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tv   Panelists Discuss the Impact of Globalization on Cities  CSPAN  September 4, 2017 3:20pm-4:46pm EDT

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watch the senate, live on c-span2. times" commentator talks about global cities. the chicago form on global cities hosted. ladies and gentlemen, the chicago global affairs president. [applause] chicago and the 2017 forum on global cities. i am the president of the chicago council on global affairs. it is great to have all of you here. imagine aicult to more timely moment for us to convene this particular forum. in the year since we last met, and in the last few days, it chicago has seen examples of something quite extraordinary.
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cities are increasingly becoming important as players on the national stage, bypassing national governments when necessary, to look to each other for solutions to global problems. affirmedd city leaders their support for what had originally been an agreement among nations, the paris climate accord. is not an outlier in its city to city coordination. quite the opposite . it is happening on issues of inclusion, immigration, health, and human rights, and so many other critical issues. extraordinary is perhaps the wrong word to describe this trend. direct city to city coordination is emerging and maturing and
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becoming wonderfully ordinary. why is this happening? the answer is that urbanization is the most consequential force shaping our political order in the century. undoubtedly the most dynamic force. the than 500 cities around world now has a population of more than one million people. is not quitec capture the staggering pace at which cities are growing. world0, one third of the lived in urban areas. today, well over half do. people live billion and work in urban areas. at this very moment, a chicago-sized city is being added to the world population every two weeks. engage why we need to
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the new people moving to cities and being born there. the next generation, about the power and the promise and the challenges and capabilities cities have, is now more important. we are delighted to have so many young professionals with us, fromding 32 students universities all around the world. cities also hold great economic power. 80% of the world economic output come from cities. so do more than 70% of the greenhouse gases being a minute in the world. politically and culturally, cities are the champions of globalization. important qualities in a time when anti-globalist sentiments are reemerging. future dominated by cities
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is rapidly becoming our present. as we have done in the previous years, we are gathered here in chicago to discuss the essential role of global cities in a changing world. this year is different from previous years. the questions we hope to answer are entirely new. asked if cities a global economy. now we asked how they will continue to do so. now we are more interested in the examples of city diplomacy at its best. asked whether cities could challenge national governments on the global stage. today, we know they are. we want to know how they will continue to do so and better the lives of citizens. there are many ways to start.
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there is a new report released that outlines the priorities for chicago's global strategy. that report is available outside in does a great resource for leaders from chicago and all the global cities on how to organize ourselves and the many ideas we have heard and learned not only from chicago, but by traveling around the world and having a forum like this about how we can meaningfully create an actionable agenda for global change. i encourage you all to download and read the task force report. we also have copies available of a report on cities that the "financial times" published today. many of its journalists are either moderating or participating in panels over the next few days and have contributed. none of this happens by accident. it takes a small city to organize this global city forum.
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on behalf of the chicago council on global affairs and "financial times" i would like to thank all of the speakers joining us today. more than 50 from all corners of the world. we are able to be here in this wonderful setting in which mayors and architects and ceos, educators, journalists, and all because ofgathered, overthinking corporations and organizations. they believe the issues addressed here today are critical. we are glad they are with us. i want to think r -- thank our sponsors. sponsors.upporting usged airlines and corporation. andy robert mccormick foundation. the robert mccormick foundation. i want to thank those who made
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this over the next few days. i want to thank the 500 delegates from more than three dozen countries. we gave you the nice weather, the maid -- they made the trek to chicago. the weather comes free. you don't have to pay for that. we are pleased to have you. thank you to everyone who are watching off on mine. tweet early and often. htag is -- has #globalcities2017. it is hoped that what is said here one which -- will enrich discussions around the world. i want to take a moment to remember a friend and partner who worked with us and passed away earlier this year. ben was a pioneering leader on
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thinking about the roles cities play in the world today. the insights he shared in best-selling books and on this very stage during our forum two years ago. he would have enjoyed the program we have planned for real. it is my great pleasure to welcome the u.s. manager of the financial times. our partner in this endeavor for the last three years. [applause] >> good evening everybody. welcome to the event. i would like to echo the welcome and say that we are absolutely delighted to be participating in this event. a very powerful -- he is a very powerful man. i didn't know that he also controlled the weather.
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we havethe third year had perfect weather. three out of three is a pretty good score. it does show the fantastic city of chicago to its great advantage. and it provides a perfect frame to talk about these incredibly serious issues. said, talking about cities right now is very important. partly because of the great keyword, donald we leave in an era -- we live in an era where a lot of the burden on economic generation and growth relies on cities. wheree in an era quite inadvertently, cities are put at the heart of the climate change debate.
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we also live at a time when the question of immigration and the question of how different communities can or cannot live together is absolutely crucial and cities are once again at the center of that. last but not least, we live at a time when the question of how we find effective leadership, how we find call it -- politicians that people can actually believe in in these very fragmented times, is absolutely at center stage. we were having a discussion in the green room talking about which politicians did or did not -- we did or did not admire. somewhat reticent during the election,ited kingdom and what became clear is that many people look to city leaders as people he can actually trust in these troubled times. -- trump has put cities onto center stage, but
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even without donald trump, if you can remember a world without cities arep, incredibly important, and growing in importance, for all of the reasons that ivo has just said. if you are already a subscriber to the financial times, you would know that we have a supplement that has come out on the question of future cities. if you are not a subscriber to the financial times yet, we also have a special promotional deal which is that we have a newsletter talking about the discussion which will be having for the next three days. you can actually get a three month free trial subscription to the ft through that.
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that is my one commercial plug. said, we are ivo going to have a few generalists in the next few days. myself, our chief u.s. commentator, our asian managing martin wolf, our chief economics commentator, and andrew johnson, our u.s. news editor. we would like to have a chance to talk to you about these issues, and we hope that you very much enjoyed this debate. they will be an interesting set of stories for us to read about, and hopefully for you to read about, and to kick us off, and i cannot think of a better way to start this discussion, we will begin with a panel called open cities, closed borders. a response to globalization. in the supplement published today, we have a column by "the world'salled
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great cities are inherently dynamic and diverse." there are also naturally opened to the world, so how should they risk on if their countries seek to close themselves against outsiders? how should they viewed their responsibilities to the world? that, indeed, is one of the great questions of the age, and i look forward to the next panel, to hear some answers. thank you. [applause] announcer: your moderator ivo, and the response to globalization panel. [applause]
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ivo: gillian, thank you so much for that kind introduction. welcome again, good to see you here. by somened here today very important voices, or we can have a good discussion about the question of where cities are heading in an age of globalization. which is in some ways computing with the way in which our international system has been organized for the past 400 years. system basedonal on the interaction of a mission and increasingly we are seeing that globalization is posing the questions, not viability of nation states, but how they cooperate internationally. how they deal with the challenges that we all face, and how cities haps as subnational entities, offer an opportunity
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to cooperate in dealing with these challenges and offer solutions. we have with us, practitioners and thinkers, journalists and politicians, have these kind of questions. people who have served at high levels of government, people who have not served in these high levels, people who have served nationally and internationally and at local levels. the mayor oftory, toronto since 2014, martin wolf, the chief economics commentator at the financial times, and has already been cited in the kickoff here. edward a paez, the former mayor of rio de janeiro including during the olympics, helen clark , former prime minister of new zealand, former prime minister of new zealand, from administrator of the human development program, and the
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former minister and prime minister of sweden. to have ang discussion here. first, i was on to talk about the fundamental question of governing a world where political power of cities is not commensurate with their economic and cultural power. i would like to start with you, you wrote in the special section, the financial terms put out today, i hope you have a chance to look at it. from your perspective, what in the past year what has been revealed to you about the changing global order and the role that cities are playing? forirst of all, thank you the question. before i answer it, it is a great pleasure to be back here in chicago, and to be involved in the program. i have always enjoyed it enormously, being involved with the global council. the start is, how many hours do i have? obviously, the last year has
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taught us that we are in a pretty spectacular mass in the west, as far as globalization is concerned. quite particularly, in the united states and united kingdom, which i suppose one would have regarded as the heartland of international liberalism defined in the english sense of the term. not the american one. so, these are not the only countries in which backlash is -- populist backlashes against globalization. they dodged a bullet in france. that cis very plausible could become the biggest party in italy, which
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could have very big consequences. so i think we have to ask ourselves, what is going on, and what does it mean for city? the answer, i think, is that we are now living in a period of pretty extreme political fragility, in them important parts of the western world. and that is because we have not succeeded in persuading a large part of our populations that the global order as it evolved has worked to their benefit. view, manipulative and irresponsible politicians have, as you would expect, because that is their profession as it were, they have exploited this. the particular form of exploitation takes the form of a return to tribalism. tribal identities link around ethnicity and nationality.
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which are obviously by their very nature, hostile to globalization and hostile to the idea of an open society in its many different respects. why is this happening? it is particularly surprising, we have had rising inequality. stagnant wages, particularly in the last 10 years. we had a gigantic financial crisis from which in the view of many citizens the bankers themselves were saved and they weren't. and, they don't see this is going to get better. one of the things that is very revealing, both in the u.s., and united kingdom so many people , don't think the future for their children will be better than their own. this is the context. what does it mean for the challenges for cities? in some ways, thinking about my own country, the brexit
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referendum captured this stress between growing tribalism and the outward-looking metropolis of london. london's population is , just under 40% of its population is foreign-born. the place where there are incredibly large number of immigrants. and yet it voted very, very strongly to remain. it is completely relaxed about this. it has opened its links to the world are colossal. links toopen, and it's the world are colossal. it is in some ways the antithesis of the movement which led to brexit. but of course the people who , voted for briggs it were -- that people who voted for the exit insignificant ways were voting against london. voting against the saying it embodied. even though, paradoxically,
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london is an enormous source of fiscal transfers to the country. so by depriving of london of its position in europe they will greatly impoverish themselves. but the resentment being built up is such that they are choosing policy at the national level, which impoverish es themselves because of resentments that a city like london creates. i think there are similar things in other societies. that creates immense challenges at the national level and city level. i don't personally believe that cities can escape from their national context. but they have to be aware of the national context in which they are operating. and i think a core element is this return of tribalism shown so clearly in the results. electiont vote, the
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here in the u.s., and other places. we have an enormous challenges to confront. helen, take us from there. >> you have been a national and local leader, an international leader as well. but staying with the local and national for a moment, cities are often characterized as martin just did, the non-big cities have a sense of cities having too much power and influence, too much say over what is going on. they tend to be viewed as elitist, out of touch. where does this perception come from? why is it occurring? what can we do about it? because, even if it is true, it is not a very healthy way in which to live. helen: i think there is often a tendency of polarization in the center of periphery of a society, between a large dominance and smaller cities.
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let alone the role of hinterland. i think what we're seeing happen as martin prescribes, is is globalization seeming to have favored cities but not so much the secondary cities and places where industry left. and rural areas which are feeling neglected. that exacerbates what is often a traditional tension. i think also for the periphery, there is the issue of the skill of the cities. .ig becomes bad there is also the perception of cities as a dangerous place, and as tragic recent events have shown, for many. is the effect that because of the skill of cities, they tend to have more political power in the national legislatures, and federal legislatures as well, which builds resentment. in this big place, these big places are seen as doing better
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than i am in my smaller place on the periphery, that creates antagonism. on the issue of elitism, i think it is then easy to trash the cities as the places where the pointy heads are. the universities, the academics, what do they know about anything? it is where the big media centers are. it has been interesting to see how populism has taken on attacking the media. almost linking back to the larger economic and anti-cultural effect. that can be represented as pointy-headed. the cities give space to the expression of liberal values than one finds in a hinterlands. multiculturalism. feminism. this space for lgbt writes -- lgbt rights.
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so, all of these reasons, i think we are in a time and place where the traditional center of periphery divide is exacerbated. what we can do about it is a harder issue. governmentsnational and for political tendencies which are concerned about populism that we're seeing at the moment, the issue is really how to run economic and social policies which are more inclusive so that you don't set up these divisions. how do we become more cohesive, more inclusive in the way countries are run? >> we will come back to this issue of the city and the -- of how the city and the periphery can come together more and share in the benefits of openness. but staying for a moment with the city, and that we would like to turn to john tory, global cities in particular, yours
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being one of them, proclaim that they are open to the world. as martin said almost 40% of , london's population is foreign-born. i believe in your city it is even larger than that. -- s 51% >> 51%. that 51% are weird they are open, but also not particularly open in some ways. they are leaving people within their own cities behind. what are the tensions playing out? >> different kinds. they are tensions of a sort but not the kind of tribal tensions. i think the challenge is you don't want them to develop into that. canada has been fortunate in that our shared values are broadly shared across the country included in the big cities. i think they are rooted in the big cities where we do have 51% of the population born outside of the country. we have somehow managed to have people feel accepted and embraced. if there is tension, it is not between people of different nationalities or faith.
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if there are challenges in front of us, that could lead to i am not trying to pretend that we have achieved perfection, but i would say that i am probably the single greatest unifying future in canada in that i am the mayor of the single largest disliked city in the country. i consider that my contribution. [laughter] tensions about inclusion versus noninclusion. the fact is that if you look at people who are not fully integrated, or included in the economy or political or social country,parts of the mostly urban, they tend to disproportionately be people who have come from somewhere else. it is a practical problem to resolve, it is simply because it have been working hard at developing the language courses and transition courses. the level of education of people choosing to come to canada is higher than the people who were already there.
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yet, when they come to toronto -- they seekseat recognition for the education that they have had, it is very difficult. i am sure that is by design, some provisions have put up certain barriers to entry. are developing transition courses, developing community hubs in these neighborhoods to avoid tension arising from a lack of inclusion. we are working at things as simple as language courses. become anybody get or fully included if they cannot speak one of our two official languages at all? that, if working at you said to me where is the strain or where is the challenge for us, i would say that that is where it is. as opposed to the tribal roots of tensions that exist elsewhere in the world. we just went through, again, we do not have refugees coming on foot across the border or in
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boats, but we took a very open approach put forth by leaders, including myself that we should be open, based on all of our past experiences by refugees. i will say that we did have the same pressures that some countries in europe did, but it was emblematic in our attitude and valleys and we still have a challenge -- values, and we still have a challenge in inclusion. >> brazil has different challenges. there is an urban rule challenge. which is in some ways affecting policy and policy making, and even voting behavior in brazil. how has this manifested itself? is there a populism that comes with that difference and the challenge of the rapid changes happening in the urban areas in brazil? >> it is always going to be a difference when we speak from the global north.
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and then when it comes to the global south. i would like to go back a little bit in brazilian history, we are going through a crazy time in brazilian politics. if you look at two or three years ago, the country was doing great. if you look at the past two decades, 10 years, inequality has become smaller, and it seems that we are getting better. the economy was doing well. and then we had, why would i like to go back a little, because in 2013, we had lots of protests. it was the best moment of the country, the economy was growing, almost no unemployment, and brazil was finally the country of the future, it had become a great country. and then everyone went out on the streets, and everyone was protesting against the politicians. i had like 500,000 people, very nice to have so many people in front of city hall protesting.
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issue of always the the world cup, the olympics, this and that. is somethinghat that i think has come between the global south and the global north. i think we face a big problem, which is the model of representative democracy. leaders inoose our the same way that we did centuries ago. obviously, it got better, women are voting, there are no more slaves, we have become open, but there is still, people have more information, more axis to politicians, what we do. a thing that i think when you look at cities, it can mean a big difference between a rural area and the city. -- i think we it
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coming to a point, an adaptation. we are a generation of people who go for this adaptation, but we're coming to a point where cities are the place where direct democracy can come back. people are always wanting to discuss, people in 2013 did not go out into the streets of brazil to complain about the services, because they were better than they were before. people were complaining about the lack of representation. this in cities, can make a big difference. moment, i amirst an optimist about what is going to happen in the near future. as everywhere else, if you look in latin america, if you look at south america especially, you will look -- you will see a lot of populism that comes from the left. i am do not want to say bad things about venezuela, but it
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comes from the left, the right, from everywhere. i think this is a transition. , and i think that cities will play a major role of fighting against populist -- i guess populism the way that cities can change representative democracy, is a machine to change what is going on. >> i would like to talk a little bit about sweden, and go beyond that. sweden has in many ways gone through all of these stages. large refugee populations in the 1990's, and again in recent years. has beension dynamic won, the socioeconomic dynamic has changed over time where the difference between these and not cities has not been great. perhaps as it could have been in certainly in countries like perhaps the united kingdom and the u.s.. reflect a little bit on that, but then also as part of the transition to come not only
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where we are, but what we can do about it. what are the challenges that big cities are facing that really cities are better placed to tackle? to tackle better than the nation-state per se? think, i think it is obvious, it is not a question of cities or nationstates or global organizations, it has to be all of them. of course, cities are becoming needless to say, more important. inyou talk about mega trends globalization, i see to make a trend that will be important. nation, wetalized are in the industrial age -- we are in the end of the industrial age and in the beginning of the digital age. it will shape everything, possibly for centuries ahead. where we were at
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when we were in the moment of the steam engine. the other one is urbanization, we can talk about the divide between rural areas and peripheries and cities, but the fact around the world is that people are moving to cities. i think i heard you say that two thirds of the global population will be living in cities. canada,ook at sweden or or zeal, if you look at africa even, what is going to happen there? and norma cities will be created. it is not the politicians are forcing people to go to cities, it is that people find that even if things can be difficult in cities, which they can be, they prefer life there, for an x number of different reasons. them totially, it is on find solutions for cities in cities. that will have to be done with background -- with the different backgrounds that are there.
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some of the issues are going to be decided, if you look at it long-term. issues that need to be addressed, have to be addressed on the city level. just take a couple of them, the digital issues, we are going to see the impact of them more profoundly on the city level. issue such as transportation systems, what can be done there, with automation and self driving and things like that. roughlyi have a figure, one third of the area of los angeles is taken up by highways or parking spots. andou take away the cost have them automated and shared, it transforms the urban landscape. that is going to happen in cities. and then we talk about cities like mumbai, to talk about them
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fairly without space, they will catch up very quickly to the digital age. the divide we may be seeing now places like mumbai, will become less. the other one, the sustainability, energy issues, obviously. will probably return to that. another one, not to be forgotten our security issues. ofcan talk about the threat terrorism and things like that, what the national police force is doing, but at the end of the day, local policing, local security -- security is very local. the way that it is organized, to take one example, without insulting to many people, the difference in a country like belgium, it is a nationstate. the difference in which they organize security forces in brussels and in antwerp, completely different systems. completely different effects in
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terms of security that they are able to provide. here, cities do it. cities doing differently here. a happily nice country in the north, it has to be said that once upon a time, and it still might either case, there were probably more people of swedish ancestry living in an all ofan in sweden, but truly in stockholm. so we had a time when life in sweden was less glorious. people thought that chicago was better. whether that is still the case, i do not know. gone through many challenges in development as well, in terms of urbanization and the population of the rural areas. the big change that we had was in mechanization of forestry. toous not forget that not
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many decades ago, a lot of people were living on farms and doing forestry and there were no machines. they were doing this year round. then machines appeared in the 1950's and 1960's and large parts of sweden were eventually depopulated and moved to urban areas. there was a lot of tension there but we sorted it out. then we have alluded to immigration. the figures that we have are slightly different than the other figures, you said that people coming to toronto tomorrow or canada, with a high level of education. that has something to do with the canadian system, it has to be said. ours is that we are open to refugees. they are coming often with education, not always, there are certain groups that are highly educated and have done >> we do have a challenge.
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have wehat fully -- mastered that fully, no. with 95% anducceed we're not there yet. immigration adds to the vitality of our cities and politics. that tendency to say pull up the drawbridge, that is not going to happen. >> we have a diagnosis, how are we going to solve it? let's moved to addressing the problems we see. you, westarting with had this tension about the economic and cultural importance
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of cities and the lack of political power. the importance london was for the entire country. way it can use its economic clout better to affect policies in the nation more in line with the way london would want to go. is there a way we could redistribute power from the national level to cities in other to effectuate change that benefits all. column that a ppears in a special report, it made me question things. is two i thought that
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profoundly have been persuaded by the work of jane jacobs. i was privileged to know. great invention of the neolithic era. economic progress has always occurred in cities. in fact, she puts forward a cities evengument, invented agriculture. we can discuss that. she was a genius. citiesnt is, when period ofthe early
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human development, many were political entities. the city state was not just an epicenter. begining, city states were a dominant entity. asia, city states have played a staggering role and from athens to rome and so forth. only cityapore is the state with independence. city regions which generate close to half of the gdp of inir countries are embedded
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countries and territories. powerful states in the world are at a scale that even dwarfs their cities. up withl power ended countries that contain many cities and whose interests are different. as dominant role is as ever and their political role is remarkably insignificant. what do we do about this? i do not think it is plausible armiese cities that lack and tribal loyalties are going to rise up and say give us
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independence. iwrote a column in which argued that it would be a good thing if london would become an independent city state. i do not expect the english people to want that. we are not going to have political independence. we are not going to be able to frame the legal environment. these discussions are about how cities should deal with one another. one of the things cities have to do is to take the argument to their country. they have to persuade the people who are not living in the greater metropolitan cities,
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them.opinion benefits they have to show that people can come and live, but there is no housing. cityousing in every major is so expensive that it is an thinkable for people to live there in less they want to live in the message waller -- unless the most to live in squaler. squalor. they can work hard at their level to show how you integrate
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people from abroad. they can become interdiction cultivatend they can the relationships with one another but crucially with the city regions of which they are a part. that they spread their influence and opportunities to closeople fairlly --people fairly close but feel distant from them. to in the leering the situation in which we find oratelves --emilio the situation in which we find ourselves. >> martin is saying the center
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cannot get away from the periphery but it can find a way to bring the periphery into the political and economic advantage of the city. reflect on the urban and rural divide, the divide between large and small cities. how do you bring them in? how do you make them feel that it is important to be part of this larger cosmopolitan city rather than think we are better cutting herself off from the rest of the world. what is a practical politician do to get that implemented? >> you have to look at it from the point of view of what national government has been doing. non-exclusive dimensions of policy.
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the government needs to make sure cities that do not monopolize all the prosperity in the country. there is a responsibility to share prosperity more widely than we are seeing. we are seeing two thirds of the global population in cities by 2050. we look at the numbers, we have roughly a population of 7.5 billion and is heading for 9.5 billion by 2050, my understanding that all that extra population is going to be bsorbed in cities? the role of the national government to expand prosperity is going to be accentuated. there is something cities can do. showing the interdependence
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between periphery and city. how did the goods get out to market. how did people transport themselves.where our goods processed ? if you're going to be part of a value chain, then what happens outside the cities matters a great deal. the city could market their value and the anchor linkages -- the inter-linkages and dependency. housing is a very important one because we are seeing the global cities become only those where those of considerable means can afford to live. there is also a responsibility of central government. unaffordability
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have been exacerbated by central government taking away housing subsidies that enable those who do work in the cities, the service work, actually allows them to live there. in summary, there is a responsibility on national government. there is a responsibility on cities to sell themselves. cities can be the model of what we want our world to be, more open, more assimilated but we have to have shared prosperity and benefits for all. >> thank you very much. we're going to open up the floor pretty. andill open it up digitally you have seen on the screen that you can access our webpage
4:12 pm if you put that on your smartphone, you can type in question. i want to go from the nation to a more international perspective on how cities can cope with these issues. lookingngly, cities are not just to their national government but to the periphery but counterparts to the other part of the world to face the problems. in diplomacy as an initiative. describe what you are trying to do with those issues and the impact you are seeing as it relates to overcoming some of the divisions and tensions you find in your own city. >> if i could just go back to the previous question, one thing
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we do in practical and political terms, the big cities had a caucus which represented a huge proportion of members of parliament. we put the feet to the fire and maintained immunity among ourselves. it was very successful because they could not avoid a. we represent 80% of the population of the country. convincingtter of the politicians of the merits of our case. it works very well because we stayed united. on the question you asked, in canada, a lot of what we are doing was with purpose of one of the. with urban diplom
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acy. change,trade, climate all the cities in the country had views and values and aspirations consistent with national aspirations. i think the urban diplomacy today may have more to do with the practical delivery of services and solutions. transit, housing, integration of people, who integrates refugees? the national government may take policy but who integrates cities? fixes thely environment? retrofitting of buildings, building of transportation to get cars off the road. do people invest in cities or countries? right now they are investing in city regions, nodding countries. the advantage of urban diplomacy
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is, i don't mean this to be disrespectful, they are ripping us off in that we have those responsibilities but do not have the ability to raise the money to do things we are responsible for doing. i will learn more from a meeting with ron and 90 well in chicago ron emmanuel in chicago. the national government is not delivering the service is on a day-to-day basis and we are. we had the opportunity to sit in a room with people who have the users possibility and compare how are you doing it. not interest rates, not foreign policy, and everything that
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matters, if we are going to make people integrated, it is going to be in cities. >> take that one example of climate and sustainability where cities in the last 5-6 years have really come together because they are responsible for the problem and for its solution. can you talk about how you cooperated together, how you tried to influence national governments on these issues? learned, learning from other cities in a practical way in order to achieve real results. >> he spoke before me, because we could make a sweet transition here. earlier when you made the
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presentation, i am going to talk i'm not looking for more, i'm not looking for more power here. by the end of the day, there is a problem with representative democracy. which level of government is living the everyday problems of the people? which is dealing more and more with the issues that matters to people? when people listen, i don't think we need to get rid of national governments. that would be impossible. there needs to be a transition, a change, where most of the revenues, the taxes don't go to the central government. that is a model that is not working anymore.
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it will keep not working. we need to decentralize. we need to give more power to mayors. the world is going to become urbanized because cities are a fantastic experience. people love to live in cities. that is why the world is becoming more urbanized. we proved that in institutions. talk a little bit about urban city diplomacy or whatever. i remember it was created almost 16 years ago, but in 2012 we had this, that's the picture there, we had this summit in rio. that was in 1992.national states got together in rio. we cannot agree with certain things on tax.
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mayors got together, and there are actions that we copied from toronto and new york and copy from chicago. a bunch of great experiences. when we look at the figures, cities can do 40% of the tax. when we went to paris, there was an agreement, it seems like there was not an agreement anymore. president trump went last week and said, we are out of the paris agreement. i can guarantee you the united states is capable of delivering what was the paris agreement. i know the american mayors are very committed to that. if mayors get together and
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get things done, i really believe there is going to be a point, despite the fact that the mayors don't have any army. the fact that diplomacy is different, but there will be a point where most of the changes, the world that we want to live in will be run by cities and mayors. they will play a major role and get more strength. that is why i am optimistic. things will get better. we are going for a transition -aea i think the transition - transition. i think this will get local
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governments to be more powerful and the changes will be stronger. >> i want to go back to the slightly less optimistic version of the one eduardo just put on the table. the increasing fragility. our national politics are divergent. in some places. certainly, we saw it in the brexit vote in the u.k. and the vote here in our country. side of thatther equation. if you belive there is some, if you believe there is some division between the national politics and the way big cities are approaching the problem, how do you overcome that problem? we will not have independent city states. that is a given. how do we make sure our national politics continue to have the open markets and bordersopen and openopen borders minds and societies that we used to have in our western politics.
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is this something that is just a transition days -- is this something just in the transition phase that we shouldn't worry about? how do you see it? >> everything is in a transition phase because we are in transition from where we are to where we are going. yes, we are in a transition phase. >> we are in a bigger transition phase. if you look at this particularly from the european point of view, the development of our political institutions, we have been living through the era of the nationstates. that is from the french resolution, from revolution, french revolution and onwards. we have seen that reflected in a number of elections, but we see
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there is a need for more powers. more powers of things that need to be sorted out. global trade, sustainability, those things are in if we go back a couple of decades. -- those things. prominent if we go back a couple of decades. devolve a need to power. there is a demand from people and there is a need because likely the problem's need to be addressed and different ways. we do have that tension with nationstates being not as dominant as they were but still dominant in the perception of people who say that in elections. the need for more of a regional, for more of regional autonomy. .iverse solutions are
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this is one way of sorting out the problem that you indicate the tensions that could be , there. at the end of the day, what you want is for cities or nations to sort out the problems they have to meet the demands they desire for security or public services or jobs. having the appropriate political structure is key to making that possible. political structures will have to be slightly different in the future than what was dominating in the european development for 200 years or something like that up until now. this is slightly philosophical. the importance of cities historically, they are the nationstates in europe. a few people have heard about the holy roman empire of the german nation, but it was there for 1000 years.
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under the city, there were different cities that were united by the same rules for commerce and trading groups and developing technologies and things like that. these are fairly glorious. in terms of development, but it was looser on that particular area. i think we are returning to that. >> the challenge here in a governance sense is that you have global challenges and you require global cooperation and cities are not participating in that level of government this is perhaps a challenge we face.
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can we overcome that? is there a way in which the government structure -- one way power down.e in some ways, international organizations need to become open to non-national voices, if not non-national books. -- non-national votes. >> if you look at what happensed in paris in the meeting of the united nations, mayors are meeting there. let's not pay attention to what they are doing. when you look at paris, it was a completely different environment. i was afraid because it's the un's bureaucracy get to the
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mayors, they might get us into trouble. it is a way of getting closer to the reality. i think institutions are much more open to mayors now. >> i think part of this is the crisis the new, crisis view. if you think about openness and a sense of sharing of the world as where we want to go, then the logical consequence is, i would go back but it doesn't really matter, the world in which sovereignty is ab solute and is concentrated in nationstates, which are structures designed for obedience, and that concept, which is clearly what has returned in the brexit vote and in the last election here, no doubt about it, what happens when you are frightened. that is one conception, which seems to me to be the absolutely wrong conception.
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that is not the way we can continue. the right way, if we need to continue as a species well and successfully, we have to diffuse that measure. that is a modern nation. this is not how it always was. into a notion in which power is distributed horizontally, starting at the global level and all the way down to localities. for the nationstates and those who rely on the nationstate to look after them, this concept is terrifying.
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i think we, that i absolutely have no doubt this is where we have to go. the european union was a great attempt to achieve that. that's one of the reason why i find the brexit vote so horrifying. in some ways, the united states. it is viewed as a federal state. a great attempt to do this. the question is, can we make to acomplex transition world in which power is divided in a horizontal way? once it is done, it allows cities to combine with other cities to share profit. it is a different way of organizing the world. if we do not organize the world that way, i think we will destroy ourselves. >> let it go to some of the questions that have been asked. one of those is on the role of the private sector, which we really focused on the public sector here. but the role of the private sector, which, in some ways is
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not bound by national boundaries. how can the private sector be a force to help address part of these problems? we will have to rely on the private sector being a economic force. what is the role of the private sector in making the case for cities coming more powerful? >> do you want to take that on? >> perhaps maybe incorporating into it the way in which cities are adopting the global agendas.
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there are two significant once that came out of 2015. the parent, the paris climate agreement and sustainable development. they can't be implemented unless cities do the heavy lifting because the size and the scale of the global cities in the world economy. while cities are not represented at the u.n., without the cities being active, nothing much is going to happen great, to happen. we have seen encouraging trends in the interest of the global private sector. go to a climate change party every year, as i have for the last 8 years during the global private sector is there and constructively there. you make it criticisms from, you may get criticisms from some ngos. maybe there are some natural alliance is there between the global cities, the global private sector seeing things have to be done to move with the wtimes. the leadership in the cities and the global iva sector will carry it through.
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>> what i think is going to happen automatically is this will be a driver. look at what is happening now with the development. they talk about it for a moment and it will be different five years from now. these are urban phenomenon. the leadership of airbnb, you look at cities, be that chicago, shanghai, stockholm. you look at airbnb the same. if you're in the business of agriculture or machinery, you might have a different perspective. otherwise, they will see these developments and they will compare the markets and they will look at opportunities in respectively of national borders. they are driving it and the it, driving it and the digital age
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fostered. >> speaking of climate change, the development of the new methodologies with respect to energy. it will come to pride, it will come from private ingenuity and capital. i think we need to get over the fear and anxiety. everybody is going to get ripped off and so on and so on. i think we have to remember, when the government do is they don't have a lot of ingenuity when it comes to development and new products, but they do have the upper hand in terms of regulating those things. you can remember the government have the upper hand but then harvest the ingenuity. is there a role or should there be a role? we cannot cope with the transition to the digital age and solving problems like climate change without discipline from the private sector, properly overseen by those with the position to do properly overseeing those people
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who were put in the position to do so. i crave difficulty. i suppose it is absolutely clear the private sector is global. markets naturally go across the board. we have a very global capitalistic system at the moment. it brings these benefits we talked about. seen by many of the people who are angry, understandably so. it started with the people who are abandoned them. business has abandoned them.
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when mr. trump gets on the phone to somebody and says you shouldn't take your factory to x, he is responding to a need. i think the job of the private sector is more complex than this. global because they are. they have to see the world globally, but they can't abandon the people of the countries in which they operate and for which they began. will be seenhey and they are seen as fundamentally disloyal. a rather complicated question about their responsibility. the responsibility they had is to pay tax. [applause] -- with whichhich companies, they didn't just exploit the tax system. they created it. let us be clear for their benefits.
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this is absolutely subversive of democratic governments and not tolerable. [applause] >> i will say, that is the big focus. i watch in our own city was -- what is really happening. i think we represent much more of the solution we are talking about. this is coming from two-person businesses and 4-person businesses. global capitalism is big businesses that are global by definition, but there are more of these small, local businesses where people figure it is better to create a job instead of not -- then it is to know how to get one. i think this is part of the transition of the digital age. that is a genuine part of the digital revolution. >> it does raise a final question that i want to pick up from the audience. it raises the question of leadership. we have two national leaders and
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two local leaders. >> the only one in power. >> we have experience at the national and local level. is the nature of leadership at the local level, it does that ?eed to change in some way it used to be that it came from the bottom and you became a city counselor and then a mayor and then a governor and then a senator and hopefully the vice president and then the president. is it different? what kind of leadership doing now need in order to address the kind of questions we have been discussing for the last hour. -- aside from the four of you here whom i know have the answer.
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>> i would go to what i said in the beginning, by the end of the day, being a leader, being a politician, running for office, you need to get closer to people. i think we came to a moment where politicians were too far away from people's realities, and that is a big problem. the higher you go it will be tougher. going to local politics. i am not saying you need to be a city councilmember than a mayor than a congressman -- then a mayor, then a congressman. otherwise, it would be a big problem. the thing about dealing with the everyday life of the local yournment, i think makes become a better leader.
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dealing with the everyday life of the people in local government. >> i think the leadership of the cities really matter. i think the government really matters. the cities of the smaller countries, like my own, need to be a well governed. need to be well governed. i think that leaders and cities are like premiers. they need to set the tone of tolerance and inclusion. need to set what a city can be economically and socially. they need to take people with them. they need to be accountable. we're setting quite a high standard, more than just being this elected chair of the council.
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it is somebody who can stand up there and take a vision of where the city can go. >> i think in order to be an effective national leader, you need to have a bit of local experience, local politics, absolutely. i think, i wouldn't say absolutely necessary. but clearly helpful. you need to have a global perspective. regional, european, or global. that is increasingly important. the cities are becoming far more global. i started in politics by being elected to the greater stockholm council. some of them were boring. >> most of them. no influencely over everything because it was democracy, -- a global bureaucracy, but i did learn a number of things, also by challenging the local bureaucracy. i benefited from that when i was dealing with legislation later
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-- with other issues later on. they elected me to the local whatever it was called, the community leadership. i have to distribute departments between the priests. i learned a lot. >> you learned a bunch of international things, which are equally boring. >> i think it is incredibly important, structure. i think it is very difficult to govern a city well if it is not integrated with the city region of what should a -- of which it is a part. in newthe big problems york city is the way it is structured. to change difficult its government structure and divided among the several states and itself. one of the problems with london
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is that the greater london area is too small. reasons you can't sell a house is because the region is where it could be sold , is where it is controlled. city regions have to be governed. the next point, cities have to have the relevant powers to solve their problems. the single most important one is your mistaken attempt at independence. [laughter] we won't go there. national governments are very jealous of fiscal power. in most countries that i know, britain is extreme.
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but it is far less concentrated on the national level. it is very difficult to make cities work well if you don't control the revenue. mumbai.ed about this is a monstrously big problem in india. it is not the level at which planning occurs in which revenue is achieved. what the chinese are trying to do is better. these questions are really important to get future cities to work. >> i disassociate myself with the comments of helen. nowcities in many cases have the qualities necessary to the job done. and they remain closer to the people. i am amazed at the job i now have. in the city council. they look first to the city to solve any problem. by youy are frustrated
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telling them that the local government is responsible for some of that. you have to figure out what is the best way to integrate refugees and solve climate change and to fix transit. a lot of that is not going to come from the government in your own country. this massive fiscal imbalance has to be addressed. the dollar is the responsibility of cities when we have all of these responsibilities to do all these things. i described myself as a little boy in short pants. dress, i don'ta know how that is going to be addressed. these structures probably aren't going to be changed anytime soon. >> thank you so much for getting us started today. [applause]
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] the sergeant talks about his medical career in the military while he decided to run for congress and in of his legislative priorities. dunn represents florida's second district. , what are you doing before you joined the house of representatives? fax i was a surgeon in panama city. i had been doing it for 25 years. >> what was your practice and why did you decide to go to panama city to open it? afterwife and i chose it careful thought after i got out of the army in 1990. we want to -- we wanted to go to a place that was from the to the military. the country has not has been


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