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tv   Douglas Wilder Son of Virginia  CSPAN  December 31, 2017 5:05pm-5:59pm EST

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the capitol itself is, on one level, a pretty fine fine arts museum with arts and sculpture. it is also a really convincing civics classroom. we get about 118,000 visitors each year coming to see the capitol building. they are coming to see it for all kinds of reasons. some want to visit a recognized historical attraction. some are coming here for civics education. some are coming here to participate in self-government. all of them, i hope, will gain appreciation for a time tested workplace and for enduring
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american principles, many of those principles having been engineered here in virginia going all the way back to the beginning of our general assembly. we have been exercising the rights and responsibilities of self-government in virginia for years and that is something worth watching. hold your hand on the bible and repeat after me. i solemnly swear that i will serve the constitution of the united states and the commonwealth of virginia that i will faithfully discharge all me duties incumbent upon as governor of virginia, according to the best of my abilities. so help me god. >> congratulations.
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[applause] >> this is a great moment. >> how did you know that you wanted to get into politics? >> i didn't want to get into politics. i didn't want to go around smiling and begging for votes and asking for money. i thought politics was what i would call unrepresentative of people. but i ran my mouth all the time from day one, as a kid. i argued so much about things and people would say, why don't you run? they didn't really mean to run, they meant run away from them, quit running your mouth. the people i had come to know as part of my being, they did not have representation to the extent that they needed.
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if lincoln's words were of any meeting, of the people, for the people, by the people, weren't we people? why weren't we there? to that extent i ran to be part of what i would call the politic, the decision-making process in this country and state. >> where did you grow up? what was virginia like during that time? >> i grew up at the east end of richmond. right across from the church that i only went to when i was late going to my church, which was the 1st avenue baptist church. school -- to elementary school was not up to snuff. it had outdoor toilets. in the city, in richmond. no cafeteria, no auditorium.
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the principal was white and all the teachers were of color. the finest and best teachers in the world. they looked upon us as their children. they had corrective responsibilities as well. it was something you didn't know about. , i was 10backdrop blocks from st. john's church, where patrick henry made his famous speech, give him liberty or death. jefferson -- i would ask my mother, what does that rightsnalienable human that no one can take them from you? does that apply to me? she said, absolutely. when you tell a kid that, and at this age, i would believe so much of what my mother would
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say, i really believed there was something wrong and that i still could overcome that. her thing was, you have to be the best at what you can be. i tried. >> what was going on in richmond at that time? >> everything. segregation on streetcars. the streetcar would end a block from my house and it was a full. my mother would talk to me about moving to the center. i would say, why don't we just sit here? she would say, let's move back a little bit. she never explained to me about the colored, etc., etc. then she did tell he what meant. she said, that will change, but you do what you have to do. >> what was that first experience like stepping into politics? >> i was never encouraged by the
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leadership in the black community. not the leadership, but the people. i found it interesting. i was running from the city at large. the didn't have a member of the senate since that short period of reconstruction. i was the first senator elected since that short period. it wasn't lonely because i am not a standoff person. i was able to form friendships quickly. i did not understand politics. i did not know that much about it. i knew nothing. and i found out how little i knew when i got there. i said, wow. i was very lucky to have been able to form some of the friendships. i have a desk mate of mine from
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self man -- south hampton virginia. his name was bill rawlings. he was a senator. if a bill would come up, he would say, don't vote for that bill. he would say, i'm going to vote for it, but don't you vote for it. it isn't doing what some people might think. the difference is looking at or shallmeans, or may, means. just take that one word out. you shall do such and such a thing, "or" this organization may do such a thing. it changes everything. i was able to learn some of that. , we i first got there didn't have offices. flooe would gather on the
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and talkr beforehand and then they would say let's go to lunch. i would see some of the guys talking. i would push myself into the crowd and i would start nodding like i knew what they were talking about. than they would say, it is time to go to session. they would say, i guess it is time to get together. half an hour after the session? is that ok? i would say that is fine with me. i had pushed myself in with what some would call sharp elbows. i learned that people could disagree with you on occasions, but they were united with your cause. , how is hed say going to lunch with you, he just got done voting against her bill? i would say, if i didn't vote against her bill, i would not be here the next election cycle to vote for anything. my people don't allow it.
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virginia was the first state to have a legislative holiday for martin luther king. it took me eight years to get it. i would get it passed in the senate and the house would kill it. i would get it passed in the senate and the house and the governor would veto it. are you passed in the senate and -- i wouldnd that get it passed in the senate and the house and that process went on. you have to wait for the brand-new election of the full body coming in. that is white it too -- that is why it took eight years. many of the people who voted originally came to be patrons of the bill and helped me get it passed. that single experience showed me that as hard as it is to understand virginia, of all places, being the first state to have a legislative holiday for martin luther king, if that cou ld happen, other things could
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too. >> can we talk about when chuck tod had come to you to try rally -- >> rob? >> sorry, rob. to rally the minority votes. what was your reaction when he first came? >> i helped him to get to be elected lieutenant governor. tot was done relative showing that he could bring a change. he did say, prior to running for lieutenant governor, if doug wallace is going to run for lieutenant governor, i'm not going to run. i told him, i'm not going to run. i repeated that in 1977 by describing the office of lieutenant governor as a vacuous position. it only exists to vote in the
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case of a tie or to preside over the senate. i had a far more influential year as a member of the senate. ,hen chuck asked me about that i spoke to one of his persons who was his minority advisor, the afro american newspaper chain out of baltimore, i said, i tell you what i'm doing, i'm forming now -- i think it was 1972 that i started -- the black democratic caucus of virginia. not the legislative caucus. i didn't want it to be elected officials. i wanted members of the community. community leaders, church leaders, fraternity leaders. i wanted people who could not only reach people but -- they had the respect. people said something,
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believed them. i was able to get that done and i referred to it in the book. we had 500 people attend on a youay evening in roanoke -- don't know how hard it is to get to roanoke, virginia. i wanted it small because they didn't want the cameras to show up. you could not get into the room. after we formed, it started developing strength. murphy asuck, i told well, these are things that i want you to commit to. definitely that you will sign the bill for the martin luther king holiday. i will get it passed again. that you will believe in the opportunities for registration -- i called it postcard registration, that you will end
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sending money to the schools that segregate, the private schools, the vouchers, etc. i listened to a bunch of us things and he signed on. the night of the election when the returns were coming in, it was showing he was losing by 7.5 thousand votes. people came to me and were giving me fit. if it had not been for the damn letter you sent out saying this is what he was doing, we wouldn't be losing. i said, i understand, just wait. later in the afternoon, when vote started coming in, he won by 100,000 votes. the numbers of the turnout was attributed to the african-american communities. that was one of the modern times shown tock folk were exist in virginia for a purpose. unfortunately, some of that is
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disappearing across america today. people continue, in some instances, to take that vote for granted. >> when you hear people -- not to jump too much, but when you hear young people, minority young people say that they don't vote and don't get involved, what is your reaction? >> i understand it. i clearly understand it. when you talk about, we have to go to the base. what base? what have you done for the bas?+ tell me what you see today that the people who still live in poor conditions, housing, w ith the problem of education. everyone who runs for office will do something for education. if you are going to do something for education, how did it get to how it is?
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that means you did it. if you are in charge. is,of the things i empliooy if we are going to be involved in the political process, then i want to be part of the politics, the decision-making. what i speak of frequently is being part of how money is spent. i believe in spending for necessities, not niceties. there is time for niceties, good, but right now we are interested in what we really need. what happened with president obama and his plan for infrastructure development, he that, onet plan for of the best speeches i heard him make was when i was mayor of the city of richmond in 2008.
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at the u.s. conference of cities aresaid, our not the drawbacks to metropolitan growth, they are the engine. we need to keep that. they didn't want to give him supplemental 2, the plan he put forth, the stimulus program. it would have been -- if he could have looked back on it, now you would say, okay, the first image was program will include some of these things. they bailed the banks out and the insurance companies, but what are their obligations? trump is going to take much of what obama put in place and move it. he will get the money and a lot of credit for it. cities.the look at education.
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look at the numbers of people not even in school. moree in need today of people in our communities to be leaders than elected officials. they form their own group.s s. i know that it sounds strange, as a former elected official, but i can follow polls. i tell people i take a poll every day when i go through the streets. people know me well enough to feel they can talk and come up to me and say, i want to ask you something. let's talk. i keep an ear to the ground. people always have the ear of politicians. politicians hear what they want to hear. people hear what they have to hear.
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virginia does not have the largest black voting population of the states. it is only about 15%. most people don't know that. i had to go out to the community, to the other 85% of the people. the first place i started my campaign was in southwest virginia. coal mining country. i went into the mines. i talked to the people. i stayed in their homes. i never stayed in hotels. i always stayed in the homes of the people that i met or had known from my legislative appearance. i didn't campaign on the interstate, i campaigned in country stores, in barbershops. that one of my friends said, you go into this country stores and you have to shake every hand.
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anybody, they will tell it. i went into a store, and he said the bread man will be there, the coca-cola man will be there. they said all the stores no he is coming to your place. i also learned to go to the local newspapers and the local radio establishments. people lead -- read their local newspapers and listen to the local radius. i went to everyone and they welcomed you. i also like to emphasize that i state 60 days straight campaigning across every independent city and town in virginia, near 300. i never had a single person refused to shake my hand. never. me access for being
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able to run. i was pleased with the reception. you cannot take people for granted. i went into a store. i meant was there with bed overalls. i shook everybody's hand. i had gone through and some but he said, you didn't shake this man's hand. i went back in and said high i'm doug, i'm running for governor. card, my left hand with a i would give it to them and shake their right hand. i would look behind when was leaving to see if they had thrown it into the trash. i did that everybody and as i was leaving summit he said, it in shake his -- somebody said, you didn't shake his hand. he was on a barrel. overalls, red,
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bandanna on his neck, tobacco creases on his job. isaid i'm doug wilder and wanted to know if you would read this. he said i thought you were going to pass me by. he said, i have something i want to ask you. he said, i want to talk about this abortion. i said, i could have got out of the store. i didn't have to stay here. [laughter] spiel.d my the government has no right to interfere in the most personal -- he said, that ain't no man's business no way, is it? i said, no. wow. who would have believed that man sitting on that barrel looking as i described him would have had that view in 1989 southwest virginia? but he did. it was an awakening experience
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for me. don't judge people by how they look, have a talk, how they walk, or where they live? it reinforced what i was raised to believe that we are the same people. we just need to see more of it. there are more things that andect us than unite us divide us. we should emphasize that. >> where do you think this disconnect comes from? >> there are so many places you could put it. who wante many people government to be professional, politics to be professional. ll guided by the simplicity of lincoln, of the people, by the people, for the people. i think it comes from over valuing those who serve as pundits, how they totally missed the last election and still haven't recovered in terms of
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saying, we were wrong. you can't say, hey, we didn't get this right. what is it that you did not get right? poll everyt takes a day to find out what is going on -- that is not the name of what america is. resete are today is a period. bernie sanders was hitting on the left what donald trump was hitting on the right. i saw something there. i saw people becoming disaffected on the democratic side. i saw people on the republican side not being united. i thought bush would have been the nominee. i voted for hillary clinton, but i knew that she needed relativity. that is why i supported tim kaine. i thought he could provide that. as it turned out, he was not
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utilized in the ways i thought he may have been utilized. trump moved into that vacuum. where we are today, we are as theodore white would say in the books he wrote -- the last i read was called "america in search of itself." he said there is a cyclical form that takes place in america. we are still in search of ourselves. can we do it? yes, but we don't put -- we won't do it with name-calling and finger-pointing. as the reverend would say, come, let us reason together. >> do you think it has something to do -- some have brought up, about maybe diversifying the people who are out there to see more of themselves, more minority representation, maybe more minority involvement in politics?
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>> as i said to someone yesterday, we have more minority representation in america today thancountry. worse?s better or i leave that answer to you. i will further respond to you by saying that is not the answer. the question isn't who the representatives are. government is the people. i keep going back to lincoln. it is simple. if we have those who understand it is their responsibility to themselves,, not and that in so doing if they don't, we don't need you anymore.
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we will get those who can. if what you are doing isn't proposing to be representative of us, we want that changed by the next group of people and put their. re. i don't think this comes as a racial quota basis or increasing the number. the question is in america the representation of people has grown to being more self-serving than serving the people. look at johnson, who was likewise the president of all people. but he fought for 30 marshall -- thurgood marshall to be put on the bench. he used his persuasive capacity georgia,ssissippi and the senator from georgia richard russell to understand. look, i'm going to do this now.
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you tell me what you need. think obamathat i really did try. personse of the first to have endorsed obama. hillary had everybody. she had most of the black caucus. there were very few people endorsing obama. i did because of that everything you mentioned, the hope, the possibilities. having said that, one of the --ngs i hear so much of thurgood marshall was more than just a vote on the supreme court. i knew him personally. i worked with him. he appointed me to be the -- his virginia representative for the naacp defense education fund.
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that is what is here in the book as well. thurgood spent time educating the other members of the bench. saying look, this is what we are talking about. this is more than just black and white in terms of the law. this is what the effect is. his contributions really have not been measured in that regard. the effect of it has been to the contrary. represent those people. i'm here to represent everybody. look at the decisions that are 8-1. a prison in georgia. the court decided his civil rights have been violated. thomas voted no. people are saying who represents them, that group of people on
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the supreme court today? who would you describe as being your representative of the black voice on the supreme court? you would not say thomas. no. what if the president had three chances? two of these name a black person. that person got nominated or confirmed or not, they will at least show their belief. that did not happen. most presidents don't get a chance to name one. look at some of the things that have been applauded, the closing guantanamo. of course. pulling this out of these wars we should not event and, of course. but the time spent doing that takes away from the positives he could have. and unfortunately those in many instances advising him spend more time saying this'll be the
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safer course to take. take the road less traveled sometimes. whether it is safe or not to make the highway where there was only a path. president.een a good it is too early to talk about the legacy, the people who thought their time had come, unfortunately there were those that would say to them you had your chance. this is the new day. that is unfortunate. i don't think cyclical events should be a part of the governing process in america because they goes back to lincoln, the people, for the people, by the people. >> do you think that speaks to a lack of understanding of race relations in this country? maybe these issues are just going to be set aside?
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>> that was then. let's get past that. no one else gets past the deprivations of the past. they address them. have we or do we? it is not a matter of an apology, but america has never been a great nation. how can we go back to what we ern't? the education process has to take place. the unfortunate thing is today we have lost communities. is it irreparable? no. can we reclaim them? yes. it is not just by saying listen to what i say, i'm your leader, on your representative. -- i'm your representative.
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he was inside drinking wine and looking at his mansions. where those people going? i'm their leader. there is no such thing is that. binded to drill down, wounds as lyndon johnson said. let us reason together. there has to be a recognition. there is more that unites us than device us. let's get past that. master scans the score of subtle harmonies before a note is stirred, and nature now is pondering the symphony of spring as yet unheard. this does apollo -- this is a poem from a poet buried in hollywood service very --
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hollywood cemetery. we are anticipating the coming of spring. many of the trees are dormant, but soon they will break forth with tremendous color and life. hollywood cemetery was established in 1847 just beyond the city limits of richmond, virginia. ae founders hired philadelphia landscape architect to design and layout the grounds. he made the grounds for the extensive growth of hollywood trees on the grounds, and he transformed this wooded area into one of the most picturesque, rural cemeteries in the united states. by the middle of the 19th century america's cities and towns have grown due to immigration and industrialization. churchyard and ground to become overcrowded. the rural cemetery was created to provide safe, sanitary
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burials outside the city limits and provide park space for the citizens of the city. hollywoodan came to and found this area to be very damp. he builts ending this landscape. the trees native of the ground and ak-47 are holly -- in 1847 are holly's and elms. picturesque english landscape, both the work of man hand nature. the role cemetery is a place for the living. it is a part. it is a garden. it is an outdoor art museum and a burial ground. there are many notable tenets resting in hollywood, including residents -- presidents, supreme court justices, governors, generals, captains of industry,
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and writers. many stories are told through the artwork and symbols on their monuments. as we walk today we will understand why hollywood received visitors from the world over. now in the confederate soldiers section of hollywood. originally this was city land, not part of hollywood. 1861, the confederate government confiscated this city land for the burial of confederate soldiers. president ellis, president of hollywood at the end of the 19th century set if richmond is a temple of the lost cause, hollywood is its inner sanctum. for among these honored dead or representatives of all the late confederate states. there are approximately 18,000 confederates buried in this section. 3000 were removed and brought the hollywood for the gettysburg
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battlefield between 1871 and 1873. originally all the grades are marked with wooden headboards, but none of them have survived. today some of the families are coming back and marking with the new military style stone. the centerpiece of the soldiers section is the pyramid. a pyramid was built in 1869. it is 90 feet tall and made it james river granite quarry right here in richmond. there is no mortar holding the stones in place. this is a dry stacked pyramid. the hollywood ladies who has built one of this to be the first thing you would see when you came to the grounds. for many years it was. when it was built there were no trees out here. also buried in this section is general george pickett. andas a west point graduate he served in both the united states army and the confederate
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army. serious defeats in the civil war. the first was that gettysburg. his division was decimated by union forces. that became known as pickett's charge. also, the battle at five forks on april 1, 1865. another defeat he suffered. e'st defeat hastened le surrender at appomattox just eight days later. the monument to james pickett was placed by survivors of tickets division that pickett's division. the federal authorities were not give permission for its placement at gettysburg, so it was placed in hollywood in 1888. resting next to think it's great gradesckett -- pickett's
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are the 3000 soldiers brought by geddes feel guest gettysburg battlefield. stewart, the great confederate cavalry officer. he gained fame in 1862 for his daring ride around mcclellan's army just before the seven days and twof wounded, years later quarterly wounded in nashville, virginia. obelisk,ent is an which is an egyptian style monument that represents the sun at noon. when used as a grave marker, it means that person was a very successful life. he was only 31 years old when he died. his wife is the founder of the virginia female institute in stanton, which is made stuart hall in her honor. some members of the stewart family continued the 19th century tradition of having
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their reunions here. some years we will come out and with those up here family members having their family reunion at the grave site. stuart was great of a richmond writer. she won the pulitzer prize. she was there the separate jet -- suffragette. she was a student of the light meant and wrote about the oppression of women in the south. she was also very critical of the false sentimentality of southern society. ers did not read her books. she was disappointed because she was worried they would lose in the life of the mind. are a bunchmonders of loquacious partygoers. we are at a great side of douglas freeman. he was a writer and won the pulitzer prize for his biography
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lee and george washington. his book was studied by generals patton and bradley when they land their world war ii campaign. he was also a military advisor to general eisenhower and president roosevelt. douglas freeman was editor of the richmond news leader for over 30 years, and also a lay minister who gave broadcasts over the radio. we have just his name and his dates, and a small inscription. a very modest stone for a giant literary figure. he is buried next to his wife inez. we are here in some of the maintenance going on. winter is a time and all the trees are maintained. they are doing a little bit of maintenance on the trees. that is the noise we hear in the
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background. the artwork at hollywood is cast-iron, stone and stained-glass. this is one of the most popular monuments, a cast iron dog. a newfoundland retriever cast of baltimore by haywood bartlett. it was placed here in 1865 to prevent is confiscation by the confederate government and sent down to the -- to the melted into cannons and bullets. during the war the confederate government confiscated all the ornamental iron work in the city of richmond. people that had fences around their homes, roof cresting, those were melted down. all the church bells in the city were surrendered to the trigger. one survived because the parishioners paid in gold to save the bell. he did not the dog melted down. it was one of the favorite objects in the yard.
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the children played on it. be placed the dog here in the cemetery in 1865. it looks over the grave of his daughter who died of scarlet fever. she was only 2.5 years old. her stone is a cradle stone, a french style marker that reinforces the metaphor of death. stones youese cradle will see tokens of remembrance. shell, a symbol of pilgrimage through life. we often see a little remembrance stone. this tradition comes from the desert cultures. you have to pile rocks on top of the grave. intotradition has evolved a token of remembrance. and sometimes we find a coin left at the grave. represents charron, the fairy man who takes us across the river styx to the
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underworld. we are at the grave of jefferson davis and his family. jefferson davis was a graduate of west point, a mississippi cotton planter, a member of the u.s. house of representatives, a u.s. senator, secretary of war to franklin pierce, and the only president of the confederacy. he was married to marina howell. her family was from the north. her grandfather was four times governor of new jersey. unfortunately she was from a large family. she was one of nine children, and her father had difficulty supporting the family. when she was 18, she was engaged to jefferson davis. he was 18 years her senior. the davises had six children, four sons and two daughters. none of the sons lived to their adult years. thisaughters are winnie, monument is the angel agrees.
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the first daughter of the confederacy. and margaret, is monument is the angel with the open pages of the bible. harvard is the only child who married and had children. her descendents are continued to be buried at this site today. jefferson davis died in new orleans and was buried. inwas reburied in hollywood 1893 after misses davis chose this site for the family burial ground. the first saturday in june the sons of confederate veterans celebrate the birthday of jefferson davis with cans, guns and flags. guns and flags. we are finishing power to work at the president's circle. the centerpiece of the presidents circle is the tomb of james monroe, our fifth president. james monroe was born in westmoreland county, virginia, had a home near charlottesville called ash lawn, and was a
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veteran of the american revolution. we are at a very exciting time because the two of james monroe has been out for a year and a half being restored. it was assembled and erected in 1858. over the years it deteriorated. it had to be taken down because 40% had a be recast. we were watching the re-assemblage of the monroe reliquary. this was designed by a richmonder and built in philadelphia. james monroe, our fifth president was reburied in hollywood in 1958. he died 27 years earlier and had been buried and marble cemetery in new york. during the 1850's, the general assembly of virginia was trying to honor our revolutionary veterans by bringing them back to virginia. the family gave her permission
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and in a large ceremony, july, 1858, munro was removed from marble cemetery in new york and reburied in hollywood cemetery. john tyler is also buried in the presidents circle. it was the 10th resident. -- hehe was president thought john tyler was too supportive of states rights. after tyler finished his presidency, here announced his american citizenship and went to work for the confederacy. three weeks before he died he was elected to the confederate congress. for 20 years there was no marker and his grace. 20 years after he died the statement of the small tablet headstone. the federal, government erected a monument we have at his site today. this is a shaft that has the bust of tyler at the top.
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urn surrounded by two eagles. on the right side of the monument is an allegorical figure of memory it was holding a laurel leaf. they are symbols of honored distinction and achievement. on the left side there is an allegorical figure of the republic, with the seal of spheres thatthe are symbols of civic authority and government. he was born in charles city county, virginia. died in richmond. alongually left his home the james and moved to richmond so he could work for the confederacy, and died in richmond working for the confederacy. all seasons of the year visitors can be seen walking, taking photographs, sketching and painting the landscapes and enjoy the artwork and cast
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iron, stone and stained-glass. it's a place for reprint in our acquaintance with the men and women of american history. the men and women who birthed and build our cities, our state and our nation. >> i have been attacked by everybody. i have been attacked by the right-wing, the russians, the trump campaign, the sanders campaign. now i can add to that list the clinton campaign. >> tonight on c-span's human day -- q and a, talks about her life and politics in her memoir. >> i was here in washington, d.c., not far from here. hillary was very excited. she had met this young state senator who was running. she has roots in illinois. she met this young state senator and told my good friend -- we
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were on the third floor. she said -- she knew barack obama. i did not know barack obama. i know a lot of people in chicago politics. i had not heard of barack obama. we met him that spring of 2003, and let me just say this, the rest is history. >> tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span. we have a team of 262 employees bringing the c-span networks to you. thanks for watching. ♪
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>> things for watching. -- thanks for watching. susan: our guest on "newsmakers" this week is tom steyer. the businessman, philanthropist, environmental activist has been spending much of his own money over the past year in a campaign to impeach president trump. we will talk about that effort organizationally and politically. we have two reporters here to ask questions, niall stanage and darren samuelsohn.


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