tv Settlement of San Jose- Peralta Adobe CSPAN January 1, 2018 4:25pm-5:23pm EST
hi, i'm debbie lamb, the coordinating producer on our cities to her team. we visited 24 cities is here exploring their unique history and literary life. we are going to show you several stops in san jose, california. a city that sits in the heart of silicon valley and the helm of many large tech companies. in november of 1777, a group of 66 settlers moved down from the city of san francisco and came here to san jose to establish the san jose city. the pueblo was moved from its original location to this location in proper downtown san jose. the a day -- the adobe behind us is the last remaining structure of that pueblo that was built in 1797. in the mid-1770's, california
at that time was settled by the spaniards. they had two different establishments at the time. places populated by the military, and you had the missions that where established by the franciscan priests. they were up and down the california from the san diego to all the way up to san francisco at the time. you had no -- the city type of establishment. during that time, you had a lot of native americans running throughout california. it was the attempt of the spaniards to settle and originalize the settlers, they native americans that were established here. at this time, you had intrusions from the french, british, and also russian interests coming into the pacific coast. the spaniards were looking at a
way of settling and controlling the region that we know of california at the time. the difficulty was with sea travel, going up the coast was against the tradewinds from mexico. the thought was if they could establish a trail method, that would help solidify their hold on california. 1775, juan batista deanza,an early soldier for the spanish government, created his own trail from basically southern arizona up into california and as far north as moderate, california. mr. bautista went back to the spaniard government and got permission to lead an expedition following the same trial.
in 1776, mr. deanza led a group of people, a mix of different native americans, different spaniards, people of mixed races, across on this trail and it they ended up in moderate with mr. deanza. months later, his lieutenants led the remaining group up to the city where they settled for the next six months. at that time, the governor of california was looking for a way of having a civil establishment beyond just the proceedings and the missions but a farming community that would act as a playstation for these different establishments. what was known coming you had missions that were early --ere in the
late 1776, that is known by the missionaries at that time as a rich agricultural potential for farming. is where in november of 1777, a group of 66 settlers moved down from the place in san francisco and came here to san jose to establish the pueblo. into the adobe, there are only two rooms in the structure. for our interpret -- our purposes, we have set up the rooms to represent the two different eras of when you had 1797 toiard era from 1823 when after 1823, you had the mexican independence. you had a different era.
that is represented in these two rooms. this room we are in is the four bedrooms for the gonzalez and the other family. it is a rather sparse. the citizens were limited in terms of what trade they could do with other countries. so while they traded only with the -- within the spanish empire, they were very resourceful and in using items from the local environment for their needs. one of the interesting things here is that the -- if you look at the bed here, the bed frame,
the springs, are actually made of raw hide. they were stretched between the wooden beams here to give that spring effect. of course, the animal skins for your bedding material. also notice here on this crib, that they used rawhide to hold things from the roof. we've added a little wire rope here to help support the structure, but that gives you a general idea of how they were resourceful using the items within their local community to furnish their home. another remarkable thing in this house is, this chair. if you notice, a rather unique shape. that's actually made out of a whale bone. they would find whale carcasses along the coast and they would use, of course, the rubber -- the blubber for oil, but they also used the skeleton of the whale to build different structures.
in this case, you see how the rib bones are used for the arms of the chair, and the backbone is actually used for the seat. also along the ocean shore, they had access to abalone, which provided also, you know, the meals, but also provided shells like this that the settlers would use this to -- for different storage techniques. they would put beads or they'd put food, they would serve their food in shells like this once again using the resources that they had available to them in the area. that was from the spanish era. when we give tours of this structure, explain to the groups the different eras. going across here, we enter the second room of this structure.
this is used as maybe a meeting space for perhaps serving food in inclement weather. but it's really -- the food preparation was done outside in the gardening area and the yard. you notice in this area, you have a lot more furnishings that are more recognizable from european interests or even the far east. that's because after 1823, when the area fell under mexican control, the mexican government allowed trade with international countries. so the local residents would meet ships in the harbor, either monterey or san francisco, trade with people on the ships for different items. so they would trade the rawhide or some of the oats and grains that they had here grown locally
with the sea-going ships for china. or they would trade for furnishings, for different types of wood. as you go through here, you'll see also some pots and pans, metallugery items. the idea here for the mexican government is they wanted to encourage the trading with other parties. that was also a downfall for california in terms of mexican rule that that also encouraged people to settle into the california area, primarily americans coming across the country, overland, through the sierra passes and down through the deserts to settle california. so that led to an influence of more than americans in this area.
and one of those parties, of course, was the donner-reed party that we hear of so much, the tragedy that occurred up in the sierra nevadas. a member of that party was the reed family that did not partake in some of the gruesome stories we hear that occurred in that tragedy. but the reed family, they settled here in san jose. but because he was a survivor of the donner party, it was a well- known name at that time so when california became, so when people were meeting to discuss statehood for california, james reed had a prominent voice here in california when they met in monterey and at that time. in october of 1849, he promoted san jose to be the capital of california.
and so the delegates, because of reed's prominence they , voted in favor of locating the first capital of the state of california here in san jose under the promise that james reed would encourage the local citizens and they could build a build a state house for their first meeting of the legislature in december of that year. but when the legislators came here to san jose in december of 1849, it was raining. and it continued to rain. one of their first acts, because they were so despondent with the amount of rain falling that year, that one of their first acts as a legislature was to start the motion to move the capital to another location. and that time, two years later, the capital of california moved from san jose to venetia, up farther north between the bay
and the delta region of california. so san jose, ironically, this plays an important part of history here. first the rain washed out the original site of the pueblo, about a mile north of here, in 1778. and it also washed out the dreams of san jose being the capital of california in the rains of december 1849. author -- an author shares the story of california's next history, related to immigration, land and water issues, as well as its relationship with the federal government. >> so many people come to california because they see it as heaven.
television has not helped because ask anybody, particularly east of the rockies come and they think all californians drive convertibles, go to the beach, headed week dog in the deck of the car, and spent all day drinking beer -- and blondes. that is what commercials have been about, but that is not what california is about. if you know anything about california, and i am a native born california and have studied this state 50 years or more, you realize this state is so topsy-turvy, it is like a roller coaster gone bad. it can be a boom state economically one year. it can be in the whole $30 billion the next. it is a state that embraces immigrant as it has in the past at times. it can be a state that has done
everything to make immigrants feel uncomfortable. it can be a state where there is -- flowing water, enabling everybody to grow and and it whatever purpose, can be a state five or six years later where there is nothing to drink. there are so many extremes in california, and just when we think we are going to get it at the top of things come it will fall down. so that is why is the rise and fall. it comes and goes, up and down. at the end of the day, it is certainly the most exciting place to be. the rise has been up and down. it is not just one defendants. ascendance.- calverton had a boom with the gold rush, and all these people came to california.
they basically stole the state. some historians would put it more gently. they stole it from the native americans and the mexicans, because of its revolt from spain. that is why they called it the bear revolts, about six shots. the idea that relatively few white men, all of whom had come here and believed it was hard to it here, stage a coup, and became the thing to do once mexico signed the treaty of what guadalupe hidalgo. that set the stage for the revolt, and the state just boomed during the gold rush. they could not come here fast enough. that is also the point in time when we saw the first great immigration wave of chinese coming to california to help the next segment of that boom, and
that was a transcontinental railroad. for those 30 years or so, there was a lot of hustle and bustle. it was changing left and right. and it became more diverse. and people with money came into the state and the railroad owned the state. all these things happened in a brief -- 30 years, and you could argue we were going up, way up. and then things changed, not that we had to go immediately down, but you had a time when california was tranquil. abruptly, it ended seems, and this became an agrarian state. wasr world war ii, the v.a. very important here. all these people who worked, rosie the riveter types, and there were plenty, as well as military guys coming home, they'll came home.
the men were going back to school, and california had a history once it developed its higher education system, of making college free. it was free during the 1950's and 1960's as the state put together its higher education program, university, colleges, and community college. this did not last long enough as far as i'm concerned. in the mid-60's when reagan became governor, that is when he and the board of regents began , and csul tuition followed, and then the community colleges, not so much. that was the golden period. in the 1950's, there was a lot of automobile manufacturing here. and all the parts that went with automobiles and other manufacturing in california. the 1970's and the 1980's were
more difficult. the pulse was not beating so hard or so fast. so the state began to go into a very serious period of discrimination, particularly against immigrants of and people do not remember this anymore. in the 1980's, 1990's, we passed some of the harshest anti-immigration legislation you could ever imagine. from position 87 would have would -- proposition 187 have denied immigrants any education.ncluding another proposition made english the official language. another proposition ended affirmative action. we were one of the first states to end affirmative action. during the late 1970's, 1980's,
and 1990's, this place went back sociald terms of issues people talk about today. and this is part of california. and it has all turned around. california in terms of emigration -- immigration you saw in the 1970's, through the 1990's, you would not recognize it. you have to look at the fact populationhispanic is the majority, and their numbers have moved up in the state legislature and in local offices. incredibleof that growth of these various minorities, the state has become much more sensitive. now drivers licenses for undocumented immigrants. now they can go to college and get state loans and state aid, undocumented immigrants came. century cities have popped up
everywhere, and as we speak, the state is on the verge, the legislature, on making california the first fully century state. so the changes -- sanctuary state. the changes that go on here are like massive waves. go in the samet direction. it is part of the excitement of the state. -- and forof the some and can be the heartbreak of the state. when you look at the central valley, the richest land you there havenywhere been water wars -- they made movies out of them -- "chinatown ," the way that los angeles stole water from the owens valley. goesf the water
agriculture. 80% or agriculture-related activities. at least 20% for the rest of the stick of including people who like to drink it a couple times of day. at that, since 5% of water in the state comes from northern california. sierras and -- the the rain in northern california. 2/3. is generated in southern california. the problem is southern california has 2/3 of the population, and northern california -- it starts north of tehachapi. the people that to in northern california, because according to them, we are all urban scum. the fact that most of the water is in northern california, most of the population in southern
california, that sets up a problem. agriculture that uses 80% of the water, that sense of a incredible competition between farmers and environmentalists, coupled with urban users. here are endless. you are not going to find more water in california. just not. if you're lucky, you will get a distant -- the snowpack alone counts for 1/3 of our water. no snow? we're in trouble. we got to draw from the aquifer, which has now been drained tanks to the drought. farmers are always looking for water. and the environmentalists are saying the more water you take, especially from the delta, water coming down the rivers that would otherwise go to the delta and you circumvent the delta and
pour it into agriculture, the more you are endangering this and other species. that is one of the headaches that we have had here for the last 40 years. it is kind of funny because we talk about president trump saber rattling and talking about denying california money if century cities and states -- if sanctuary cities and states do not cooperate. the state contributes billions of dollars more to the federal government than we get back. it is one of the largest donor states around. most of the states in the south, they are recipient states. same thing in the midwest. ironically, the poorer states are the most to get from the federal states. the richer states are the ones who do not. they contribute to the federal government. i will say having some of the like nancy pelosi as speaker,
even as minority leader, has been helpful to this sake. our two senators for the longest time, dianne feinstein and barbara boxer until recently, had great scene are the in the seannate. that matters. we have 53 members in the house, the largest delegation by far, that rarely do they vote together in a unified way, but they can, and when they do, their votes count for a lot. add up all those things, and we got the brains here. and that is not to say that otherare not brains in places, but there's such a concentration of talent here, such a concentration of so many smart people who do so many things and innovation. it is one of the things that happens all the time. and, no, it does not always work, but it does what it does. it changes everything. go to facebook, that company, they are wrecking things all over the place. -- racking things all over the
place. " fail first." later." forgiveness washington is the way they have done it, we are always going to do it, so washington is status quo. california is the wild west. there is a culture differential to begin with. they are very different places. and i that is sometimes causing tensions. it depends on the administration. though clinton -- bill clinton and barack obama saw great benefits from california, managed to get congress oftentimes to funnel its money for mass transit or r&d, help b programs, other federal funds for space exploration. george w. bush was rather benign.
he did not really love it or hate it. he pretty much did not understand it. i do not blame him. and he wasn't very outward on all that stuff. and trump is going to be interesting. some people are already pulling their hair out because trump hates california in their minds. i am not so sure he hates california. maybe he does. let's run member we have kevin mccarthy, the majority leader here, and we have pretty sharp people republicans and democrats, in congress which will be able to exercise a lot common sense and leverage. i'm not so sure that even someone like president trump will be able to turn the state upside down. but it is going to be a different era. it has to play itself out. california matters as it is so then the first, and if not first, it is really among the first. if you look at things like environmentalism, california -- and by the way, democrats and
arnoldcans, schwarzenegger will go down in history for a lot of things, but in terms of his governance, his the billll be ab32, that initiated california developing a larger percentage of its power from alternative energy, way ahead of everybody else. and what we call cap and trade, which basically taxes companies that use too much fuel. this was pretty amazing. environmentalism is big here. the women's movement is big here. 1/3 of our congress is women, female. that is about double the national average. minority rights have come daycare. membership,ongress, is minority, which has also double. in so many ways has
set the trend, not always in the right direction for some people, but it is a trendsetter, and you can view it as a country. it is the sixth largest -- separated from the nation -- it is the sixth largest country in the world in terms of economic development. only five nations are more powerful than us in terms of the economy. we have used that leverage in lots of ways to move ahead, and a lot of states have come to emulate us. some other states come to loathe us. my hope would be that people learn more about california. this is a very exciting place. place, very fast-paced not like new york city, but fast paced in the sense of so many things come and go, so many
developers rise and fall, so many innovations come and change the world, not only for the country. i would like them to realize that the perplexity of the state, the diversity of the state is also the bounty of the state. there's so much we learn from each other in california. it is a state where everybody can somehow it's some representation, depending on what are her group a long too. brings state that conflict. there are competing values in the state. there is a place for everybody in the state. the far right has its legions in calpurnia, believe you me. and the left does, of course, as well. but in a state where there's so much activity and action, so much energy, i think for that reason it is exciting. it can be tiring. especiallyxhausting, when you try to figure out sacramento and what the legislature is doing and not doing.
are tax collection system is bananas. there are all kinds of problems here. problems or not, it is a state that looks new. most of the time forward, sometimes not, but it looks as a state to move and never rests on its laurels. it is a pretty exciting place to be. >> on february 19 1942, president roosevelt signed executive order 9066, which sent over 100,000 people of japanese ancestry to relocation centers. fulleum of san jose has a creation of a barracks room where people were forced to live. a resonant experienced this and re-creationg to give visitors a sense of what it was like. here is a look.
[no audio] >> this part of the museum, we call it leaving for camp, forced removal, how we were forced to move out. if we had 1/16 japanese blood in us, we had to pack up and leave. that was the order by the army. so there was no chance for anybody to escape being non-japanese. if you were mixed marriage, there was very few then, husband was a non-japanese, then he could stay in the home, but the majority of them all moved with the family to the camp.
when the order was written and then we were unsure what was going to happen to us, but when this instruction to report here, my brother and i went to sign up we were given a time limit. we report may 23. on may 30, will be put on a train and taken off. at the time it says what you can , carry, you can take, but that's it. nothing more than that. so that was the whole thing. until then we were unsure what was going to happen to us, whether we stay, like myself, born here, we will be allowed to stay and our parents born in japan, aliens will be going to the camp. that was kind of the idea that we had. but when this came out, we were
all classified as one. and that's when we lost our citizenship rights, and then were given a number, the tag the telephone pole there, we were all identified by the number. like my family number was 32420-d, because i was the fourth one in the family. we went to camp, our number was 3242. my last anytime, yamaichi. but our destination was still not known. for us, one train went -- santa anita was getting full. we were crowded into one room
for about three to four months. living in the atmosphere before we went to camp before the war started, discrimination we had, we couldn't get a job. i went through myself, i went to trade school, took up carpentry, i couldn't get a job working as a carpenter. went to unioned, hall, they said we don't allow people like you. we don't serve. just keep on going. at the time, i really realized my schoolteacher, mr. morgan, he told me when i first went to class, he said, he was an old construction man turned to be an
instructor, he said -- i remember to this day, he said, jim, i'll teach you what i can, you can learn what you can, get you will learn what you can. and then it dawned on me, that is what he said. even though you graduated high school with a carpentry class, with the status you are, i cannot help you. that really stuck with me. he knew, himself. yet, he was willing to teach me as much as he can about forth.ction and so which was a huge, huge help for my survival in camp, because i myays kept in the back of mind, i'd do the best i can. just do best you can. nobody can expect any more. is the back room, recreation of the barracks. it was 20 by 20.
it was made for five people to live in here. the barrack myself. i had to build it within the regulations, fire so forth. the building outside of this completely. you cannot see how the outside is, except when you're in the theacks, you can see tarpaper, and a little door. from the outside, it looked like the outside of a barracks. but inside -- this is corps of drawing. it's unique, how they saved material. like the ceiling journalists, 20 foot wide. instead of 20-foot materials, 10-foot ando spliced it. so that they could use 10-foot 2
x 4's. and instead of studs, they made seven-foot ceiling. they made the ceiling height seven feet. eight foot high. length.of standard this was money-saving for the army to use the seven-foot studs. when we were in here, all we had was the cost and the mattress the blanket. beds.o blancts, four so we had to bring our own sheets. whatever need be. it was so cold, they decided to blankets. and they did not have anything to make blankets out of. so they -- you can't see it too well. but still, the idea.
this is a part of an army uniform, world war i army uniform. unraveled -- this is a trouser that the soldiers wore. and they unraveled all the pants and made blankets. they made 10,000 blankets, but then again, there were 11,000 people. go for far. so we had three blankets, but i, myself, even three blankets cold.below zero is pretty usually, i would take a shower and come back and put my street clothes back on again, another layer of insulation, and then two blankets. -- three blankets. that is how we survived. it was cold. but we made it through. so that pea coat over there, another world war i
navy rejects. to fit myself one because average navy guys were like my size. my smaller sisters. brothers, the coat.st pea everyone had pea coats on. a lot of army pants and shirts, pants. many a lot of ladies would unravel the pants with the big belly and them.kirts out of pretty good, but, still, it was an army blanket -- army coat or pants. didn't care. everybody else was in the same boat, so a lot of ladies were wearing skirts made out of the old army pants. that's how they survived. aa you say, money was not easy
by.ome you only got paid $16 a month, and $19 a person, and $12 on the low-end. you very much. they allowed you a clothing but you had to work to get your clothing allowance or go to welfare and apply for a allowance. i look back at that time of my life and look at today, it has not changed, but you shut your eyes and look forward. i'm going to make that goal. that's all it is. it's self-preservation, right? computer history museum in mountain view, california is, the largest collection of computing artifacts in the world. curator showed us several items on display in the exhibit, revolution.
about 10 minutes. in thet now we're revolution exhibit at the computer history museum in mountain view, california. behind me are over a thousand that tell the history of computing going back 2,000 years. laid out in 19 galleries, each focusing on a theme or object from the history of computing. of those themes is realtime control so here we look at forgs like pacemakers hearts. these are computer systems that must function. laptop whichike a can crash once in a while. pacemaker crashes, you die. the oldest item is probably a what are called napier's bones. these are small, ivory counting sticks from the 17th century. the most recent thing we have an model of iphone. we're in the punch card gallery. replica ofyou see a
machine.ensus in 1890, the bureau of the theus had just finished 1880 census. the u.s. constitution requires every 10s to be taken years. 1890 census was not going to be completed in time so he came up with a method to do this mechanically. typically, the way the system taker was the census would go in the field and ask the usual questions. he would bring the questions where they office would be transcribed using this pantograph which converts the handwritten responses into machine readable form. using this little blank piece of cardboard at the top here, the census clerk punches holes in the card which correspond to the census so what he did by doing this is create the census results, move them from human readable form into machine readable form.
he could puthat, the punch cards inside his worked byhine which counting each of the holes in the card. so this was a real success story the 1890 census was completely -- completed in about years although there were millions of new immigrants and new questions to the census. why this is important is because a company called i.b.m. holarus's grew out of patents and dominated computing the 20th century. the punch cards, also called the main way were people interacted with computers for most of the 20th century. now we're in the memory and storage gallery. behind me is the world's first hard disk drive. was invented in 1956 at i.b.m. san jose by a team led by johnson, a retired school teacher who was very good at inventing. no formal engineering training all. the great advantage of having a hard disk that was it could replace punch cards.
so rather than having 100,000 punch cards in a drawer, hardould have one of these discs. the difference, too, with punch cards, is that you have to sort through them in order to find information you're looking for, compared to a disk drive, you can jump directly to the information you need so the disk drive is much faster. its device is so well made, still function. we have a team of volunteers who once a week.t one of the first things they there werethat 60-year-old data still on the hard disk. we are still using disk drives today that have a platter and head and motor that spins it around. welcome to the mini computer gallery. out in theers came mid 60's and were computers that small businesses could afford. beside me is one that was advertised as a kitchen computer 1969 neiman marcus catalog. it costs $10,600 and neiman marcus did not sell any.
part of the problem is that to program it, the user, in this case, the housewife, would have to know a numbering system known would have to be able to read these lamps in that code and program the computer theg the switches also in code. almost an impossible task for most people. anerally, you would attach kind of key board to this to make this work. we have it in the gallery to that, although it wasn't practical, it shows the beginning of people thinking thet putting computers in home. we're standing in front of a xerox alto. it came out in about 1972 and was a revolutionary machine. had a system that used a for with pull-down had ethernet,be, laser jet printing, email, spread sheets and word in 1972.g and this was steve jobs saw this machine and lisanspired to create the
at apple which then big game the mcintosh. take forings we granted, the desktop metaphor, menus, the icons on the mac and on windows, all came from xerox alto. there's a funny story in the history of computing where steve tos allegedly complained bill gates that bill gates had stolen the idea for windows from bill gates responded, that's not true, we both stole it from xerox and that shows you theintellectual depth that altogenerated which continues to affect us today. we're in the personal computer right now which shows all the different kinds of microprocessor based computers for sale mainly in the 19sinchts -- 1980's. the most significant one is the apple i computer designed by engineer steve
wozniak along with steve jobs. they being sold 220 of these. assembled,m were some you could build in kit form. signature on the top. hobbyist's was a machine so aimed at gear that likedpeople soldering and connecting things to their tv on their own. jobs said, if we made a computer for normal people, rather than nerds, no offense, i lot morecould sell a of these and the computer that resulted from that was called the apple ii. so apple was created by the two and steveeve wozniak jobs and the machine that really put them on the map was this ii, came out in bites of 48 kill memory, not megabytes or gigabytes, and provided color, was very unusual for the time. ii,he basis of the apple
apple kept itself afloat for many, many years. first few years of sales of the lisa and the mac were very disappointing and it was only because of the strong apple ii sales that apple was able to stay in business. remained the apple ii an apple product for an astounding 17 years. a few years later, i.b.m. joined party. apple took out a full page ad in the "wall street journal" that i.b.m.,lcome, seriously. p.c. had the very important job of legitimizing personal computers for business. until this time, most businessmen looked at these microprocessor based computers like the apple, the trs80 and basically toys suitable for home or educational environments but not business. entry into thes field in 1981 with the p.c. to approvalut a stamp of and legitimacy on the p.c., you
business tasks using an i.b.m. p.c. strategy, being of main frameor systems was to protect the main costs.t all the main frame is a room-sized computer filled with spinning tape drives and hard drives and people running around. the i.b.m. p.c. was initially that wouldomething connect to the mainframes and bey later to stand alone to used by an individual. we're now in a networking web gallery. have beside me is google's first web server. was athe time, google very small company with limited funds and so what they did is their equipment on the cheap. they went to a local electronics ofre and bought a bunch combatable circuit theds and mounted them to
board that acted like a search engine. did a search in 1999 to 2000, there's a good chance your veryh went through this machine. this system is made out of cork board. if you look underneath all of boards,c. circuit they're actually separated by a thin layer of cork. a wine bottle.n that's the only thing, that little thin layer of cork, that keeping the whole system from bursting into flames so it's designed, in aly sense. it's not really safe. but nonetheless, for starting a basicallyhen you're running out of your own garage or a small tilt-up kind of business, this was perfect for them. one of the things we tell, especially school kids, when they come to the museum, is that a computer is a tool like a hammer. with a hammer, you can brain someone over thed when it or it can be evilo or great and do something useful. it's the same with computers.
seeing now, the human or everyonepact of how having a computer in their pocket is affecting how we live. of negativee lots insomnia, people feeling lonely in spite of byng, quote, surrounded cyber friends, the spurious friendship that occurs on facebook. them friends but they're really not friends. now, i pace of life think, is the single greatest nextto human sanity in the 20 years or so. the desire which we impose on ourselves, seemingly, to always be on, to always be responding uptexts or emails or looking websites. we don't just sit down and watch anymore. >> east of san jose, california, stands the lick observatory.
constructed in 1867, it's operated by the university of whichrnia observatories serves as a research center for scientists, astronomers and u.c. students. resident astronomer, eleanor gates, provides the history of museum, while highlighting telescope, one of the largest of its kind. >> james lick was a healthy businessman in the san francisco bay area back in the 1800's. $3 million was over back in the 1860's. and he wanted to be remembered. and george davidson, the president of the california academy of sciences and george madera, an astronomer, who showed him what saturn looked a small telescope, were some of the factors that convinced him that a scientific monument that would make great discoveries was the great way to decided he wanted the greatest telescope, superior to as in existence, constructed
his memorial and gave about $700,000 of his fortune to form observatory and this telescope is his monument. the construction of this observatory took quite a long actually started in the 1870's. unoccupiedton was an mountain. there was no road to the top. santa clarainced county to build a first-class road to the top of mount started ind that 1876. by 1888, the road construction finally and they could start building this building. and then, by 1886, they finally knew how big the telescope would be. madeenses were done being and ground to their final figure and they could start constructing this dome. dome is large diameter. approximately 100 feet in diameter and it houses a 60-foot
telescope. you'll notice that the telescope is high up so you can't reach the eye piece easily but they worked around this problem because the floor i'm standing elevator and this floor would go up to the astronomero the could ride the floor up to whatever place the telescope was and easily look through the eye piece or take the photographic they were taking back late 1800's, early 1900's. the observatory was constructed, was going through a heyday of discovery. telescope, when constructed, was the largest of its kind in the world in 1888. they were able to make some great early discoveries just in the first observatory.this just first night of science telescopens with this in january of 1888, james astronomer here,
looked at saturn and actually gas in thea new rings of saturn now called the ant-y tuition. later, emersonrs barnard used the telescope to ofcover the fifth moon jupiter. when he discovered the fifth moon, that was a huge discovery. people didn't know there were more moons around jupiter and it was, in fact, the last moon in our solar system using visual techniques, just eyeballwith a human through a telescope. thesubsequent moons in solar system since discovered have been discovered photographically. lick observatory plate vault or photographic plate archive. observatory was very influential in the early days of astronommical photographer and we have on the order of 150,000
photographic plates covering over 100 years of astronomical research. today we use digital cameras inside. a keybservatory was organization in moving to using ostnommicalras for research instead of the old plates.phic i'm going to pull a few of the photographic plates so you can see what they look like. lick observatory was prominent in moon observation so we have plates of the moon from the late 1800's and early 1900's. 1908.is is a plate from
and this is a negative image so you can see the moon looks dark white. looks when printed out, it would look like a white moon with the dark background. and these moon plates taken at lick observatory are some of the the moon ins of existence. and are routinely used in textbooks today when you're moon.ng about the lick observatory was not only doing research on the moon back 1800's and early 1900's but we had a key part to apollo 11 mission. buzz aldrin and neil armstrong, put on the moon, on their first trip, what's called the lunar retroreflector, these prisms that if light came in, the light thed be sent back along same path. we, here at lick observatory,