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tv   QA Margaret O Mara The Code  CSPAN  September 8, 2019 7:59pm-9:02pm EDT

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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] announcer: >> margaret o'mara talks about "the code." after that, did it from the house of commons.
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this is called a no deal brexit. what would have called for a general election into u.k.. >> margaret o'mara, what will readers get in your new book, "the code."? professor o'mara: what they will get is a biography of silicon and the modern american technology industry itself. there are some many people studying this region for so long and this industry for so long and people always ask what is the silicon valley secret. i sent out to answer those questions for them.
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the story of 75 years of government support and encouragement of the tech industry. i want to show you a clip of where we are today. this is from last year on capitol hill with mark zuckerberg. let's watch. car companies face a lot of competition. if they make a defective car, people will buy another one. is there an alternative to facebook? >> the average american uses eight different apps to connect with each other. >> his twitter the same as what you do? >> it overlaps but i don't think it is the same. >> do you think that you have a monopoly? >> it does not feel that way to me. >> mr. zuckerberg, could you share the name of the hotel you stated in last night? night?ed in last
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mark: uh, no. >> have you message anybody this week? would you share the names of the people you mentioned -- messaged? >> i would not choose to do that here. >> this is about the rights to privacy, the limits of your rights to privacy and how much you give away in modern america in the name of connecting people around the world. susan: since that hearing titansd, other industry have been in front of panels on capitol hill with similar exchanges. today, while we are talking, down at the white house, there is a gathering of people who are aggrieved on the right side of the spectrum who feel they are beingtting access and are censored. what is the state of the relationship between big tech and the government today? prettyor o'mara: it is
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rocky. it is really interesting. it is such a contrast. here we are talking in 2019. five years ago, when i started work on this book, the mood was so different. tech optimismt of in silicon valley and it was shared by a lot of leaders in washington. the idea that these private companies had done this extraordinary things, that there products could be beneficial. could beproducts beneficial. think about how barack obama's campaign used facebook to marshal support. it is the future of campaigning and also governing. now the mood is different. 2016, that'll is and was a turning point, the recognition of how social media platforms have functioned as disruptors to the electoral process.
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of a very potential real reality that outside actors had been using social media platforms to mess with the and the very real feeling that could continue going forward. that combined with the permeation of these technologies and platforms in our lives. think about the products of the biggest five american technology companies. microsoft, apple, google, amazon, facebook. if you say and will not be on any of these things, it is really hard to go through your life from dawn to dusk in modern america without it some way having being affected by a without being affected by one of those
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companies. this is driving the conversation in washington. what is the role of these companies in shaping the political and social life of modern america? >> what are the characteristics of these companies? ?as it hubris naivete? what do you think are the factors? professor o'mara: it is helpful to look at the history of silicon valley itself. these companies are the product a a business culture, business ecosystem. i call it a galapagos, a very distinctive community that group for a long time in relative isolation from washington. even though it was deeply affected by them from the beginning. you have high tech venture capitalists. thisare carrying on
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distinctive culture from one generation to the next. it is a culture focused on growth, making technology better, faster. facebook had posters in said headquarters that move faster, break things. it was this notion -- this was not something that was facebook, you can look at intel or sales big -- based copies like microsoft. you needed to dominate your market quickly otherwise your competitors would eat you alive. you had to move very fast. that was the cost of doing business. that is part of how we got where we are. these leaders did not set up to say we are going to be this disruptive force in this way. runaway train,
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this incredibly effective technology was so good at what they set out to do. it had all of these unintended susan: consequences. yours is theusan: story of 75 years of evolution. i want to go into these stories because they all have characters. there are themes and you mentioned the government involvement and support and encouragement of this. regulation, there is something about that changing. we can talk about that. high tech has been and maybe to beues to be the -- comprised of mostly white males. one character in your book is someone who works their way up. her name is ann. professor o'mara: and hardy is annof those hidden -- hardy is one of those hidden figures of silicon valley.
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ibm956 she walks into headquarters in new york city a few years out of college. she heard there are programming jobs to be had. she knows nothing about computers that she set of front of her told her about this job. they said they are hiring people and it will keep you on the job. she gets the job as an entry-level programmer. she becomes a manager. she is managing a team for the better part of a decade. she is combating sexism every single run up the letter. the ladder. she finds out that every man is making more money than her. she demands a raise and gets a raise. by thes up in california part of the 1960's and she is passionate about the technology. she is really interested in programming and using computers. at a small start up
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-- alo alto this is networked computers. worked giant mainframes or minicomputers. was -- a minicomputer refrigerator sized. they were very day, they were housed in corporate warehouses. you could not have one in your office or a small home. time-sharing was a way for people to remotely connect through telephone cable and connect to a computer power. hardy built this operating system. accidentally. says if i had known how
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central this operating system was to our business, i never a woman to doed it. the idea you would be a technical woman and an executive, someone with authority was so alien. it was the 1960's. there were very few women. this is a different time in corporate america. what happens in tech and particularly in the valley -- networks are where people choose to work with the same people for one -- from one coverage of another. they use their people to eager out who to invest in. it is an overwhelmingly male network. in the amber.d it gets harder for new voices to break in. a challenge for people like ann everydayides the sexism of corporate retreats --
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if we invite you, then we will have to invite our wives, then we can't have dalliances on the side on this corporate retreat. aside from that, the work habits hardxt, work hard, play continues today. it is a full immersion activity. part of what makes silicon valley go was the fact that these male executives and male engineers could go completely building their semiconductors and computers and working on their software and they had wives at home taking care of the rest of their lives. those women are really important part of silicon valley cost lley's story too. valley, coding, where did these words come from? the early days of
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digital computing. computers, theal art and the science of computing was considered to rest in hardware, building the machine. origins of the first all-digital computer comes out in world war ii. it is an army funded project. commercialized as the univac. computing univac was a brand like kleenex or google. there is a great political story involving univac. the first appearance on television was in the 1952 election eve of the election. walter cronkite, newly hired anchor is managing the election night coverage. they have a univac that can
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predict the outcome. predicts correctly is an overwhelming victory for eisenhower. it was so decisive in its production that all of the programmers were like i think they got it wrong. , it is a time when the hardware is considered to be so important. the software is like being a telephone operator. you're just plugging in different wires in different places. it was not considered an art or science, just very routine. that coding something was like data entry. surprisingly this was seen as women's work. secretaries, telephone operators, it is kind of basic, a woman can do it. turns out is that programming is very complicated. if for some reason there is some
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misfire in the program, there is a bug in the program, you have to do over around. it is a very creative process. what computer specialists and technologists realize is programming the software is really where it is at. as that becomes more , the discipline of computer science is created. by the late 50's, you have women not only in the united states but other scholars in science and technology who have written about how women are pushed out of programming. it has become a more high activity. the coders subsequently become men. came fromoder itself -- is it a product?
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yes, there is software code. a code -- it is coming out of world war ii -- code cracking. there is the brutalization of it. it is something where there is a pattern. like morse code. it is not a creative process. , the best coders are people who are always thinking about -- thinking in rather complex ways. programming is much more complex. programming is even tougher when you had less memory and you had to be brutally efficient in getting the commands to be as short as possible and use memory as much as possible.
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now we have incredible machines where you have a lot more latitude. susan: how did silicon valley get its name? professor o'mara: great story. it was not called that until 1971. it was santa clara valley. it gets its name -- what is happening in 1971 is the major industry there is silicon semiconductors. the main customers for the semiconductor companies were not people like you and me, they were other companies. they were computer makers. the sales guy for these the computer companies would come out and they started colloquially referring to the valley as silicon valley. reporter for a trade paper.
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this is based in palo alto. this is a guy named don hoffa. -- hoffler. he writes about the semiconductor industry in silicon valley. he gets wind that silicon valley is the colloquial name and he headlines the story silicon valley usa. that name stuck. it was something that was bandied about in the valley for a while within the industry. late 70'suntil the when it starts becoming -- starts disseminating out. i found my references in the washington post and new york times. they start talking about the santa clara valley and then occasionally they will say silicon valley. the post is referring to silicon
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valley in quotation marks until about seven to nine --1979. then it becomes a more familiar lexicon. it was seen as so often the side of the main action for so long. susan: i would like people to know a little bit about you. how did you get interested in this? professor o'mara: i was in graduate school, i knew i wanted to write -- i worked in politics before i went to graduate school. i studied political history and i was interested in looking at the eisenhower years and the domestic impact of the cold war. enough, i was becoming a political junkie. i was interested in what the eisenhower white house was doing and what lawmakers in congress were doing in the 50's. -- onese, the greatest
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of the greatest domestic impacts of the cold war was this. i realized that this is the story. this is the story of how this whole new economy was built. i was always really interested ever since i was working in with how business and government work together. they have an interest in the -- antagonistic relationship but they were together. i think this story is a really great way to get into that. to understand how government can support business and vice versa. the funny thing about the cold war, if you have the biggest of big government programs, the space race, you have what
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eisenhower labels the military industrial complex. that becomes the foundation for this entrepreneurial flywheel of incredible creation and innovation and five and wealth creation. it is an industry that considers itself an industry that built itself on its own. government has become almost invisible to many of the people in silicon valley. the creators think there is not a role but there is. that is part of the magic. it is a government out of sight. susan: what did you do in washington ? onfessor o'mara: i worked the 1992 presidential run of the clinton. i graduated from college in arkansas. like any good history major, i did not have a job. history majors get lots of jobs.
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i came up to try to figure out what to do next. also, what i was going to be when i grew up. i figured i would volunteer on the campaign. nhat position turned into a entry-level job. one thing led to another and when your candidate wins, everything changes. i spent the first clinton term working here. working for both president clinton and vice president gore. it was an extraordinary education. aside from just witnessing things as one does when you are a young staffer on the perimeter of the room or in the room where
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it happens, not making the decisions but watching very powerful people struggle with the decisions they have to make, it gave me this appreciation for the humanity of politics. , even the people at the highest levels of power. there just human beings who are trying to figure it out. talentedvery smart, but they are doing their best and trying to implement the vision they see. ofgave me an understanding how power works and empathy for where different people are coming from. i think the historian has given ---- being a historian has an has given mei a different view on this. not looking at this as someone is in politics but someone trying to understand why people do what they do. looking at the history of silicon valley or american
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history at large, it is a way of not only better understanding our presence, that is one thing that i hope this book will help readers do, understand how we get to this big tech now and where do we go? you need the back story. it helps you get back from all of the noise and the fighting of right now. is right and who is wrong and draw back and say why did we -- who is choices right and who is wrong and draw why did we make these choices? it tells us why certain actors did what they did. susan: how long did you work on this book? professor o'mara: about six years. my family and i moved down to palo alto from seattle for two years. fortunate to have
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sabbatical fellowships. i had a way to be down there. i interviewed a lot of people. my own get in the dusty boxes and do our thing. ofre isn't a library congress or national archives in this industry. like thearchives c-span archives and the governmental archives were really important to me. but i had to draw in different things when it happened. i had to draw conclusions from people want a longer with us. people would give me file folders that they kept in their attics for the last 30 years. one of the real challenges and one of the really important things going forward is how can we make sure this history that
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-- inthe making will be the making be preserved? it really matters. not only the technology -- understanding the technology but what were the business decisions surrounding those technologies? who were the people? this is going to be extremely important to historians going forward. susan: right after the work, you write about stuff that was a competition between two different geographic areas in boston and palo alto. who are the patrons? -- were the patrons? why was it boston and palo alto? why did silicon valley triumph in this? professor o'mara: coming out of -- aswar ii, boston was
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the u.s. government decided to get into the science business, foundationl science was created in 1949. they wanted to go big on public investment in research and development. only ineacetime technicality. it was the cold war. it was very much an investment made from the cold war struggle. this is not only a matter of prestige but developing the nuclear -- realities of the nuclear age. the united states had entered into this. boston was the 800 pound gorilla. what was in boston question harvard and --in boston? harvard and m.i.t.. yes there is the university of pennsylvania and its school of
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engineering that were also important but the leaders -- -- theye off in this were the center of government-sponsored business research during the war. they were from harvard and m.i.t.. including the people that i talk about in the books. the original entrepreneurial who has this extraordinary career crossing he is the founder of raytheon. the leaderto become of the research and development effort. he is known as roosevelt's general of physics. person who kind of
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conceives of this postwar research network that is based in a lot of universities. that explains boston. everybody is funneling and after world war ii. the electronics industry is based on the east coast. there is a lot of existing industry. what explains silicon valley? was known forlley being the prune capital of america. it had two assets. it was on the pacific coast where a lot of wartime military activity had gone on and continues to go on. no terry installations in the bay area. and it had stanford. -- military installations in the bay area. it also had stanford. there are known as the harvard of the west, they want to debate the harvard of the west. they had this great asset in mr.
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hermann. during world war ii, he had gone to boston to work under bush in this research effort. he is sitting in cambridge and he knows after the war, bush and others are bringing this to move forward. harvard and m.i.t. will get a big piece of this action. he writes to a colleague in the middle of the war that there is an opportunity that is about to blossom. stanford has a possibility of becoming a nationally influential institution like harvard or it could still like dartmouth. good but not having a real effect on the national conversation. i don't know what dartmouth administrators would think of this point.
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nonetheless, he goes back to palo alto and talks to the incoming presidency -- president of the university. he joined him in saying that we will turn stanford into the mirror cold war university. we will reorganize the curriculum and build up the physics department, we will programs.pecialized that is what the cold war military wants us to do. no other university did that. thingsd away with other to build up science and engineering. they built a very close alliance with this industry. they included students like dave packet and -- encouraged students like dave packet and make companies nearby.
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the original silicon semiconductor company was set up by bill shockley. hub, it was this not the only factor but incredibly critical. susan: one thing they always associate with silicon valley's stock options. that is what makes people so wealthy. if the company succeeds. what is the story? professor o'mara: hp was founded in 1939. it went public in 1967. they set out to make a different kind of company. ofnk of the big corporations the 50's, the detroit automakers. they wanted something very different. they wanted a nonhierarchical company.
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no managerialces, system ties. no union. that signals something is wrong with management employee relations. instead, they wanted to create something that was kind of like a scientific laboratory. it was much more utilitarian. .eople felt free to come people do not feel hemmed in by their job description. there was management by walking around. they would rather just be on the shop floor. they would not call people in to their office. idea, everyoneic got stock options. not everyone. not some of the people on the manufacturing and assembly lines but the white-collar employees did. everyone had stake in the company's financial success.
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this becomes the model that company after company after company in the valley follows. sputnik launched in 1967. susan: tesco to the 1960's and talk about what in government policy changed in a big way. an immigration law. we are having a big immigration debate right now. how does this figure into the history of silicon valley? professor o'mara: it is incredibly important. this is one of the most consequential economic policies of the latter half of the 20th century. the funny thing is it was not intended to be that at all. itlyndon johnson is signing in 1965 he said in his remarks that this is not a revolutionary bill. the t'seen as crossing and dotting the eyes on the civil rights act in some ways.
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's on the civili rights act in some ways. it had been established in that at a time of fierce anti-immigrant sentiment. it was against southern and eastern europeans, catholics and jews. others that were seen as at the time. that was holding people back in the mid-60's. liberal democrats pushed through this immigration reform. the assurance that johnson gave some of his fellow democrats including southern democrats who were a little worried about what this liberalization of immigration might bring -- he said this is not going to change anything. it turns out it did. it opened up america's door to immigrants from around the world. ofluding huge chains
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immigration from south and east asia. many of these immigrants from india and china ended up in santa clara and silicon valley. they became the engineering backbone of the valley. they found companies in disproportionate numbers. by the 1980's, one third of the companies in the valley are founded by people who were born from either india or china. on top of that, there are people from other places. programs,efugee refugees from the former soviet union. they and their children go on to found companies. refugees that come earlier in america's history. andy grove, the legendary leader of intel, he was penniless. tohing would have signaled immigration officials that he was destined to be one of
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silicon valley's most influential leaders. he was. that immigration system has been really critical and continues to be. the fact that why is silicon valley so great? it is not because americans are better than technology than everyone else, the american system has allowed the free movement of people and capital. it has drawn people from around the world like a magnet from all over the world as students and entrepreneurs. it is to the valley and to american tech centers. that has been really fundamental to american dominance in the tech space. susan: so much happened, what are the most critical things that people need to know about the 1970's.
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professor o'mara: that was this moment when a new generation -- the baby boom generation comes of age in the valley. they have been -- they are products of this space race cold war age push toward science and technology when -- technology. when they are elementary school students, they want to become astronauts. they learned how to program computers and interface with computers for the first time. they worked on time-sharing and terminals. -- time-sharing terminals. as using itss seen power for destruction, corruption. whohave people coming up are much more interested in turning away the government and big business and using competing -- computing.
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whouting had mostly been had computers. it was big government agencies and big corporations. they were so big and expensive. they were not things that ordinary people could access. we take these can and use them as a tool for personal empowerment? how can we make it personal? how can we change the interface? how can we change it so that people can use it or not versed in computer languages. computer --reate a medications network? there was the space that is born out of this political moment that can't be separated from the other things going on. these computers will save us.
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all of the things you see around the world, war, equity, racism and sexism, if we have control of these computers and we are communicating with them and connecting and understanding one another, then this is going to fix it. susan: what happened out of the homebrew computer club? steve jobs and steve wozniak. professor o'mara: they show up meetings of this rangy group of computer hobbyists. people who are playing around computers. they are building their own motherboards. these are the guys that grew up with radio sets in their basements. they graduated to building these machines. they showed up as two young guys and they came in hauling this was the act has designed. this computer, this motherboard that is more elegant and simple and sophisticated than anything
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anyone else is doing. it is the apple one. it is so funny, you can easily google an image of the original apple one. they housed it in this wooden .ase it was very rudimentary but the homebrew computer club was this way for technologists to trade on ideas. it was very collaborative. it is a way to figure out this technical hack and share it with you. making money or commercializing. out of that group of people that grew steadily, they had this monthly meeting, it gets bigger and bigger. industry, acomes an whole host of personal computer companies. apple is one of them. they create a transformative new
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bit of micro-communicating. we know that as desktop communicating. -- capitaltremely lawyers are incredibly important. i wanted to show this silicon valley galapagos that are critical to understanding why a group and why it has been so successful. and has been so successful. you have specialized venture-capital firms. this is high-tech central capital. --y of the people in central that were venture capitalists were in companies themselves. many came out of the semiconductor industry. again inhis again and the valley. people who are in a company, do well and have a good ipo, they get fired and then they become
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investors themselves. then they are the ones mentoring and picking the winners for the next generation. enter capitalists are really critical. you have all of these computer companies starting out out of this hobbyist community. what sets apple apart is they get the venture capitalists to back them really early. they get venture-capital funding from established venture capitalists. they also get executive guy fromp from this intel. he made a healthy amount of money, he was semiretired in his mid-30's and it decides to put a chunk of money into apple -- personally. steves were not capable of running -- they did not have managerial experience at all. it were pretty unconventional guys. they create an organizational structure that is more like a business, somewhat traditional.
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aple positions itself as company, a think different company, it has more in common with ordinary corporate america. susan: we will run out of time for all the history but i wanted to get to ronald reagan. we have a clip of ronald reagan talking about a very important project to him. let's watch that and then talk .bout this california governor >> there has been a desire to discuss sti. this is unconnected to it the soviets are doing. is a vital insurance policy. a necessary part of any national security strategy that includes deep reductions in strategic weapons. it is a cornerstone of our security strategy for the 1970's and beyond. and develop ith
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and when it is ready we will deploy susan: it. lots of money coming into this. -- deploy it. susan: lots of money coming into this. professor o'mara: this was a project that was going to require immense amounts of computing power. becomes this incredible resource for computer science and other related disciplines. a lot of the computer scientists in silicon valley were very much against sdi. a lot were against it technically. they were like this is not going to work. there is a possibility for error and error would be catastrophic. it would require so much. we are not there yet, technologically. of thends me about some conversations about autonomous vehicles and driverless car's. people are not quite there yet.
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the people were building computers, programming computers, who are on the faculty of stanford or working i in the valley, they are the antiwar generation. want to make peace, not war. they are politically and philosophically opposed to what the reagan administration is doing. this is one of the wonderful things and it is understanding this relationship and how it evolved. you have some of the people who are the biggest beneficiaries of some of this money. the money keeps on flowing. a lot of it is going toward computing. some of the people who are the biggest beneficiaries are --ultaneously processing
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protesting and picketing. this ability to dissent whilst systemeing part of the -- we think about competition with china in technology. the difference in this political system, recognizing how much the american political system has made silicon valley possible -- not always intentionally, sometimes it has been unintended consequences. there's been example after example after example. is this interplay that i find so interesting. it is really important in understanding -- if we're talking about what is going to happen next with the role of washington. we need to understand his history and these interesting complexities. , i want toext clip
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fast-forward to the clinton administration -- susan: i want to fast-forward to the clinton administration. this is al gore before they took office. they were encouraging entrepreneurial spirit. >> let's watch. a lot of the infrastructure anestment has been infrastructure that has made it theer for us to move around resources that used to be given more important. they are still important. if the key resort is knowledge today, shouldn't we be giving a lot more emphasis to the kind of national infrastructure that we need to share information and create and share knowledge like the information superhighway's question marks digital libraries -- superhighways? itital libraries, making possible for children to plug
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into the library of congress after school? >> this was the boom in silicon valley and a lot of people made a lot of money. how responsible was administration and government policies for that boom? professor o'mara: the government played a big role. been -- had been ceo of apple. he appears sitting next to hillary clinton. what al gore talks about in this clip, the information superhighway and also this notion of infrastructure. you did have to have that foundational infrastructure for the internet boom to happen. this was a network for researchers, military people, different parts of the defense
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researchers and academic researchers to communicate with each other. in 1980, it gradually starts moving up. you could not do any sort of commercial transactions whatsoever. companies could have a .com dom ain. they cannot buy and sell on it. it was very limited. what happened in the early years of the clinton administration is this laying down of infrastructure. this included young political and like me. i was not working on tech at the time. i was like this information superhighway stuff, no one understood it. we were working on health care reform and other things that seemed more central. there were a few lawmakers, apple was one of them. newt gingrich was another.
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they are keeping their eye on the ball of recognizing that you have to lay down the basic infrastructure and allow this to become --bone not regulated in terms of what commercial activities could happen on top of it but creating a network. one that the government is -- in which the government is encouraging entrepreneurial action to happen. susan: al gore was on the board of apple and became a hundred million or in the process -- millionaire in the process. what do you think about regulators who leave office and made a lot of money in this field? professor o'mara: al gore is an exceptional figure. 1980's, karene
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about computers when other lawmakers did not quite get it. also, in the central role that inplayed being the techie chief for the clinton administration. also the immense wealth and success he had afterwards. in the last 25 years, silicon valley is -- has gotten larger and wealthier. there has been a lot of traffic back and forth in terms of people -- there are a lot of people in the clinton and obama administrations that are now working in these happenings. there are a number of valley companies, they are very important forces in washington dc products -- projects. in the 1990's, they did not have
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lobbyists. guy working up in bethesda. they are some of the largest, biggest lobbying operations in washington today. the big sized tech companies. susan: presumably the antitrust .uit from microsoft professor o'mara: it was a wake-up call for that company. bill gates jumped when the ftc was starting to bring enforcement action against microsoft in the early 1990's, the worst thing that can happen to me in washington is i could fall down the steps of the ftc and break my neck. it turns out that microsoft did not have to break up but it came out with guard rails on what
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you could do. it came out much more cautious and constrained. part of it was a new tech generation was growing. it is not like you would not have google had microsoft not been hemmed down. factual history is impossible. this new generation -- regeneration of tech, the companies that are big now will not be forever. it will be interesting to see who we are talking about 25 years from now and what relationship they will have to the companies of right now. susan: very quickly before we run out of time. the first week from the white house with barack obama here. >> i'm going to make history
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here as the first president to live-tweet. we have a computer over here. all right. here is the question. deficit,to reduce the what costs would you cut and which investments would you keep ? the reason i thought this was an important question is because as all of you know, we are going through a spirited debate here in washington but it is important to get the whole country involved. susan: that was only 2011. now we have this tweaking president.- tweeting it speaks to the rise of social media and how important it came -- became to this platform. thatguarantee is there silicon valley will continue to have the dominance it has? we are hearing the huawei
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story. certain intentions. russia has been a major player .n using technology there are other nonstate actors that are using social media. how did silicon valley preserve the important role it has played? professor o'mara: looking back to its history and recognizing the foundational nature of public policy and creating an entrepreneurial sandbox for lack of a better analogy. what they did is put a whole lot of money in tech's direction and got out of the way. part of the dilemma of social is it is annow unrelated space. enough -- funnily enough, that is what allowed them to block them. there was a choice that was made, an agreement that the
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internet companies regulate. that was made in order to encourage free speech and conversation on the internet because in that time, the big businesses --ig media was comcast, time warner. now you have these companies that are perhaps more powerful than all of our media combined in some ways, in some places. dominate?ntinue to these other countries are making investments in research and development and advanced technology like ai, autonomous vehicles and on and on. higher education? the u.s. has drawn back. back froms drawing the open doors of allowing the best and brightest from around the world to easily come here and be encouraged to come here and create.
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it is impossible to predict the future but there are ways in which we can create this foundation. not just to replicate what is going on right now but thick about how can new voices come into the conversation? how do you have more ann ha rdy's? where are the kids that were not easily come into this world? how do you bring them in? how do the voices in the room figure out what the technological questions and solutions are? american technology companies have global market. rings that are born and bred in california don't often translate easily to myanmar or name your geography. these are the real challenges that not just the valley and washington have but all of us who use the products. it is a big and sprawling history of interesting
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characters. the book is called code. called-- the book is "the code." thank you for spending an hour. professor o'mara: thank you, it has been a delight. >> all q&a programs are available on our website or as a podcast at [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> next sunday on q&a, malcolm gladwell talks about his new book, talking to strangers about how he made judgments, often inaccurately about people we don't know. 8:00 p.m. eastern time on c-span.
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>> c-span's washington journal, live with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up monday morning, mike willis of the hill will discuss the return of congress from the august break. then that schulz will be onto talk about credit card use and be sure to connect with us during the program with phone calls and facebook questions. and monday, with our new text feature. here's a look at the live coverage on the c-span network. on c-span at 10:00 a.m., former homeland security secretaries testify in a hearing in new york city. it takes place at the national 9/11 memorial museum ahead of the 18th anniversary of the tax. -- the attacks. on c-span2, discussion about the
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release of a survey looking at american views on foreign policy and international relations. at 2:00 p.m., an investigation into the business practices of large technology firms. in the senate returns from recess at 3:00 p.m. to continue work on the president executive nominations, including allowing katie -- kelly kraft to represent the u.s. at the upcoming general assembly. experts analyze the shifting demographics and what they mean for america's future. that is hosted by the america enterprise institute. trump holds a campaign rally in north carolina on the eve of a special election for the ninth congressional district in the state. watch live monday at 7:00 p.m. ortern on c-span2, online, visit life on our radio app. on our radio app.
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watch live coverage of the 9/11 the 9/11n c-span3 from memorial plaza in new york city. the reading of names, ringing a bell, and moment of silence. from the pentagon, a wreath-laying ceremony. the 18thrage of anniversary of the 9/11 attacks on c-span, c-span3, and online at or listen on our radio app. >> on wednesday, the british house of commons debated a bill that would block the u.k. from leaving the european union without an agreement on future relations between the countries. this is called a new deal brexit. the vote passed.


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