tv Best of 2018-19 Cities Tour CSPAN September 6, 2019 5:56pm-8:01pm EDT
the california gold rush and the environment. , the 1977 film on italian newspaper journalist marino did a metis. at 4:30, scholars on iran's nuclear program. at 6:00, dan alpert talks about his book. explore our nations past on american history tv come every weekend on c-span3. next, some of our cities tour visits from the past 12 months. helping us learn more about the unique history and literary life found around the country. we've traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the book seem to our viewers. you can watch more of our visit at c-span.org. we are in the abraham lincoln
presidential library, down in the stacks. we are in the most secure area in our facility. this is the vaults. more thanere we keep 1600 documents written by abraham lincoln as well as many of the pieces he owned, objects he owned that he and directed with during his lifetime. i want to show you some books that we have in our collection that were very special to abraham lincoln. lincoln whenraham he was elected president in 1860, it's not as if he was entirely unknown. he was a four term member of the legislature. he had served a term in congress. he was one of the most prominent politicians from the state of illinois. in large part, that popularity was due to his very successful debates against stephen a douglas, sitting senator on the democratic side in 1858. abraham lincoln challenged him
in illinois for that senate seat. they debated. onee hour-long public debate several different occasions during that campaign season. two years later, the same two individuals square off against each other for the presidency of the united states. to let the rest of the country know what abraham lincoln was and his political positions. he worked with a publisher to publish the text of the lincoln douglas debates. copy ofa really special the lincoln douglas debates here in our collection. these were published in 1860. mr. lincoln was given a number of copies by the publisher. on occasion, he would give folks a not a graph coffee. -- autographed copy. he handwrote it with pencil to the honorable abraham jonas,
with respects of, and his signature. abraham jonas is a really interesting individual. he was a lawyer from quincy. he was a member of the jewish faith, which is very interesting for the 19th century. first memberas the of the jewish faith to settle west of the appalachian mountains. that is very interesting. jonas was a supporter of abraham lincoln and the republican cause. abraham lincoln gave him a not a graph copy of that book. that helped introduce them -- him to the world. there's another piece in our collection that, -- this was a campaign i auger fee about abraham lincoln for 60 campaign.
there are a number of mr. lincoln's speeches throughout this book and it contains a narrative of abraham lincoln's life. abraham lincoln got his hands on a copy of this biography of his life. he noticed there were inaccuracies. he went through and annotated it himself in pencil. on page 41 he circles and puts in asterisk next to the final paragraph. the final paragraph read, it is supposed it was at new salem lincoln, a clerk, first saw stephen a. douglas and probably the acquaintance was renewed during lincoln's proprietorship of the store he bought in the same place. circles this and writes an invitation -- annotation. wrong. wholly
i first saw him in 1834, never at new salem. he is setting the record straight. he remembered the month and year he saw his political opponent way back in 1834 for the first time. throughout this book he makes annotations, many so interesting. mr. lincoln is the most written about american of all time. there are some 18,000 books written about abraham lincoln. many of them are great. many contained inaccuracies. pointing out every time an author wrote something inaccurate about him. he prevailed over stephen douglas and the other two candidates. during that campaign his wife mary went to new york city where she bought her husband a new
her of clothes, herself and little boys. she was dreaming of life in the white house. she also bought this leather volumes of the complete works of washington irving. what is interesting about this tookit is the set mary with her to the white house because she was so good about writing and dating the books she owns. andbought them in new york brought them back to springfield. i bet she bought it thinking her husband would prevail in that wanted tof 1860 and see this sophisticated leather bound volume in the white house. i want to show you one more book. this is a book abraham lincoln would have been proud of. this is long before he is elected president. this is highlighting a
significant achievement in his life. isthis day abraham lincoln still the only president in american history who obtained patents. he was something of an inventor. 49 he received a patent for his invention he called an improved method of lifting vessels over shoals. how can boats get over sandbanks and rivers and how can we help navigation. his patent is accepted and 1849-1850 volume. you can see he obtained his patents. had to be a proud moment in his life. robert lincoln told us when he he was washington while
a congressman he was able to visit the government building in washington and see his dad's model on display. able to honor to be handle the documents abraham lincoln wrote and left behind, to be able to handle the everyday objects he used as he made his way through this world. it never gets old, to interact with these pieces. it is humbling and a dream come true to not only deal with researchers, but visitors around the world who want to learn more about abraham lincoln and american history. it is a deep privilege. some of theat highlights from the last 12 months continues as we take you to pasadena, california. today we are at the einstein papers project in pasadena at the california institute of technology.
einstein came to caltech at the end of 1930. he had been invited by the president of the california institute of technology to visit almost as soon as caltech was founded. caltech became a university around 1920 and robert milliken was one of the founders of caltech. he came from chicago. he knew of einstein's work, he knew einstein personally and wanted him to come to this institutions, to grace this institution, especially after einstein won the nobel prize in physics at the end of 1922. he arrived just before new year's eve 1930-1931. he was driven in a motorcade to by the trustee, arthur
fleming, where he stayed for a few nights. was watchthing he did the rose parade in pasadena on january 1, 1931. then andwas famous by followed by journalist every day all day. he was appointed a visiting researcher at caltech. seminars,pated in gave several lectures and the lectures were not always publicized because they were afraid to many people would show up. he gave professional talks. einstein in the mid-1920's decided he would not give popular scientific lectures. it was too much work and too difficult. there were many colleagues that caltech that einstein liked a interacted with the
physics faculty, astronomers, geologists and chemists. disciplineshe four best represented 80 years ago at caltech. since then we do a lot more. -- the einstein papers project is similar to the presidential papers project. states publishes presidential papers of jefferson, franklin, all other presidents. edition, like a standard edition of shakespeare. we tried to find all documents pertaining to einstein's work and life, in a diplomatic subscription or in the original meaning, to keep all documents. if einstein made mistakes or
misspelled someone's name, which he always did, it is very interesting, then we transcribed the way he wrote. approximately drafts, menu fact -- manuscripts, diaries, and letters to einstein. what is unique about our work is that we place einstein in the context of the cultural world in which he lived. we present both sides of the correspondents. as he became more and more
famous he initiated less, but replied to the onslaught. until he was about 40 years old einstein was well-known to the physics community, which was very small at the time. after he gets the nobel prize and comes to the u.s. for the first time in the 1920's he becomes very famous. people want to use him for all sorts of actions, enterprises, conferences, lectures, visiting professorships and so on. that is when his correspondence rose exponentially. though we know little about the young einstein, he did not keep his manuscripts or letters, we have a lot of correspondence for the older einstein and his replies.
these are our latest volumes that we published. you can see the german edition of the collected papers of albert einstein published in the original language with annotation, footnotes to every document. documents, the succession of the committee for intellectual cooperation. einstein was a great supporter of reconciliation among enemy nations and the sciences. appointed to the committee of intellectual cooperation. he also collaborated with the
u.s. representative on that committee. itemse have serious viewed with international and other items like baker of yeast cake. the text is in german and signed by albert einstein senior and junior. there are two albert einstein. there is the one we are talking about, and his son, hans albert. the verse in english reads the outpivott's blissfully each other. the yeast cake disappeared. with heavy belly and lighthearted we pay tribute to our benefactor. person who baked the cake.
here is the manuscript. you see the transformation and the type of work that we do. xeroxed copies of these, now we have high-quality scans. this material is located at the albert einstein archives in jerusalem because einstein left all his papers to that university. we work from the original like this, we transcribe it, and we explain it. thisplained to the reader signed,hed documents, berlin.ten probably in
we are not sure and give some rep. -- references we talk about his son. explain yeast cake. word, so wean easy have to explain to the reader what it means. thend -- it was we also translate into english the same document. there are footnote markers. these conform to the same footnote markers here. available volumes are online and almost all of them are at this point, the user can toggle between the german edition and the english edition and click on the footnotes and read the explanation.
all this material is available online for free. this is an achievement i am proud of. we have succeeded in making this available to everyone. the popular understanding of einstein has changed tremendously since this project began. if you want the founder of this project, his secretary, helen collected all the material, organized and labeled material, and on the basis of her work, the first database was created princeton.
the first electronic database of the einstein material. since then this database has ballooned like an expanding universe. every year we find new material. 1950's.ulated since the lot and haveed a changed our standard view of einstein. the view of einstein of sitting with penett working and paper in isolation, may be competing or collaborating with one or two people has changed drastically over the last 30 years since the einstein project. seen -- seeyou behind me have been published. genius.ot an isolated among extremely grounded
his students and professors, then later as a young researcher in the scientific community as a professor, member of the academy of sciences on someone. he was very active. he had a huge scientific correspondence in which he discussed not only his own work, but other people's work. he liked to help other people in their work. he also loved to help young he wasin their careers very interested in technology. new,is something that is that people did not pay a lot of attention to in the past. remember he died in 1955. it may seem very long ago to young people, but it is not very long for a historical figure.
that means assessing einstein's legacy will take a long time. what we are doing is making available this material for current and future generations of scholars who are interested in how scientific ideas develop. how they get implemented, accepted or rejected. did einstein care about experiments or didn't he? these are things we have shown over the last decade or so that einstein care deeply about whether his theories are confirmed experimentally. science is complicated and difficult so most people do not have a chance, an opportunity, and even the skill and primary school or todle school or high school address einstein's work entity boy -- in a deep way.
one thing that impresses me always is that einstein worked do notrd, that things come easily. he did not have eureka moments. imagined thatn he alexis -- acceleration and gravity are equivalent or the same. roof andalling from a flying up and rocketship, one feels more or less the same, and one does not know which is which. is gravity pulling me down, or is on motor pushing me up? this equivalence was described by einstein as one of his great
moments of insight. examplehave one other where he said something personal . he said, my heart skipped a beat when the results came out correctly. everything else was very hard work. say in german, by the seat-of-the-pants. he sat and worked. he did not achieve great success at a very early age. not off the scale in terms of abilities. abilities, hone his to learn new things. sometimes he learned things he should have known, but that is what is encouraging for us to know about him, that hard work and collaboration with people mathematics or
james cameron who was 16 at the time, supposed to be the third person hanging from the tree, but he survived. his friends abe and tommy, 18 and 19, were killed that day by $10,000timated between 10000 and 20,000 angry whites. book, memories of surviving the lynching. he started to write those when he was in jail awaiting his trial. when he was convicted and sent to prison he wrote his book. james cameron was born in 1914.sin, december 25, his family moved around. his dad was a barber. they made their way to indiana and he grew up in indiana. as an adult he moved to
milwaukee in 1952. when he was growing up in indiana, indiana was a state they did not have a significant amount of african-american people. primarily they did not because they had banned black people from living in the state of indiana in their constitution. they did not have a great many -- a great many blacks in the state. there was a lot of farmland around. had mixedtate that reviews from blacks. 1930's indianand had more ku klux klan members than any state in the country. presence of kuy klux klan. it did not make indiana
attractive for black people to live in. august 7, 1930, the night the lynching took place, the day before james cameron, known by jimmy was outside hanging out and two of his friends pulled up in a car, abe and tommy. they said, you want to go for a ride? sure. he jumped in the car and as they were driving, they go out by the river outside of town. they tell him on the way we are going to rob someone and get money to get another car. he was like, wait a minute, i did not sign up for this. when they got to the river there was a car parked there. they said we want you to go rob the people in the car. we will give you the gun, open the door and say stick them up. he was nervous about it, did not
want to do it, but made a bad decision, let peer pressure get the best of him. as soon as he opened the car door he recognized the 23-year-old white guy, one of his best friends in town. shoeshineipper at his stand. he gave the gun back to abe and tommy and took off running. as he was running a short time later he heard gunshots. realized -- the farmer across the road heard the shot. took him to a doctor in town to be treated. before he passed away that night he identified the three boys, tommy., abe and they went arrested the three almost immediately. town mr. spread around
deer had passed away that night, they hung his bloody shirt outside a window. theythere was a rumor that had sexually assaulted his wife, which was not true. the rumors spread and by the next morning there was a crowd of hundreds of whites intent on going into the jail and taking the three boys out and lynching them. eventually they went in and took abe and tommy out, murdered both of them, hung them on a maple tree next to the courthouse. they went in lastly to get cameron. they have the rope around his neck, they were dragging him through the crowd, people were punching, kicking, spitting on him, calling him names. he recognize the faces in the crowd, people he knew, some he considered friends. as he approached the tree he looked up and saw abe and tommy dead and he thought he would die
next. he said a prayer to god, asked god for forgiveness for his sins and said he heard a soft voice that came over the crowd. the crowd was loud and boisterous and charting -- chanting we want cameron. he said he heard a voice that said leave this young man alone. he had nothing to do with these crimes. miraculously they let him go. they allowed him to get back to the jail. he had been beaten badly, ended up losing a kidney as a result of the beating. the sheriff led him out later to take to a neighboring community for safekeeping. he waited a year before his trial. murder,ried not for the but as an accessory before the act of manslaughter and he was convicted of an -- and sentenced to four years before he received
a pardon. the photograph which depicts abe and tommy hanging, that photograph was taken by a local photographer who staged the photograph. he had branches cut off of the tree to get a better view. he put lights in front and behind the bodies and asked people to pose in front of the bodies. he took that photograph and sold thousands of copies of it. seven years after it was taken, a young jewish guy saw the photograph, abe mirapole, he thought it was a lynching in the south. he wrote a poem called bitter fruit and changed it into a song called strange fruit which billie holiday performed and made famous. the body swinging in the sun from theruit hanging
poplar trees ♪ he realized lynching was such an important part of american history and the part that is never taught in schools, so he wanted people to get an eyewitness account to see what the dynamics worm. he eventually opened up the museum to tell those stories to humanize the victim so they did not just see a name on a piece of paper or for a graph of someone who was murdered. theanted to humanize victims of lynching so we could develop a greater understanding of what happened in that period of time, what led to the lynchings, how widespread they were. were led tons believe lynching was an american -- a southern institution, but
they occurred all over the country. the lynching of cameron was north central indiana. there were several other famous lynching photographs. one from omaha, nebraska. another from duluth, minnesota. most in milwaukee are not aware there was one in milwaukee in 1861. i young man by the age of george marshall clark. when you look at the history of lynching, there were 5000 documented cases and many others that were never documented. the documentation came from a variety of sources. tuskegee kept a database. most of the lynchings we know fromrom stories newspapers. there were a variety of lynchings that occurred.
somewhere a small party of people that took someone to the back woods and murdered them. others were known as spectacle lynchings like the one cameron survived where thousands of white or going to be there as part of this festive environment. the going to come into the town for the lynching. people just think it was an angry event but it was very festive event for those who were participating. in marion, all of the blacks becaused to leave town they were frightened that they would be victimized as well. days lateruple before they came back. in 1979, he took an important to the holy land with his church in 1979. virginia his wife of 68 years, they were standing in his garden he said do you know what?
we need something like this in america to tell what happened to black people and the the freedom loving white people who helped us. that was the genesis of his beginning to think about starting a museum and giving the name he gave it. eight years later, he opened a museum in 1988. the museum never had a great deal of financial's or to make it sustainable and held an endowment. basically the recession happened and 9/11 attacks. the great recession in 2007, dr. cameron passing 11 -- passing away in 2006. those things negatively impacted the museum's availability to stay open. we had to close museum in december of 2008 because we literally ran out of money. is in a very good place now because we were able to continue doing dr. cameron's
work. a couple of years ago, they were starting to be talk of someone building a new building that would have some space for the new black holocaust museum. here we are in. where still and selling exhibits. we hope to open the museum sometime before the end of this year. we're excited about the opportunity to continue dr. cameron's work in a way that we never were able to do before with a worldwide reach, a new physical museum and still have our online presence as well. >> our look at the highlights from the last 12 months continues as we take you to the hawaiian island of a lot of who. of. lot -- he started
getting into politics almost as soon as he got back from the war. wave ofart of a whole japanese-american served in the military who were returning home who basically did not want to return to the same sort of world that they left behind. they felt that they had paid their dues. felt they deserved to have a slice of the american pie and the american dream that they had fought for when they were bleeding in the battlefields in europe. formera lot of his basicallyn arms
started getting involved in politics here in hawaii when it was still a territory. landmarke most obvious going chronologically would have been hawaii becoming a state. that was something that he and a lot of folks worked for. territory,hat has a hawaii was not getting the kind of representation that it truly deserved. they felt that in order for hawaii and the people of hawaii to be treated on an equal playing field and as first-class americansnd as equal to everyone else in the country, that hawaii had to become a state. that, the first real
landmark probably would have been statehood. another landmark for him would have been when he received the medal of honor. anytime someone says something that asked me about a event that was significant to him, that is something i think of. that really moved him. he did not expect that to happen. i only saw him cry twice in my life. one was by my mother's bedside when she died. and the other was when he received the medal of honor. next displays extraordinary heroism and attention to duty reflect great credit on him, his
unit and the united states army. [applause] >> it reaffirmed the believe in him that this country, he always had a deep abiding belief that america while america is a that has had a checkered past in certain regards, it is also a country that is willing to recognize that and willing to try to work to make things right. wasod example of that during the reagan administration when ronald reagan did the reparations for japanese-american internment and formally apologize for that act. him, for he and his
, -- later being recognized officially recognized for valor on the battlefield by receiving the highest honor a soldier can receive. turn ofa pretty happy events when you think about it. area he not lost on him was extraordinarily moved when that happened. this is the sum of the collection of my father's books
that are here at uh west a lot u. --oah the best thing about this collection is that you find some books and fonts some books find you. it is safe to say that the majority of these books found him. in his office collection -- they were primarily books that were sent to him as a result of his role as a senator. books that have in his mind direct relevance to what he was working on. also, there were others where he had a copy of the house but also wanted a copy in the office. for instance, this one here i
recognize this immediately because i recognize that he had a copy of it back at the house. book on the history of the four 42nd and the hundred battalions. this is something that was definitely close to his heart area as you can see, he had multiple copies in the office area it looks like one of them was getting beat up area he also had copies of it at the house there are a number of books that probably fall into that category year. it is a very diverse collection. you have everything from hawaii history, native hawaiian history, native american his ring, a lot of oaks that were sent to him by the author.
it is an interesting collection and very diverse. the thing that i found interesting is and i have pulled there ismples here is this book here which is an example of hawaii history. historye part of hawaii that is not discussed a lot but it was knows the price to me to find this in his collection because it is also in my collection. it is about the japanese-american community and hawaii is typically in one place. this was for many years in the earliest part of the 20th century a hub of the community. be where myens to mother's parents had their storm. -- store. my mother's parents had a .ewelry store
if you ever stop to think about how hard it would be to survive in an immigrant neighborhood running a jewelry store during the depression and coming out on the good and of things at the end of the depression, that should give you an idea how tough my mother's family was. this book is very interesting. place ina very special our family. this is a little bit different. fromis a souvenir program the four 42nd carnival in 1947. carnival, it was an event where people could come together and have a good time. help continue awareness for the four 42nd now
that they were back calm. when iber years later was -- i think i was in college at that point, my father said something to me like it was after i was out of college. it was when he received the medal of honor. he said something along the you don't go into something like this you don't go into a war to get a medal. start, you go in there and you want to survive. survive, a lot of it is just instinct and you find out what you are about and what your friends are about. growing up this way, it really sort of drives home the armed conflict.
it is not like when you watch the news and it's not just numbers or statistics or terms like collateral damage or friendly fire. these are people with families. with dreams. it was a sobering way to grow up but it was an important way to grow up. that is one of the reasons why when i saw this, i had to smile a little bit. this one caught my eye. an autobiography of george takei. with mr. takeids as life would go on. as you know, mr. takei has been very involved in the japanese-american community.
having been in turn himself. the first time i ever had a chance to meet him, father introduced me to him when he received -- when my father received the medal of honor. he was the emcee at one of the events. i have to tell you, i don't get nervous meeting very many people but the first time i met this guy, i was so nervous. this is sulu. man.w up watching this he couldn't have been nicer. theuld immediately see how two of them would have gotten along. the thing that really blew me away was he sounds that way in real life. that voice. it was really quite something to
experience. he's a really good guy. as a boy, i read your autobiography and i was inspired to reach for the stars. your stellar leadership continues to inspire. george takei. some of the folks who sent him books you can imagine more his colleagues in the senate and the house. the thing that struck me about that he alwayse prided himself on being a bipartisan person working with both sides of the aisle. he always used to say to me, i remember when i was a child he said to me once you should always try to make sure you have friends on both sides of the aisle. -- in gradei was on school and i thought he was talking about church. it wasn't until years later that i realized he was talking about
the political arena. part hebecause in large is a product of hawaii. in a way we do the best we can to try to focus on what brings us together rather than what keeps us apart. we try to focus on what our similarities are rather than our differences. we aspire to that. i think that is what he always tried to do in his work. it, at theink about end of the day, if you are only going to work with people who theirree with 100% of views, 100% of the time, you are going to have a pretty small circle of folks you're going to be a will to work with. if you are able to work with people who may not necessarily agree with you but you agree with -- they agree with you on certain things, you can get some remarkable things done.
>> when these hearings began and three months ago, i stated that we would examine what happens when the trust which is the bond between the branches of our government is breached by high officials. while there have been differences of opinion expressed by members from time to time, i will always look back upon these hearings as a model of how members of both houses can work together on sensitive foreign-policy issues and a bipartisan spirit. >> i remember early in his timer, people had a hard hearing out why he was able to get along with a lot of these members from the south. this is during segregation. because heat was worked to bond with them on issues they held in common like agriculture. at the time, hawaii had a lot of
concerns regarding article -- agriculture because we had a lot of pineapple, sugarcane. you work on what you have similarities on. when you work with people face-to-face on things that you do agree on, when it comes time to work on things that you don't agree on, it's a lot harder for people to demonize each other under those kinds of circumstances. one thing that struck me when i was looking through the collection here is the books that were coming from people who were from both sides of the aisle. reid.ve harry i remember when my mother was in the hospital and she had just , one of the first people to stop by to offer condolences was leader reid. news, hes he got the
made his way over to the hospital to give his condolences. friend harryeat reid majority leader. i could tell that they were friends. the senate is an interesting place. as legislativeat bodies go, it is quite collegial as a general matter. but then it is a legislative body. you are going to have conflicts every now and then. is to as the saying goes, disagree without being disagreeable and to do your best to aspire to that. i'm sure there were times that the two of them nci to certain things. you can help out -- help that. that therehe sense
was a great deal of respect and affection there. another book we have is john kerry's book that he wrote with teresa heinz kerry on the environment and such. john kerry, he and my father were quite good friends. they just got along. mr. kerry is a good guy. dan, thank you for your many courtesies through the years for me personally. thank you for your friendship and your leadership on so many issues. it is a privilege to serve with you. all the best, john. waserve -- to show how he able to serve with collegiality on both sides of the aisle, we have a book from newt gingrich. it's also signed.
as you can imagine, there was no shortage of things that the two of them did not see i guy on. having said that, i did get a sense that there was a level of mutual respect there. thatere was anything was mr. gingrich's tendency to demonize the other side. that was something that was kind of anathema to my father. demonize the other side because it makes it harder for the other side to be working with you on the time may present itself. that you tryying not to have enemies. you try to only have
adversaries. an enemy is forever. adversary is for this particular thing. it's a lot easier to end up having enemies if you end up demonizing the other side. if there's anything that bothered him it was that tendency that mr. gingrich had. your friend, nude. shows is collection that he had a very curious mind. involved in a wide variety of issues. i think it also says that he had report with people who were involved in a wide variety of issues as well. when answer to everything it came to people taking note of him or something he has or something he did was to be -- he
would always say what's the big fuss? day, he wouldthe later on turned to us and say that's pretty cool. on one hand, if he could be here now he would probably say why the big fuss? hand, i think he would feel pretty good about the thought that this is able to benefit others now. >> traveling the country to explore the american story. c-span cities tour has visited 24 cities in the past 12 months or it next, one of the highlights from our stop in palo alto, california. >> it was a military tabloid who
earned a reputation for its revelry housing on content. the helm of this publication was stanford educated woman who was the owner and founder of the overseas weekly media corporation. at the heart of the overseas herly pacific edition was most trusted colleague. she is the only female bureau chief in vietnam and saigon during the time of the war. this was a paper that had a specific purpose of allowing troops to share their own stories in their own worst without fear of repercussions of the military brass. when we were cataloging overseas weekly negative collection, this name popped out because of his -- because he is a known target for. what was unknown about his
career in vietnam was that he was given his journalistic start and he and him by being granted a press credential. 1968, during a battle, he traveled to vietnam and his photographs documented this time. this particular photo is of the traveling company moving through a valley. from afar, it looks like a great travel photo. can see the beauty and the scenery of vietnam. humidity and the ambience and it allows us to experience the environment in which the american troops were actually in. it sets the landscape in which the troops were fighting their battles. these photographs are an example
of the type of thematic areas that were covered as they did not share it -- shy away from things like racial prejudice. in order to try to get the voice of the soldiers and capture images that depicted the tension between the white soldiers and african-american and a black soldiers. also, the prejudices amongst other racial groups and also with educated soldiers who were in college ursus those drafted with high school. these particular photographs were taken in tennessee. see two opposing meshes. -- messages. one from a white man and one from a black and. -- black man. the content within the pages thatdepicted humanity
emerged from the war. this particular story, charlie's attacks demonstrates that sort of humanity and story that captures the hardships in which the vietnamese civilians suffered during the war. even though the goal of the paper was to follow the u.s. troops, they also documented the civilian life. photographs see taken by saul lockhart. context sheetr shows the sequence of events and of the south vietnam in which a bomb was exploded upon this city. we can see the villagers morning and scrap into the debris trying to find evidence of loved ones or evidence that their personal
belongings in this village. a journalist who also served as a photo editor would mark each of the frames which she felt would be suitable for publication. present thegs were editorial intent and creativity behind the selection process area we also see how the photographs were displayed in the publication itself. here, you can also see the deep emotion, the sorrow and the -- english that the vietnamese suffered during this attack. here, we have the villagers grieving, weeping and standing over the ball and best bodies of their relatives and loved ones who were killed during the attack. was taken by and
brian who is the editor in chief of the overseas weekly pacific edition. troops -- they would follow them into the battlefield and also into the humanitarian missions and these particular photographs were taken in south vietnam. in celebration of christmas. the troops brought christmas cheer into the villages. they dress up as santa, they theyibuted gifts and worked with the villagers to bring joy to the vietnamese people. this photograph was taken by john hirst. the addition all of stories from vietnam but also they followed the troops into cambodia. this photograph was taken in cambodia right around the time in which the united states
military had not quite broadcast their military expeditions into cambodia at the time. into cambodia at the time. this particular photograph is especially powerful because it hardships, thee physical toil that it took on these very young soldiers as they went into the battlefield. it is very graphic in which you see the bullets on a log. you can see he is resting and we don't know how long he is able to rest, but to take a moment just to rest. we see the helmet upturned. there readys laying for whatever he needs to get up. when people visit the
exhibition, there are messages that i hope they walk away with. the first is reflecting on the personal sacrifices and the challenges and roles in which journalists, shoulders -- soldiers and civilians played in the war party the toilet from a and sort of reflecting caps on how this reflecting back on how war was depicted at the time and how we can build up on understanding your -- war to prevent war in the future which is the core of herbert hoover's method. i would hope that they would have a glimpse of the collections of the hoover institution library and archives . we are an institution whose documents to preserve for war, revolution and peace.
this is a small representation of the types of materials we have four scholarly use. we have a vast collection on the vietnam war itself and we would hope, we would encourage anyone who is interested in this topic to come into our reading room and do more research. third, i would hope visitors go away with thinking of their own stories. oftentimes images we see of the vietnam war are of unidentified vietnamese people. this region is a particular area in which vietnamese americans have resettled and found . it is one of the largest communities of vietnamese americans and a lot of the second-generation, third generation vietnamese americans are trying to find out more about what happened in that
timeframe for the generation that came here in 1975 and early 1980's, this was a time that was unspoken in families. we don't speak about the war. the war was not a topic that was part of daily conversations. thats unspoken recognition it was a hurtful time and we don't speak about it. questions fort of a younger generation who want to experience the things of their parents did, siblings and loved ones. this exhibition offers an thertunity for them to see experience of the vietnamese civilians themselves. the overseas weekly did a fantastic job depicting the relationships between the american troops and south vietnamese troops. we see them, these interactions
and the names that come forth, these are captions that allow a new generation of researchers to look back upon the collections and find their own self in the photographs. announcer 1: our look at some of the highlights of the past 12 months continues as we take you to missoula, montana. >> here we are, on our farm and we are walking into -- you can see a little bit of last year's bear scat here. this is fair weather. this is from a black hair. we are walking into this little aspen ticket. it illustrates some of the stuff we are talking about, how closely bears live with people
in this part of the world. it is a pretty important resource for bears moving through a cultivated farmed landscape because it is one of the few wild places that remains out here in the valley floor. we see bears here all the time particularly in the fall when they are looking for wild and domestic fruit in the valley and actually be have a willow tree back here where a bear, black hair, was day betting was -- ear was day bedding. it has been used extensively for that. monthsr was here for last year. i will show you what he left behind. you can see on the trunk of this tree, you can see the way the bears worn the bark from
climbing up. you can also see this really large pile of bear scat because we had a bear that was in the crook of this bridge just above here. it was -- i think it is pretty impressive. you can see above us the place where the bear was and we expect him back through here and this is close to our house. we are 50 yards away from where i lay my head at night, so it is a good illustration of the way humans and bears use the same resources in this landscape. we are north of missoula, montana. we are on the edge of agricultural valley. you can see the southern edge of the mission range, the large white peaks sticking out, the rattlesnake mountain range just off in this direction. we are at the edge of the domesticated landscape adjacent to wilderness in montana. the book i have written is called down from the mountain,
the life and death of a grizzly bear. the book is largely about two things. work that i was doing as a conservationist. i am a field director for a small nonprofit group. work that i was doing for them in the mission valley, north of here as a base of the mountains you can see behind me. it is also a story of a grizzly bear named millie. the book is about the way my story and that bear's story converge and what it says about the state of things in the american west the way we have used wild landscapes and the way we interact with wild animals. i learned about millie, one of the main characters and protagonists in down from the mountain, i learned about her story because of this work in the mission valley. i was working on an external mental electric fence i thought could keep risley bears out of a 100 acre cornfield. it was a short fence, no more than two or three feet tall and it has shown a lot of promise in
smaller scale tests. i was trying to use this fence for a long area. if we could do that, it would be cheaper and easier to build that historic bear fences and we could keep bears out of place of for corn which is dangerous for them because it brings them into contact with people and that we , rotings physiologically their teeth and make them chronically obese beyond the point good for a bear. i was working on that project. camerasseries of trail set up around the cornfield to monitor how they were interacting with this electric and. what i saw in one of those cameras one day was this deeply injured, damaged bear, skin and bones, had a face torn up from some sort of damage and infection. the moment i saw that, i thought
-- i felt a tremendous amount of concern and compassion. anybody would seeing a animal in that much visible pain, clearly wounded to the point of being on death's doorstep. she was inside my fence and has managed to cross. our stories were entangled because we spent time close to each other in the context of the cornfield and because i began to wonder about what had done the damage to her? what had torn her up that she couldn't live in this food rich environment? the book is about trying to figure out what happened to her and her story, a simple small story about a single animal, what it says about that we have treated bears and what the future looks like for us and them. the current state of things with grizzlies and human there -- human beings is in spite of stories like millie's, there is a positive trend going on.
grizzlies were protected by the endangered species act. since that time they have been making a slow, steady steps back from the brink of extirpation in the lower 48. that is great news. we stand at this crucial moment because we have a grizzly population that has grown from 750ish toa minimum -- 800. we are seeing them expanding outward from the places where they historically have held on, into the valley. we also see human beings getting to use the landscape more intensively. more people are coming here all the time, there is more subdivision fragmentation of habitat and that is a crucial problem for bears. the state of things for grizzlies and humans in the west is it is at this crucial moment where we have to decide how much space we will make for the wild
animals particularly difficult once like grizzlies. when you look at landscape like this one, you can see human beings are in it, you can see the buildings, you can see fields have been tended, rocks have been piled and picked out where people have formed. you don't see houses all over the landscape. you don't see such a density of people that it is unusable for a wild animal's purpose and we have to maintain that. there are ways to do that but it shows collective restraint which is hard to do. historically we have not done well. if there is a place to put a house and you have run four generations of people, we have to break that. we have to be the first generation to leave the american intactsettled and more than we found it. that is what this book is about and what i hope to achieve in
some small matter here on the farm. when i look at the next decades ahead and i feel despair, it is because i look at the past. every generation out here has wholet less intact, less than they found it. if we keep doing that, there will be nothing left or there will be island on ranges that andtoo rough to build upon all of the corridors that link places like that where grizzly bears thrive and places where they could thrive again to the south of here, all of those places will be filled up with people so animals can't move. we have to break with that model. when i feel hope, it is because i think about the good work starting to be done. there are tools people are using to this end, conservation easements which protect private land from development. there is one on our farm. that is a great tool that protects in perpetuity.
it is a profound thing we can do to make sure the landscapes stay open. zoning laws cities are a beginning -- are beginning to an act, and we need to embrace this. or the thing we will love about this place which is the wilderness and our ability to make a living from it as people who practice agriculture, that will go away. wild animals and ranchers depend on open land for their living. that is the nugget. we want people to understand so often it is set up as the contest or conflict between people who want to practice agriculture and people who appreciate the value of wild animals. it is a false divide. there are places where there is friction between those and it is not always going to be a perfect coexistence but the thing at the root of both which is
undeveloped, on fragmented landscape, it is common for both and i want people to understand it is common ground we have to fight on or we will lose connectivity in the west for the purposes of wild animals and we will lose further utility of agriculture. so millie the bear at the heart of this book, her story is a sad one. she died as a result of her wounds, wasted away in a cornfield on till the tribal biologist had to put her down. that was one of the clearest acts of mercy i have ever been a party to. she left two comes that are now in baltimore. cubs that are in baltimore. i have seen cubs like them in the wild. the way a bear behaves, their
life in the wild versus a zoo, there is no comparison. often i think is the better for zoo? o be dead or in a that is an open question. one thing i am sure about is from our perspective as a species and a species more and more urbanized and one that lacks connection to animals like millie and the cubs, it is a good thing for us because having those cubs in the zoo allows people to see them and connect with them who otherwise have no idea about the species, and we need that. i remember going to see them and looking down into their exhibit, and i was feeling low and sad. me, and weod next to got into talking about the cubs and she said, i bring my children here, i bring my children here because the next generation has to love animals.
i wish we could go to be yellowstone and glacier and see them in that context, but we can't. this is what we have and this is enough to form a connection. that is what happened to her cubs. i feel sad every time i think about them because i know what their life is like out here and the distances they cross. halfway up the steepest mountain you can see behind me. i also know what they are doing, they are being ambassadors for their species and hopefully causing people to realize there is true volume and having -- value having these animals on the landscape and when you to do even difficult things to make sure they stay on. detroit, god forgot about it. detroit,ppened to
foreign competition happened to detroit, trade wars happened to detroit. the thing that destroyed itself, the car. we built the car to leave the city. isn't that ironic? we were the richest just a couple generations, 40 years ago, the richest city and now we are the poorest. cadillacou can't buy a in the town settled by cadillac. i am more interested in what is going to happen and if i can make it better for all of our kids, i am interested in that. there used to be so much money here. night about saturday drives, got a new car every year, you could go across the street to the other supplier and get tool and dive, rocking.
advantage of high school because cars were our life and we were cars. and then things changed. after the oil shocks, people didn't want the cars. they were made poorly. japanese started catching us. they started moving out of detroit and to the south, moving to the west, moving to the seerbs, and you start to unemployment, blight, schools falling apart and then heads, thenheroin it becomes cartel and blood. i can tell you the first homicide victim i ever saw, 13, 12, living across the street, my mom had a flower shop, main thoroughfare. 1980's, 1970's. i went in to the liquor store got aver forget, a guy
open shirt, a black man laying there. said go,ing out and he little man. forget what you saw. never. the other thing that happened in our centuries here is corruption. young,ted with coleman the first black mayor, removed from office. he was in bed with the purple gang and the took place clan. -- the ku klux klan. kids.d paid for his the sheriff had a gold encrusted badge. the county prosecutor went away. the last republican mayor of detroit went to prison in 1969
and he could what $250,000 was doing at a safe out of his salary. the county executive was going to go. he died. he was white. monica patrick went to prison. people didn't notice. everybody was corrupt. and we talked. there was nothing left to take. then lastss left and 20 years, ms. black middle class has left so it is basically poor -- the black middle class has left. so it is basically poor, unemployed, too many people left behind. you hear about detroit coming back. you are hearing that where you are at? is it?
i see cement being poured but i see the city that was also america's biggest miscible bankruptcy giving subsidies to billionaires in the name of development. but if you do the work and the math, the public's bank is never replenished. maybe we are subsidizing people to work and that is a good thing, but then the public's bank pays for schools, police, water.mbulance, roads, if that is not there, where are we going? statesmp tax law, all have opportunity zones, places , trying to pump in investment to bring them up, but what they really are our tax shelters, capital gains tax shelters. you will see development but nobody is moving in to it. we built a hockey arena but we are capturing taxes that were
intended for the schools and now the schools aren't allowed to bounce because they are so far in debt. the schools are falling apart and we need to borrow to fix the schools. and a very rich man doesn't send -- share revenue. you will see downtown and ,verybody's house with detroit 95% of detroit is outside downtown. you see this and they see it. was at think johannesburg good model for development. i don't. got to be tough for everybody. or we had the riots in 1967. some people called in the insurrection. i say it is a right. you think that was bad? they were walking around with 30 odd pictures and specials. now we have ar-15's.
do the math. i am here to tell you we got to do better by each other. that is not liberal thing. i am a conservative. i got a 12-year-old girl. that makes you conservative. [laughter] bad things happen before they happen again. this is the only city in the history of the united states that was occupied by the united states army three times during wartime. war -- i don't know if they were race riots. in history lots of stuff was happening. we had riots in 1943 during world war ii. we had riots in 1967 during vietnam. a -- if you are busy. we are an interesting place. thanest city in the world,
black people went crazy and burned it down. we white people have to leave. look at it now, detroit is coming back -- i don't know. turned my back on it forever -- no, no. don't you know the math you are doing, that you are paying for it? when we build a hockey arena and say we took it from schools in detroit and then we had a band -- who bailed them out? you did, suburbs and they took it out of your school districts. the detroit kid suffers, the york kid suffers and we all say i like hockey. zoo orbus system or the the art museum, or the roads, or you know flint? you know what flint really was?
a rich guy building a water system he did not need to make money. union guys, like fitters make money, flint was going to pay for it, the cost was going to be this or the water but they were going to charge the same price to pay for it. where did they get the water, detroit, metro detroit. flint went to hell. it is now back on metro detroit's water but there is a $7 million year payment for the bonds. detroit,broke into paying $7 million more except detroit water system gives them a credit to make the bond payment so the rich man, the banker, the financier is made all. normally you are supposed to go broke. it was a gamble. we made them whole. who paid for the flint bailout? and nobody knows it.
nobody went to prison either. what is this? this is going on in america. but we can come back. be.eed to find a reason to we are not bringing cars back. , don't put the white blue-collar vote down for trump because he is not stupid. he doesn't really think the jobs are coming back to america. we know they are not coming back. my when he voted for was brother just walked in. you are not going to take what is left and ship it out area that was the calculus. everybody is going to come here who is here next year. rt is a blue state, they wea
read and it might go read again. do you really care? just want and, we are just tampa. we are you. we are not a weird place. weird things happen. looking at the history of this town, might give you something about your future. names of some famous people. >> do you consider yourself a politician? >> do i? i guess so. i have my own party though. doesn't have a name? >> there is no presidents or vice presidents, secretaries or anything like that so it makes it hard to get in. left-winght-wing or to that party? >> more or less the center.
>> most people think bob dylan or somehow associated with the hippie movement of the 1960's or something like that. the voice of a generation, a label he detested that would look at him as perhaps a great leader of the antiwar movement. he never went to a antiwar march. notdylan is certainly partisan. you can't stick him in democrats or republicans. i would also say he is not exactly left or right. there are certain themes that come through throughout his life about his politics, and those subjects are social justice, support for the underdog, suspicion of institutions and authority and concern about abuse of power. those things are not necessarily the domain of the right or the
left. most people have a misconception about what bob dylan is. bob dylan grew up in northern minnesota in a town called hitting. it is a portion of minnesota known as the iron range. that is a special place in minnesota. if a person has gone to the iron range in the 1800s, 1900, it would have been a hotbed of radicalism. it would have run into socialists, communists. they are working deep underground in iron mines. this is part of the labor movement that existed in america at this time. dylan himself said more suspicious of bankers growing up that communists. bob dylan grew up in a jewish household. that made him a minority on the iron range as well. that is going to have an impact too on his support for the underdog and that sort of thing. ♪
>> ♪ the answer my friends is blowing in the wind the answer is blowing in the wind ♪ in the 1960's, 1950's as well, the book movement in , and it wasng up certainly a by and large leftist kind of movement, interest in civil rights, antiwar, that sort of thing. songsou look at the early of bob dylan, we have everybody knows blowing in the wind, masters of war would be another one, but there are more topical sites about emmett till for example. ♪
these types of songs were written by other folk singers as well. what happens is dylan sort of progresses beyond that, and by the mid-1960's he is writing songs that are not exactly songs you can put your finger on. it is all right, mom, only bleeding or like a rolling stone, highway 51 with hallucinatory lyrics. as american society is changing, people start to read in a very heavy political message in dylan at a time where if you were really looking at it objectively you could not say these songs are necessarily overly political . diplomat who carries on his shoulder a siamese cat and people will resist me, what does
it mean? it must be a political message. i am on the pavement, think about the government. he doesn't say what he is thinking about the government but you the listener into your own meaning in to that. he is not really offering answers throughout this time are the voice of a generation thing, he says the answer is blowing in the wind. it is a great song, and if i were to make a playlist of 1960's music, it would be on there, but the answer is blowing in the wind isn't particularly helpful if you are searching for answers. that is how we have to understand his political output. it is not exactly what people think. you --photograph of t-shirt. >> [indiscernible] >> would like to know if that is
an equivalent photograph -- it has a philosophy in it. [indiscernible] i would like to know visually what it represents to you because you are a part of that. i haven't really looked at it >> that much. i have thought about it a great deal. >> when people are looking to bob dylan of the answers, it is a great thing to youtube, bob dylan press conference 1965. whichever one you hit, it will be great. if you think of what it must have been like to have everything you do or say look at so intently, how many times does someone say what is the meaning of the shirt you are wearing? you know, what are you going to do with that? it had to grate on a person. any thinking person would find this inane. it is a big reason why he really
got away from that voice of the generation protest music. he saw it as in my opinion anyway, he saw it as a prison. once he got locked in to being this one thing, he could never get out. so in 1965 he went electric, playing electric guitar instead of acoustic and harmonica. people would come to his concert andyell judith and -- judas boo him, how dare he. he said, you know, no thanks. ♪ and so by 1966, he is out of there. he goes to upstate new york and start having children and starts writing love songs and sort of domestic bliss and that sort of thing. it is a whole new dylan after
1966. the irony is in the 1970's, when he becomes a born-again christian, he for the first time is telling his audiences i have the answer and people aren't interested in hearing what his answer is. the public's reaction to the new dylan by the 1980's is we have to remember we are a whole generation from the 1960's. there is a whole group of kids growing up in the 1980's and i would have been one of them watching mtv. bob dylan, for his great of a songwriter he is, is not maybe the most mtv friendly persona for a 14-year-old. and so it really depends on which public at which this point -- public at this point. the baby boomers have jobs and mortgages, not following music as closely. in some ways dylan is slipping through the cracks a little bit.
when we are the world comes out, he is invited. he sings on that. , but he isorgotten not quite the same public figure that he had been. as a dylan fan, when people find out i am a dylan fan, some people will say, i like his songs, don't like his voice -- listen, listen deeper. his voice is often very good. it is like a leather coat. it is broken in. that is when it fits best. so he is a remarkable artist. it might not necessarily be everybody's favorite style of said, but something he has will resonate with you. ♪
>> this side of the bookshelf has a lot of the books that truman read as a young man. the oldest books we know are these called great men and famous women. it was a set of four looks given to truman when he was 10 years old by his parents in 1895. actually 1894. but truman liked to read the classics. we have a couple of sets of here, the decline and fall of the roman empire, and then a number of books that were given to him that are very old books, some of which he read but gifts.he'd received as he has a complete works of william shakespeare here. he of course read shakespeare
mostly as a young man but he did read a little shakespeare later in life. we are standing in the office harry truman used at his presidential library in independence. the truman library was built in 1957 and harry truman spent more than a dozen years before his health started getting declining. he spent five to six days a week here in this office which is part of the library building. mostly when truman was here, he was writing letters, doing correspondence, meeting with people. he did most of his reading at home. he might take books from here and take them home and read them. a lot of the books date from before he was president. a lot of the books are things he read as a young man and as a senator before he ever can president. these books here are clearly books that truman wanted to have around him.
so it says a lot of these books say more about him as a person, what he really enjoyed them as president. truman primarily liked biographies, lots of biographies of military and political leaders. one of the most interesting parts of the bookshelf is this center section which contains books written by winston churchill. we have a history of indo speaking peoples, the world war ii history. most of these are autographed to truman. he first met winston churchill at the pot stamp conference in 1945. they -- pot stamp -- potsdam conference in 1945. churchill was voted out and friendshiptained his with churchill. when asked in 1946 if he would
invite winston churchill to give a speech at westminster college in fulton, missouri, truman obliged and invited churchill. churchill gave his famous iron curtain speech in fulton in 1946. they continued their friendship later in life. on the other side of the room is where truman kept most of his presidential biographies, and they start with george washington and move on to thomas jefferson, james monro. one of truman's favorite was andrew jackson so he has several volumes. james polk. these were pretty much arranged roughly chronologically. a lot of lincoln biographies. sets of ulysses s. grant's memoirs here. so it is a very full collection
of residential biographies. truman of the young man went off to world war i and served in world war i. during that time, he was influenced by woodrow wilson. fact, many ofr of the policies he implemented were those wer ii think inspired by a number of the policies woodrow wilson had tried but had failed to get through. for example the united nations was sort of a reflected the league of nations from the first world war. we know that he read some people in an admiring way like woodrow wilson. also being from western missouri, the frontier when he was growing up, he also had an affinity for andrew jackson. one of his favorite early presidents, because he was a president truman thought for all
of the people, the common people and truman of course sort of filled that role in the 20th century although his policies and jackson's policies were different. fiven worked in the office to 60 week from when the library opened in 1957 until the middle of 1966. his health started declining then and he didn't continue to come to the library on a daily basis. harry truman died the day after christmas 1972. leftat time this room was the way it had been and it remained that way. everything was left in the room just as it was except for the papers that were removed on the top of the desk and incorporated in to the archival collections. everything on the walls, all the books and furniture in here, all the trinkets on the desk, everything else is just the way
it was the last time truman used the office in 1966. i think what people coming to the library should get out of the visit is the fact that harry , former president, returned home to his actual previous home, lived out his life in independence. he said i will make up my papers accessible to the public and i want people to be able to come here, see the papers and materials of the presidency, learn about the presidency, go home and have a better appreciation for the american system of government. >> people assume, even the scholars, that history of living in new orleans is as old as slavery because they equate the enslaved relation with origins of voodoo in the city.
the best evidence we have of voodoo actually comes from people writing about the prosecution of voodoo wastitioners because voodoo criminalized for the majority of its history in the louisiana. in the earliest liable reports we found have to do with the prosecution of black folks for practicing voodoo in the 18th century. again, that doesn't tell us what the practice is like or if it resembles what we think voodoo is now. we just know that people are being prosecuted for religious practice that the authorities labeled as voodoo. >> new orleans does have a right to its voodoo history. voodoo came to new orleans by the slave trade. slaves were taken and brought here brought their traditions with them. and we had slaves that were taken from different areas. so there are different spirits.
people always wonder, they find new orleans voodoo, the tradition, to be very eclectic. there is a reason for that. because if you go to one area in africa, you will see how voodoo or the tradition, whatever they are calling it in that region, you will see how they are practicing it there. if you go to another area you will see how they are practicing it there. then you have new orleans which is this gumbo of people from all different parts of africa. so we have many different spirits here represented in new orleans voodoo. we have got african spirits. we have got people like marie lipo who are just really in new orleans. some people have come to new orleans and love her so much they have taken that, the honor of her and included it into their practice elsewhere but
marie is a new orleans spirit. >> [video clip] mostrie is one of the famous voodoo queens in new orleans, especially in the 19th century, i would argue still. as far as we can tell historically, she is an african-american woman of some mixed racial descent, but the breakdown is very -- the research is still a little sketchy. looks like what people think women in new orleans looked like supposedly, supposedly fair skinned, distinctive kind of mixed race hair texture, people think of new orleans as a space where interracial relationships are common. because she looks like that, or she is reported to have, we don't have any photos.
then she becomes the exemplar not only of voter -- rooted and its practice but the way we read race into the practice of voodoo in new orleans. voodoo is viewed overwhelmingly with a negative lens in new orleans history for almost the entirety of its history. at the end of the 19th century, the negative stigma around voodoo is so pronounced that and they doies obituaries for her, her daughters go out of their way to disassociate her from voodoo altogether and won't admit to any practice. they identify her as devout catholic and a want to say anything or speak at all about voodoo. that is very characteristic of the way voodoo is treated for most of its history. beforethe 19th century,
emancipation, voodoo is criminalized for most of its history, during the french times, colonial, criminalized -- code noird war which is no one can practice anything but catholicism. after the french are gone and americans come in with religious freedom, voodoo practitioners are practicing -- prosecuted because they are practicing -- gathering people together who should not be together, specifically enslaved people and free people of color who are not allowed to mix in certain spaces and numbers. voodoo gatherings are broken up and practitioners are jailed for mixing. after emancipation when in when slavery is no longer an issue, voodoo practitioners are arrested for breaking economics around fraud
because they are looked at fleecing their clientele because the authorities don't view the religious practice or the purported power they claim to have as legitimate. anything they say they are doing for money, authorities view as fraud. it has been criminalized for different reasons throughout its history but for most of its history it has been equating voodoo with crime. >> i have been practicing new orleans voodoo for pretty much all my life. i can't really remember a time that the spirits weren't calling to me. i would say that consciously at about maybe somewhere between seven to 10, i started to investigate the books that were in my grammar school library. the only problem with those older books is they are not practitioner written. a lot of what the person was
seeing when they were describing a ritual, yes, they were witnessing a voodoo ritual, but they did not understand a lot of the elements that they would see . if they saw representation of a school -- skull, they would assume it was a cult of death instead of people honoring the ancestors. if they see a doll present with a pin, they would assume it was to hurt incentive to heal. as anake they would assume sign of evil instead of representing a spirit of wisdom and balance. a lot of the older publications and books and articles that were contained in the older books, they write literally what they are witnessing then they draw their own conclusions with no knowledge of what voodoo was really about.
a lot of times when people come in, and i am sure other voodoo shops, they have misconceptions. they will think they are going to buy a doll because they saw some movie where some magician used a doll that they called a voodoo doll and really they were just doing black magic. they took the doll and stuck up in in it and that made -- a pin in it and that made someone's leg break one street over. the truth about the way we use the dolls today and i believe the way most people were using the back in the day, was as a tool of healing. iq. of like a spiritual imagine that someone is having a heart issue with the proverbial or physical heart, a relationship went awry, they are hurting, they are having a heart procedure. we will assist them to send
protective energy, healing energy to that region. the doll, it is a tool of sympathetic magic. like attracts like. we are taking the doll how we will take a hair, nail clipping or even spit from the person we need to affect. the person, they have a heart ache, break up with their girlfriend, they want to feel better about it, and in addition to whatever else they are doing, that is healthy for them, we would take the doll, hader and nail clippings -- hair and nail clippings, place it inside -- we don't always use pins, but if a pin is used, it is to focus healing energy into that area of the doll. we are using the doll to represent that persons body and energy. >> in the 19th century and the american timeframe when american authorities are practitioners on breaking up gatherings, what
they are most concerned about is the social mixing of people who should not be together. free people of color, african-americans who are not slaves mixing with slaves and white folks, one of the things i found most surprising when i started my research was voodoo was not as black as i thought it was. i thought of it as a racialized tradition. it is in a lot of respects, but from the earliest reports where we have documentary evidence, newspapers report there are always white folks there when the arrest happened. a lot of the problem people have with voodoo is that it is crossing the only this class line between free and on slaved -- and enslaved but a racial line in a time when that is very unacceptable, especially to the newly american population that views the black, white divide as
a very cooler right of thing. the folks being arrested or almost always black, even when there are white folks, they don't seem to be jailed as far as the newspapers tell us. they mention newspaper awards -- newspaper reports, there are white folks there, then they get over that fact to get to the corrupting influence of black people. part of the whitewashing of voodoo has to do with the stigmatizing of all things black in the u.s. south. part of the reason voodoo becomes so americanized in the early 20th century is because everybody has accepted this cultural landscape where all things black, all things african are negative. even voodoo practitioners who are born into the american south are inviting this notion of black is inferiority.
a lot of the charge against voodoo, the critiques of it have to deal with this notion of voodoo is backwards and it is savage. degradesnce of voodoo the local population, specifically the white population although african-americans don't want to be associated for that same reason. ofot of the persecution voodoo practitioners has to do with the racialized tradition, although there is some notion part of the reason it is so barbarous and backward is because it is not christian. that is problematic because most practitioners are born and raised in a christian space and think of themselves as christian. >> the slaves were not allowed to practice voodoo. they had catholicism forced upon them. they did something ingenious. they would substitute the
catholic saint for their voodoo spirit force. would come into the slave quarters and see an altar set up. there would be a picture of the virgin mother. while that looked all fine and well like everyone is being a good catholic, they may have been honoring another, a voodoo spirit, not the catholic saint. at this point, it has grown to be, people grew into the practice. , usingmasking catholicism as a mask, there were similarities in some of the pomp and circumstance and ritual. today like my godmother is haitian. responsible for initiating me into the haitian
tradition as a priestess. while mama lola, she loves, let's say this spirit, who is a haitian god of love and represented by one of the aspects of the virgin mother, and catholic pictures, she also loves the virgin mother for herself. so she loves the catholic saint. she loves the haitian spirit represented by the saint at the same time. and equally. them at theined same time as honoring them both. it is hard to understand because i do the same thing. it is hard to understand unless you do it. you can love the saints and love , and they can all have their own identities, whether someone is acknowledging priest or as a
priestess, they are still incorporating some aspect of magic or voodoo into their life typically. sometimes they might not realize they are doing it. in new orleans we will do something that has nothing to do with cleaning. you will see people, older people, young people cleaning their front porch and steps with red rick dust. that is not cleaning anything. that is a spiritual protection, keeping out any, anybody, anything negative. we still use it today. they don't know why but their mama did itthere and their great grandma, it is just tradition. they say it is a tradition. not realizing that it is a spiritual tradition, and a lot
of times it is booted. >> i would say -- it is voodoo. >> i would say there is a group of folks working to change the stigma, to mark voodoo as a ,egitimate religious practice disassociated from all of the stigma. religiousat stigma be , because it is not christian, or social economic because it is associated with poor folks or racial because it is associated with being a vet -- african-american. voodoo practitioners have gone out of their way to proselytize, introduce to other people the practice, bringing other folks in and to take control of the narrative about what they are practice -- what their practice is like and what it means to them. announcer 1: for eight years
now, c-span cities tour has traveled u.s. cities, bringing the book seen to our viewers. you can watch more of our visits at c-span.org/citiestour. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> next, a hearing on ways to to help congress be more effective. after that, "the communicators," with a roundtable discussion on tech policy. next a hearing on ways to , support new members of congress and state legislators. the hearing was held by the house modernization of congress committee. freshman representatives led the hearing.