about ptsd, i just couldn't hadn't it, because i seen that ptsd was something that we carry in our memory, as people, regardless of what collar we are, who are new americans. that becauseink especially in new york city we're so diverse, right, i there's another word we have to come to use for the were diverse. colorful!-- we should be looking at our