tv Cities Tour - Missoula Montana CSPAN July 19, 2019 6:36pm-8:01pm EDT
audio at thereport search box at the top of the page. announcer 1: next, a book tv exclusive. tour visits missoula, montana. bringing the book seemed to our viewers. c-span.org/citiestour. >> here we are, on our farm, you can see it just behind our house. you can see a little bit here. we are walking into this
thicket. this is not a big grove. not a bunch of yards from end to end. it is still pretty important for moving through a cultivated landscape. it is one of the few wild places that remain here in the valley floor. time, bears here all the particularly in the fall when they are out looking for wild and mastic fruit. actually, we have a willow tree back here, where a black bear was bedding for about a month and a half. a pretty gnarly willow, it has been used extensively by bears for a bedding. one bear was here for about a month last year. i will show you what's behind. if you come through here, you can see on the trunk of this
tree, the way the bear has worn the bark from climbing up. call marks, the spark here. you can see this pile of bear in the crook of this branch, just above here, they left a pile this big, which is pretty impressive. you can see the place where the bear was. this is all very close to our house. from where i lay my head at night. it is a good illustration of the ways that bears and humans use the same resources in this landscape. we are just northeast of montana, on the edge of an agricultural valley and behind me, you can see the southern edge of the mission range, these large peaks sticking up. the rattlesnake mountain range in this direction. of theat the edge
domesticated area, on the edge of wilderness. the book i have written is called down from the mountain. workook is largely about that i was doing as a conservationist. i am the field director for a small nonprofit. work that i was doing for them in mission valley just north of here, at the base of the mountains that you can see behind me, it is also the story of a grizzly bear named billy. storyry and that bears converge and what that says about the state of things in the american west, in terms of the way that we interact with wild animals. of the mainout one characters, one of the protagonists because of this work i was doing at the mission valley. i was here working on an experimental lecture -- electric fence that i thought could keep
bears out of a 100 acre cornfield. it was a short fence, no more than two or three feet tall. it had shown promise in smaller scale test. i was here trying to use the fence for the first time in a small area, and it was important, because if we could do that, it was cheaper and easier to build in historic air fences. corn,ld keep bears out of which is dangerous for them. they bring into contact with people and it does things physiologically to them, it makes them chronically obese, beyond a point that is good for a bear. i was working on that project and as part of that, i had a series of trail cameras set up around the court that monitored how bears interact and what i saw on one of those cameras one day was a deeply injured, damaged bear. skin and bones, had a face that
was just torn up by some kind of infection. the moment i saw it, i thought -- i felt a tremendous amount of concern and compassion that anybody would seeing an animal in that much pain. it was on death's doorstep. she was inside my fence. she had somehow managed to cross, so our stories were entangled, because we were so close to each other and because i began to wonder about what had done that damage to her. what had torn her up so badly that she couldn't live even this food rich environment? so, the book is largely about trying to figure out what happened to her, and what her story was, which is a small story about a single animal. what that says about the way we treat bears and the way the future looks for them and for us. me that ined to
finding stories like millie's, there is a lot going on here. we talk about the endangered species act. we are making a slow, steady steps in the lower 48. moment, at this crucial because we have a population that has grown from 750 bears to a minimum count of 1850 bears now. we are seeing that growth and that is a good thing. we are seeing bears expand outward from the places where they historically have held on. beings beginuman to use this landscape more intensively. people are coming in here all the time, there is more subdivision and fragmentation of habitat and that is a crucial problem.
it is at this crucial moment where we have to decide how much space we are going to make for these wild animals, particularly likely grizzly. when you look at a landscape like the one behind me, you can see that human beings are in it, you can see the buildings, you can see that the fields have been tended, rock has been picked out of the fields. you don't see houses all over. you don't see such a density of people that it is unusual for a wild animal. we have to maintain that. there are ways we can do that. showing collective restraint, which is a hard thing for people to do. we have not done with well -- well with that. if there is a place you can put a house and you run for generations of people through a landscape, they often put a house here. we have to break that. we have to be the first
generation to leave the american west less settled and therefore more intact. that is what this book is about and what i hope to achieve in some small measure here. when i feel despair, it is because i look at the past. every generation for the last couple hundred years out here has left it last intact, less whole than they found it. if we keep doing that, there is not going to be anything left, or rather, what is left will be these islands that are too rough to build upon and all of the corridor is that link places like that, where grizzly bears now survive and where they could thrive again, like to the south of here, they are filled up with people, so the animals can't move. we have to break that mold. when i feel hope about the future, it is because i think about the good work that is starting to be done. easements protect
part of private land from development. there is one on our farm. that is a great tool. it protects in perpetuity. it travels with the property. that is a profound thing we can do to make sure these landscapes stay open. zoning has long been a dirty word in our part of the world, but we need to embrace it or the things we love about this, which is its willingness, as people bothractice agriculture, wild animals and ranchers depend on open lands for their living. nugget that i want people to understand. , it is set up as this contest or conflict between people who want to practice agriculture in people who appreciate the value of wild animals. that is a completely false divide.
there are places where there is friction between them and it will not always be a perfect anationship, but un-fragmented landscape is common to both, and i want people to know that that is common ground that we have to stand and fight on, or we will lose conductivity in the west with wild animals and we will lose land for the purpose of agriculture. so, the bear at the heart of this book, her story is a sad one. she died as a result of her wounds, she wasted away in the cornfield until the tribal ,iologist had to put her down and that was one of the biggest acts of mercy i've ever been party to. she left two cubs and those cubs are now in the zoo in baltimore, and that is a really complicated thing for me.
cubs -- i see cubs like them in the wild and the way a bear behaves, what their life is like in the wild between the zoo, there is no comparison, often i think, is it better for cubs like that to be dead or in a zoo, and that, timmy, is an open question from their perspective. from our perspective, as a species that is more and more urbanized and that lacks connections to animals, it is a good thing for us. having those cubs they are allows people to see them and connect with them who would otherwise have no idea about the species. we need that. i remember going to see these , sitting on ao railing looking into their exhibit and i was feeling really low and sad, and a woman came and sat next to me and we got to talking about the cubs. she said, i bring my children here. she had kids with her.
becausemy children here the next generation has to love animals. they have to know animals and i wish we could go to yellowstone and see them in that context, but we can't. this is what we have, and this is enough to form a connection. that is what happened to those cubs and i feel bad every time i think about them being there, because i know way bears life is like out here, and i know the distance they dropped. go halfway up this mountain you can see behind me. but i also know what the cubs are doing there. they are being ambassadors for their species, and i hope they are helping people realize that there is true value in having these animals on the landscape, and we need to do things, even difficult things, to make sure they stay. announcer 1: the c-span cities tour is exploring the american
story. up next, local author beth judy on her book, old women in montana history. today, we are at fort missoula, in the western part of the valley. is a beloved place for many millions. we come here to walk our dogs and we attend presentations here. the forest service is often here in the historical museum is here. there is a lot of history here. there used to be more buildings from different eras. there is an old cemetery i like to go to and visit. here, the sweat lodge native students at the university of montana, the river is right over there, and it is a beautiful spot. the bold women series started at mountain crest publisher several years ago, over 10 years ago.
it is a state-by-state series that focuses on women who have made a difference, who have great stories, who may not be known or who may be very well known. each book is a collection of chapters that takes the woman's life as a subject. i love all of these women, and you kind of have to to write about them. you learn about what happened to them and what motivated them to do things. sometimes that takes research. love all of them, but eloise was so persistent and dedicated to righting a wrong that had been going on for over 100 years. starting in 1887, the united states government divvied up some indian reservations from
communal ownership to individual ownership. at that time, they said you don't really know how to use banks, you don't know about money, we will be your bank. for bothe the bank tribes and individual people. and so, when they divvied up the landvations, people had that could make them money. for of it was good agriculture, some had oil on it. these were all sources of income, and the government said, we will make sure we get that making money for you, and they did, but it turned out that there were many problems with this system, people would have five oil rigs on their land, but get $60 per year. we are talking some of the poorest people in the united states. there was also great trouble in getting their money out. say, igo to a bank and
want $25, goodbye. wantwould go and say, i $25, and they would say, we can't give that to you today. there was all kinds of trouble in getting money when they needed it. eloise is like a joan of arc, because she grew up hearing about this problem, because her parents were tribal leaders. she studied accounting in college and then was hired in the 1980's, in her early 30's, to become the treasurer of the blackfeet nation. as an accountant, she was flummoxed. they were just a mess. they didn't make any sense. the hero ofed indian affairs, the department of treasury and said, can you help, i don't understand this. she never really got good answers. she reached out to other tribal treasures, they said, we know
exactly what you are talking about. it is our problem also. she went to congress. a lot of people were not interested in helping her figure this out, but a representative from oklahoma had many native constituents and he said, i will help you figure this out. they did a congressional investigation and found terrible malfeasance in dealing with records and dealing with people's money. amazingly, even though the department of the treasury, department of the interior or issued warnings, told they had to change this, they had to write this wrong, nothing changed. so, eloise couldn't believe it, but she went to another meeting in washington with all of these officials, and i think they saw her as a complainer and said, sue us.
she said, ok, i will. 1996 that she and a native american rights organization and one of the foremost banking lawyers in the country all brought suits on behalf of eloise as they lead plaintiff, but over 300,000 other native people around the country, who were individual account holders. it took 16 years. it didn't matter whether the president was democrat or republican, it was a tough cattle. the government again and again she was proven right, but the government would appeal. they had hundreds of lawyers working on it. finally, i think it was after 13 years, there was a settlement. it was the largest class action settlement that anyone has ever won against the government. yearsll took three more
and unfortunately, she died andre she got any money, before the case was absolutely picture but there is a of her shaking hands with president obama. that is when it was mostly and she had and victory. is the onlykin native missourian in my book and she is of national importance, because she was the first woman to go to congress. she went in 1917, she was elected in 1916. this is before women had the vote, but jeanette had worked really hard to get women's suffrage passed in montana. driven crisscross our very large state trying to get
everyone to support women's doing, shend in so kind of unwittingly laid the groundwork for her own election to congress, which she believed was important so that people in the united states could see that a woman could handle that job, and she felt that would help the whole country support suffrage. she was not just important to in montana. she worked hard across the country for suffrage. starting in washington state, but she worked in california, in the south, in the midwest. effective, because she had studied public speaking, even though she had been shy, and she became a mesmerizing speaker. she worked hard at whatever she fixand she really wanted to
the ills that affected our country. , she went torson new york and boston and saw the slums and poverty there. the problems immigrants had. she decided she had to do something about it. she was part of the progressive era. women in american history, there are so many cool, wonderful, amazing women who have contributed so much. it is fun sometimes to think, how are these women specific to montana? does montana add into the mix of wife they were so bold? think there is hardship in montana, especially in the olden days, but even now, there is. that makes people appreciate these women so much. when there is hardship, you learn to become self-sufficient and you learn that no one else
may help you. you have to help yourself. that gives you a certain kind of freedom. all of these women grew up with that kind of freedom and they also grew up with economic hardship, and therefore, the roles that women were assigned in parts of the united states that were older and had more money, those rules didn't apply here. girl children had to work, just like weight children. to break horses just like boys did. jeannette rankin built a sidewalk for her father's hotel, because she could. there are many examples like that. inspired in my own life by the example of other women and men, and i know what it feels like to be inspired, to
ask for help and to get it, and what a huge difference that makes in our lives. some younge it if woman or young man reads my book and says, ok, i want to do x, i am going to go for it, or i am having a hard time right now, but jeanette rankin overcame having a mentally ill mother and a hard childhood, i can, too. koval made a huge difference for indian people across the country, grew up poor. i can do that, too. >> our visit tomissoula continues with the visit with a former senator talking about his book "political hellraiser."
wheeleror burton k represented in the united states senate from 1943 until 1947. he was nominally a democrat for most of his career but an extremely independent politician. he was controversial and consequential. in that 24 years that he served , there are very few things domestically or internationally that he did not have his hands on in one way or another. wheeler was a progressive democrat. there were republican progressives, people like william bohr from idaho. shared certain common .haracteristics a real independence for one
thing. all opposed tot concentrated power. big banks, wall street, utility companies. certainly the anaconda mining was an adversary of wheeler's. it really dominated montana politics. there are several big accomplishments that wheeler deserves credit for. the biggest thing he did came in 1937. he had been a big supporter of innklin roosevelt election 1932. pretty quickly after the election he soured on parts of the new deal. while he's a worded most of the legislation, he came to have some different opinions on the
direction the new deal was headed. he was concerned about the growing power of the federal government and presidency. wins anafter roosevelt in norma's reelection in a landslide his words were he was going to reform this in court. really, it amounted to packing the court. he wanted to add six new justices the court, taking the size from nine members to 15. a democrat andgh had been supportive of the roosevelt program resisted that. not just from the sidelines but he became a senate leader. splintered their personal and political relationship. he deserves a great deal of credit for saving the supreme court, the independence of the
court. when roosevelt had the make itity to subservient to the federal branch of government and wheeler stop that. that among other things ranks high on his accomplishments. 1935 he sponsored what was then act,d the wheeler-rayburn the public utilities holding act. 1935, the american elected utility industry had been dominated by 13 huge utility holding companies. believed these holding companies were in essence a scheme to enrich a few very wealthy people at the top end of the holding company pyramid. roosevelt's help he set about to dismantle the big holding companies. they succeeded. i think it was the biggest fight
of roosevelt presidency in many ways. in terms of legislation. it engendered huge controversy and investigation of lobbying practices of the utility industry. the utility holding company act was a big accomplishment. regards to the investigation of the department of justice and the harding administration, there were two separate investigations. ironically, both of them were led by montana senators. there was one led by wheeler's montana colleague, tom walsh. resulted in the convicting of the interior secretary for taking bribes regarding oil reserves. at almost the same time wheeler began investigating in the senate of the justice department and attorney general dority.
dome wast teapot related to the corrupt practices of the justice department. the investigation rolled out over a period of several months. lots of witnesses were called. there was a murderer or perhaps a suicide in the middle of the that really captured the public attention. it ultimately resulted in dority's resignation. on two separate occasions he stood trial or crimes he was alleged to have committed while attorney general. really enriching himself and his cronies. dority escaped conviction on the second trial. juryirst trial was a hung and the second trial he escaped conviction because one of the 12 jurors held out on convicting him. andas forced to resign
wheeler took a lot of credit. , he paid something of a price. the justice department set out to was back against him. concoctedcted -- charges against him in montana. he stood trial while he was in the senate. he was acquitted by a jury in great falls. it was a sensational trial with the investigator being accused of essentially what he was accusing the attorney general of doing. in the middle of this he was indicted in montana. investigating the attorney general. democratic party to join the progressive party ticket. wheeler runs as vice presidential candidate in 1924.
.he progressives did very well they only won one state, wisconsin. they ran ahead of the democratic ticket in many western states. came close to winning the electoral votes in montana. the enduring importance of that to wheeler's career was it t his appetite to be involved in national politics. platform the progressive party advanced in 1924 in large part came to be the basis for franklin roosevelt new deal in the early 1930's. some of the reforms the progressives were talking about, some of the efforts to control monopoly and that sort of thing did manifest themselves in the new deal a decade after the 1924 election.
remains in the antiwar noninterventionist movement in world war ii remains part of -- remained the most controversial part of wheeler's legacy. sentimentss antiwar back to his early days in montana. quaker.er was he came about these antiwar sentiment from early age. he came to montana in the early 20th century and became u.s. attorney right about the time of the first world war. was a very difficult time in montana. lots of effort to crack down on free speech. the german language was outlawed. german books were burned.
basically civil liberties were set on the show for a period of time. wheeler courageously pushed back zealotryhis patriotic that if you are critical of the war effort or woodrow wilson you were a trader to your country. he really pushed back against that. refused to bring charges against people that the newspapers and others thought needed to be cracked down upon because they were speaking out against the war. i think that ingrained in him a certain sentiment of the profoundly concerned about war. he carried that all throughout his political career. it manifest itself in a major way in 19 the one when he became associated what was then called the america first committee.
a grassroots movement. one of the largest in american political history. at the height of america first there were probably 800,000 members cost the country. wheeler became the most prominent speaker for the america first committee. traveled extensively, that was about all he did. meetings,nd conducted speeches, rallies in madison square garden and the hollywood bowl. places where these massive lies played out. the controversy that came out was a function of several factors. committee in ast way did get infiltrated by anti-semitic elements. there were certainly pro-german
elements associated with america first. i found no evidence in my of wheeler's story of personal anti-semitism or his being a nazi agent as a sum accused him of being. innuendosrs or tainted his career from that point on. he suffered from that. wheeler said late in his life that it seemed like controversy followed him wherever he went. he actually encourage the controversy in many ways. he thought if i am involved, i am in the middle of something important. would at one level folks the book and come away with a sense that this is an interesting political character. on another level i'm hoping
there are some lessons for our politics now about how the senate once operated. others -- butd certainly wheeler during his career put the country's interest ahead of his party. i hope our of those lessons that come through in the book. >> join us the first and third weekends of each month as we take book tv and american history tv on the road. to watch video for many of the places we have been go to tour..org/cities continuestomissoula as we learn about cybersecurity. today we are announcing the indictment of four individuals responsible for the 2014
hacks. >> a hack at marriott exposed information. >> i went to pick my daughter up from preschool. anotherplaying with little girl. relatively new student. while they were playing i started talking to the mom. she said what do you do? i said i'm a writer. i said what do you do? she said tomorrow morning i have to break into a bank. how does that work? over more play dates and conversations i got to know her better and realized that she was companyof this hacking that people hired to test security or get help had already been broken into. >> typically when an organization is hacked enormous son of the time it is because
the failure of authentication. called "breaking and entering." the true story of a female hacker called alien. and the birth of our insecurity age. the birth of hacking, hackers, professional espionage and technical exploitation. over the last 20 years we have become more and more aware that we put major elements of our society, culture, economy of politics onto network computer systems. the institutions we rely on are vulnerable to hackers and hacking. face to hackers. we are stuck with either teenager in a hoodie, matthew broderick in wargames or angelina jolie in hackers.
the idea a hacker could be a iswn-up or professional something unique. i saw this opportunity to take a topic and put a face on it. tell the story from an insider white of you. we saw your first raking and entering, where are you today? >> it has been a long journey. i am the ceo of two companies. ceo for athe cybersecurity training company in iowa. it has been fascinating to see haveny people grow and other people feel stuff and rigor works about it. will do a variety of other services. like digital hostage negotiations. your information is encrypted, you cannot get it.
that guy wants $100,000 in bitcoin to get your information back, how do you perceive? those tricky, modern age issues that we are dealing with today help hold your hand. they are called white hat hackers or hackers for good. her story starts when she is 17 years old. she is a freshman at m.i.t.. thisiterally falls into secretive world of physical acts of hacking. at m.i.t. this is a hundred-year-old tradition. up an elevatorng shaft. it might be climbing through steam tunnels. it might be going into some of the great dome at m.i.t.
a hack is sort of an elaborate, ingenious prank. like getting the car on top of the dome. or making the tallest building a playable tetris game. getting in and out before anyone sees them. going hacking is exploring for its own sake. that is something you might do nightly, we we, you are trying to get into secretive spaces that no one else has discovered. that is the part the public has never seen. ofhas this direct analog getting into hidden spaces on computers. she moves onto computer hacking and network security. she becomes in a short order one of the student traders in charge of trying to the network at m.i.t. safe. one of the world's foremost and most sophisticated network
s, but atenvironment the same time it is totally open. not like a military system. it is supposed to be exploring or academic research. the students are using it for great research and to maybe pull pranks and explore other computer system. outsiders are attacking too. the same kind of viruses that were made so many system vulnerable are attacking m.i.t. too. from m.i.t. to los alamos national laboratory. she is not working on security per se but her computer skills get way more advanced. she moves back to boston and those computer security, network security for a hospital system. that is amazing because the computer systems are not just computers, they are medical devices.
they are everything we rely on to save lives. be not just in a computer system or individual, it can take out the whole neonatal icu. lives at stake in computer security. next, she goes to what is called penetration testing room. penetration -- penetrated testing lets you see how you are vulnerable before the bad guys can get a. that could be physical breaking and entering or that could be virtual. when she is working there she does everything from talking her way into vaults. to hacking the reservation system of a major airline. sting security for military
contractors and suppliers. finally she transitions to being a freelancer, arming her own company. operation. 30 person now, this whole field grows up. we moved so many aspects of our society online and build network systems and the basis of our government and our businesses. all of these places need to protect themselves. criminals, adversaries, sometimes from their own government. this information security industry is born. it basically doesn't exist. by the time she graduates, about 15 years later, today it is a $140 billion industry. industry,just a giant it has a few aspects to our society. they are the ones testing our
banks, our hospitals. they know intimately where we are vulnerable. they can in or must. that was important for me, i wanted to shine light on his good guy hackers. work, welien in her will need to consult them to understand how to get advantage technology but not be so vulnerable to be totally wiped out. process was talking and interviewing alien a ton. i was trying to follow in her footsteps. i visited her old dorms. i talked to every person who is still alive. i went to los alamos. i went to a giant hacker convention in las vegas where
there are 20,000 hackers in town trading tips and partying together. i went to washington, d.c., where i was able to's to ex-nsa employees. gonelked about how it has from government agencies to big business in that area. i went to new york where there are several scenes. finally, here in missoula where some of the story ends up. trying to build a high-tech company going around the world from a small town in montana, which is kind of amazing. example is going to vegas. this isn't an antisocial group of people. i'm with 20,000 hackers in caesar's palace in las vegas.
there is car hackers taking apart a tesla. there is internet hackers taking apart smart bridges. engineers,cial hackers that are working on mind.g ithe human they are calling verizon stores trying to get employees to give work.role of their net i went to an enthusiast gathering in the desert. they built their own can. it is like a campout. hackingo corporate things with fancy swag bags and they rented out clubs. you see the different sides of hacking. the final site i found mind blowing was going to los alamos. foremoste worlds
research laboratories. lab. a high security it is in the middle of the new mexico desert. i say it is like going to the grand canyon. the canyon walls, the birds flying overhead. you turn a corner and there is m.i.t. that is pretty mind blowing too. of hackers, it is important to see diversity. they say we improve security by testing it. that can be counterintuitive. systems breaking into -- i talked to locke pickers. if we can break it, it is not a good lock. that is something i think is very important to realize. useser analogy that alien
is a doctor. it might hurt but they are making sure their body and system works. vaultan get into the bank is helping someone else. reflexes iest your can get it. she and her team are very successful but it is reassuring they are getting hired by importance's and they know they need is testing. you can think of it a little bit like a vaccine. protected from criminal or adversarial power struggle. realize hacking is more diverse and hackers are more diverse than we thought today. you could be physical breaking and entering. it could be lock picking.
it could be exploring for and some state. it could be human hacking. it could be the hacking on keyboards that are stereotyped. up and have grown professionalized. i met alien when i went to pick up my daughter from preschool. it is not just a teenager in his parents basement. it could be the mom across from you at the playground. high-poweredvery professional that will break into a bank the next morning. >> our visit to missoula continues with author stan cohen on the history of this montana city. stan: we are at a very well-known and in or in part of the whole city's history.
we are inside the st. michael's church. building the oldest standing in missoula county. traders andfor traders in general plus the vigilantes who were around. they came on the road that was very important from walla walla, washington. it was built by the military. there is still remnants of it. road is partullen of a residential road in western is wil missoula. they founded a store in this church in 1863.
there was the center of commerce for people coming and going on the owen road. 64, i believe they moved into what is now downtown missoula. they have the rattlesnake creek as the water source. from there, the city just expanded through the years. there weren't many people here to start with. it was all commerce. i'm sure there was summer ranching going on. didn't really come into effect until 1900 in a big way. they used the railroad and the anaconda copper company came in here. they were a big logging house. the remnants of some of those
-- when i sent the missoula area. '89 is when they built a large number of buildings downtown. towniggest store in started building in 1877. you would have to go back to the mid-70's when buildings started going on in downtown. now it is taking up the whole valley. at the time it was settled down by the rattlesnake creek. montana, which started as montana state university was chartered in 1893. in first building was opened 1895.
it is a general university. have one of the most well-known and finest for street -- forestry schools in the country. believe it or not, one of the finest creative writing schools. pharmacy, forme chemistry. president roosevelt starts the civilian conservation corps. was in the center for all the ccc camps including glacier and yellowstone. 1942.asted until they had a school out here. a lot of buildings for
transients to stay. in military museum was built 1937. there is a lot of working people here. we are a major railroad center. the factories. big tech has become a center. a lot of work going on. are also really big in -profit. we are a mismatch of everything. university brings in proffesors and students.
as cosmopolitan as it can get. have two publishers. mound presses the other one. we have a lot of authors. we have had a few conservation .ewspapers and news writers a lot of books have come out of here. ray burke is a nationally known fiction and history writer who has written a lot of books. authors every place. more than any other place in the state. i think it is two things. one is the university. they have the university creative writing program that is nationally known.
town that doesn't have a lot of big disasters like hurricanes and tornadoes. forest fires are our main problem. buts not right in missoula it is all around us. we are pretty liberal here. more democratic than conservative. our main political guy coming out of euros to mike mansfield. the youngest soldier in world war i, then he became a university professor or years. then he became senator.
he was majority leader. worldwide.ell-known then he became ambassador to china after that. one of our biggest industries is tourism. rep. rice: missoula -- missoula is great because we are in the middle between yellowstone park and lakeshore national. scenery is a big draw. you will citi bikes in the summertime. all over the place. famous fishing area called rock creek about 20 miles east of here that is nationally known. big game hunting is a big sport in the mountains.
goats.er, mountain we had at one time two ski areas. snow bowl.t is eople local but we get poepl from all over the country. not too many towns in the country can have a jet airport and major ski area 13 miles away. montanae in missoula, on the c-span cities tour. totraveled to fort missoula learn about the italian and japanese internment camps during world war ii. an eerieay it is
feeling. most of the people have no idea why they were arrested. they were brought here for hearings to determine whether they might be disloyal to the country. what did these people think away from their emilys? families? i think it has done a great job theelling the story of japanese and the italians who came there. they have some of the original barracks. we are sitting in the headquarters building in the courtroom. a really great place for people to come and learn more. people largely don't really know
either italians or japanese were held here during the war. people arrested were living on the west coast. fort missoula had most recently been a civilian conservation corps camp. it enabled the justice department to bring people here. since may of 1941, , primarily italians merchant strips who were .tranded britain wouldn't guarantee their safe passage home. they languished in the ports for quite a while. cruisewsnments order the
and in the program would give them to britain. once the sabotage began united states ordered the men off the ship. they didn't know where to put them. because the camp was available here, they sent them on trains out to fort missoula starting in may. italians first came here they seemed to be happy. a reallyhad enlightened director. whilelly understood that they were here against their , they gave them pin money be bakers,to gardeners, working laundry.
they were given money they could use to buy small things. the government provided them with essentials. they were allowed a lot of leisure time. they put on plays and musical performances. particular in those first six months, they thought it was not bad. most of them were really not very interested in going back to italy and having to fight in the war. early 80's ain the uniteder story that said states government formally acknowledged they conducted surveillance on the japanese living in the united dates well before our entry into the war. the government created what they .alled abc lists
"a" was the most dangerous. those were the people rounded up initially. they already talk to people in the community about whether they thought these people were suspicious. , i heardard about that there were people -- japanese held that fort missoula. i started looking into that and couldn't find anything that had been written. the museum had no information. i found no references in books. i ended up going to the national archives and reading through all the files. that is when i first got interested in what i thought was an untold story. we heard a lot about the camps or relatively speaking. i'm sure plenty of people don't know much about them.
we hadn't heard anything about the justice department camps. eld there those that h first japanese that came. at that point there was still a remove allation to of the japanese from the west coast. 1942, roosevelt issued an executive order which created what was called the western defense command. was essentially the western parts of washington, oregon, and california. all japanese had to be relocated from there. they created the war relocation authority. camps.tablished 10 that was run by the agency.
those camps were different from this justice department. there were no women here and there were no american citizens here. age of the japanese who were interned here was 61 years old. governmentuse the worried they would be the leaders of any forthcoming activity. probably the one who is most well-known was from hood river, oregon. store andmercantile apple orchards. sons well-known because his of the people who
challenge the constitutionality of the decree that the japanese couldn't travel more than a certain distance. they had curfews. those were the cases that went to the united states to prima court. he was an attorney. before he was detained he came here to try to help his father during the hearings. they wouldn't really allow him to be counsel but he was able to sit in on it. so they have some kind of record of the questions asked of him. he wrote about how they had accrued drawings. were.sked him what these claim thatrying to
this was part of the sabotage to blow up the panama canal. cases, they really had been living a life but the japanese tended to live together. anything thatne made them a prominent figure in the community, that cast suspicion on them as to whether they were really still loyal to japan. they couldn't become american citizens, the question was where would their loyalty lie? i think from everything that i , i haven't found a single thing that would lead me to believe any of the people
interned here were disloyal to this country. they were not allowed to become american citizens. seemed to cast suspicion. when i would give talks about this, i used to say i think america really learned a lesson during that period in terms of casting suspicion on people because of where they came from, what they look like, what their cultural and religious practices. sure that weso learned that lesson. i think they do a really good job of reminding people what happened to those people. what went on here. how wes that factor into as a people behave today towards people who are not like us? if you look around missoula you
will see people who are very much looking like one another. population.e indian native americans who lived on this land for white people ever came here. majority large caucasian population here. it is important for us to remember what went on here and who are weight? we treat people who are not in the majority? we do a really good job reminding people of our history here and how that impacts us today. and how we should look upon people who don't come from the majority. the c-span cities tour is in missoula, montana. we conclude our visit with
author ken egan. >> we are at humanities montana, and nonprofit organization dedicated to providing programs to all montanans. by humanities beaming literature, history, native american studies. to organization is dedicated getting humanities into every montana unity. we are particularly committed to rural communities. we want to go to smaller communities that really enable libraries, schools, to provide these opportunities for folks to come together and really together.
the book is called open dread. it was a response to some scary events in montana in the mid-1990's. i'm presuming most americans will remember some of the incidents. the unabomber lived in central montana in a mountain town. we had the militia montana. as a montanans, what do these movements tell us about our values about our challenges? about the way we deal with our issues. we have to turn to literature to answer that question. it is a book of literary criticism. it is organized in basically three parts. the first part writes about stories from 1862-1940. i called the is pretext.
these are memoirs. they are some of the stories. their accounts from indigenous elders about what life was like for those 80 years. then we shift to what i call the tragic sensibility. that is where we discussed some novels.oems, some great we focus on the so-called tragic tradition. that was basically 1940 through the present. then i shift to the third section where we talk about comedies. there is really a focus on female writers. , sarahldred walker mcfadden. i could go on and on. these are writers who take us through a sense of working hope.h the i want to stress that there are
a lot of personal stories. nonacademic ass possible. i wish folks would immerse themselves. hopefully it has a light and extensible voice. on the tragic side we have one of the most famous montana novels, "the big sky." it remains a gorgeous novel. it was revolutionary at the time because he was working with alan beenwhich had not fictionalized or treated. it turns out to be a tragedy because the main character journeys from kentucky to montana and ends up destroying he found here. i will read a brief ex cerpt.
he arrives in montana and sees an uncle who has been here 10 years before him. here is what the uncle says to him. i think it will capture the sense of tragedy. they need to be mountain men. arnedbetter be b again. she's gone. gone. what's gone? godwhole thing gone by and not to care. he began jabbing at the ground as if it eased his feeling. e.is was a man's country onc no cramping and crowding. boone ends up destroinying
that world. in the case of the big sky, the lesson the reader is likely to learn is that human beings come to this beautiful place and they tend to engage in direct conflict. often meaningless conflict. boone ends up getting in all kinds of trouble because of jealousy. human beings come into the sacred place and finding themselves destroying it for the most petty of reasons. we fight all the time. how should we secure energy. we argue over indigenous rights. we see alook at boone, kind of suggestion that maybe that is not the way to go. on the other hand, a great example of a comedy is the writer ivan doit.
most well-known montana writer. he wrote a number of wonderful books. i focus on a trilogy. he produced a trilogy, three nov els in 1989. creek is by far my favorite novel by him. just want to give a little flavor of what a comedy sounds like. this is what comic writing sounds like. what i would stress is notice how the narrator goes very much in place. part of this world is incorporated into montana. in my life until then i had never seen the side hills come so green.
wet could amount of evidently suite in the universe. my father in his first patrol encountered it drifting up and across the continental divide to the cabin grounds on the west side. they and the grass and wild neto's all were a good three weeks ahead of season. said, spring rain as if half the $10 bills are being handed around at the other half is promising at shipping time. what i hope your reader will torn is that it is possible be fully incorporated into a community. there are all kinds of disagreements. shows us this is not a harmonious community. there are very deep lines of conflict. some going back to the days of settlements and having to do what land-use.
the main character finds a way to go through all of those difficulties and at the end of the novel says i am fully grown up. i am ready to move forward with my life and deal with my problems in a richer way. it is important to reach back to history because in many ways they are so him orbited. i worry that we are losing our community to history a very moment. i could go on and on about possible reasons. with priorloaded experience, prior attempts, failures and successes. i look at missoula, it is settled in the 1850's and 1860's. we came in here and built lumber mills and raised cattle.
built our various structures in town. we could look back and say what choices did we make? are we proud of what resulted? are those the best choices for us now? i think history provides a distant mirror. we can take on our toughest question, and not immediately. instead we are looking at a question from 1862. we can look at that process and those challenges and be very honest. i think it allows a frankness and directness we may lack in the present moment. i hope what they walk away with from the book is first of all, a sense of how important literature is. again, just to remind the source of the beginning of the book, it
began with a very serious radical movement in montana. which worried me that maybe we in montana were caught up in history. we were caught up in these temptations of despair. turn to literature. literature is full, it is human, it is surprising. it is full of possibilities. it is often very difficult. we are losing not just the desire to spend time in history but to take on difficult texts. when they walked away from the book, i hope they have a sense that literature matters. secondly that texts carry deep meeting for our lives. whether or not you find my argument about tragedy and comedy, we could have good arguments about that. folks have challenged me about that saying is doig a comic writer?
wisdom,rary text carry knowledge, possibility. we can debate that. i have to say for my organization, humanities montana. one of our promised programs is we will bring writers into schools around montana. they encourage students to read a poem, talk about it, and really delve into the meaning. i think it is profound and very moving. >> our visit to missoula, montana is a book tv exclusive. we showed it today to introduce you to c-span cities tour. for eight years we traveled to u.s. cities bringing the book seemed to our viewers. you can watch more of our visit at c-span.org/citiestour. tonight, several
programs related to the 50th anniversary of the apollo 11 mission. starting with cbs coverage of the launch with alter cronkite. president trump joined by astronauts and the family of neil armstrong commemorating the mission along with speeches by u.s. house members. 10:00 "newsmakers." kilmer legislative priorities. after that "the communicators" with scott kupor. on july 16,the first manned misd on them in. with astronauts neil on strong, buzz aldrin, and michael collins aboard. the program includes interviews with lyndon b. johnson, wally
sharaf, and arthur c clarke. they also interviewed spectators in florida. this is a scene right here beyond our press site. the spacecraft is brought from its manufacturer in alabama. here there is an interesting site, too. arend our press site, there , permittedorkers out for the first time to bring binoculars and cameras of the road to the base. there's a holiday atmosphere. normally during these launches, work goes on to keep things on schedule. indeed, in the vehicle assembly building, they have already directed apollo 12. it is ready to be rolled out as soon as apollo 11 is on its way fo