tv U.S. House of Representatives Debate on Making Juneteenth a Federal Holiday CSPAN June 17, 2021 2:57pm-3:45pm EDT
eastern -- 3:30 eastern. in the moontime, the -- in the meantime, the house debate. reco. mrs. maloney: today, i rise in strong support of s. 475, the juneteenth national independence day act. i want to thank my good friend and colleague, sheila jackson lee, for introducing the house companion bill, h.r. 1320, which has over 170 co-sponsors. this bill would establish juneteenth, which is celebrated on june 19, as a federal holiday. our federal holidays are purposefully few in number and recognizes the most important milestones in our country's history. i cannot think of a more important milestone to commemorate than the end of slavery in the united states. at the end of the civil war in 1865, hundreds of thousands of
people remained enslaved, despite the emancipation proclamation being issued nearly two years earlier. on june 19, 1865, major general gordon granger traveled to galveston, texas, and issued general order number 3, which declared that all slaves are free. that's when 250,000 enslaved individuals in texas finally learned that they were free. the celebration that they held in galveston on that day is the basis for the juneteenth celebrations today. juneteenth is considered the longest running african-american holiday, marking the end
while millions of americans have celebrated this prnt day, the government has failed in its responsibility to recognize its significance. today we can change that. it is often said that those who don't remember their past are doomed to repeat it. if we want to confront the sins of slavery and move forward toward a more equitable, free society, it is incumbent upon us to recognize not only our past evils but the moments of triumph over those evils. making juneteenth a federal holiday is a crucial step in remembering our past and it will
undoubtedly help us build a better future. i want to thank senator i want to thank senator marquis for his work on this bill. yesterday, the senate recognized s. 475 to make juneteenth a federal holiday. from texas stat freedom of all americans in texas celebrate juneteenth should be celebrated all across the nation. this bill is a next step in our nation's journey, end quote. at this time in in -- of increasingly bipartisanship, the senator speaks to the urgency of this bill and i also want to thank, again, my good friend, congresswoman sheila jackson
lee, who has been advocating for juneteenth to be a federal holiday for over 12 years. this bill would not be possible without her steadfast support and hard work. it's now our responsibility to swiftly pass this bill and finally enshrine this important celebration in national law. as we strive toward a more perfect union, it is critical that we acknowledge the national significance of juneteenth. this day not only honors the past and celebrates the present, but it offers us an opportunity to reflect upon ways to create an even more just society. i encourage all of my colleagues to join me in supporting this vitally important bill. and i reserve the balance of my time. ill. and i reserve the balance of my time. the speaker pro tempore: the gentlewoman reserves. the gentleman from kentucky is
recognized. >> i yield myself such time as i may consume. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman is recognized for such time as he may consume. mr. comer: this bill is certainly worthy of commemoration. all americans should celebrate our fights for freedom. it's a fitting tribute, first celebrated in the state of texas, to commemorate the day in 1865 when president abraham lincoln's emancipation proclamation was recognized in that state. i do plan to vote in favor of this bill that passed unanimously in the senate yesterday. however, i would be remiss if i did not discuss the procedure leading up to consideration of this legislation. just a few mere hours ago, the committee on oversight and reform, which has jurisdiction over federal holidays and the federal workforce, learned that this legislation would be taken up today. our committee's job is to ensure
the efficient and effective operation of the executive branch agencies. unfortunately, we have not had ample time to consider the effects of granting the entire federal workforce another day off work. we do not know what effect, if any, this bill will have on federal programs and missions that our government delivers to the american taxpayer each day. for instance, due to the rushed process, we do not have an estimate from the congressional budget office of how much this bill will cost. i know. my friends on the other side of the aisle have never really been concerned about the cost of a government program, but the people on this side of the aisle and the american taxpayers have a concern about the cost of legislation that we pass on the floor of the house of representatives. according to 2014 analysis by
president obama's office of manage. justice and budget, it cost federal taxpayers $660 million in payroll and holiday premium costs when federal employees were given an extra holiday on the day after christmas that year by executive order. because we are not following regular order, which would have included a legislative hearing and committee markup, we do not fully understand the impacts of this new federal holiday and the true costs of lost productivity. nevertheless, i thank my colleagues for the time to speak on this historical legislation, and i reserve the balance of my time. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman reserves the balance of his time. the gentlewoman from new york is recognized. mrs. maloney: i now recognize the gentlewoman from california, the distinguished speaker of the house, nancy d'alesandro pelosi, for one minute. the speaker pro tempore: the distinguished speaker of the house is recognized for one minute. the speaker: thank you, madam speaker, for the recognition.
i commend our distinguished chair of the core committee in the congress for bringing this important legislation to the floor within 24 hours of it passing the senate. it's pretty exciting, an historic day. and i thank you, madam speaker, for your sponsorship of this legislation for such a time. madam speaker, i rise to join my colleagues in the spirit of joy and pride as the congress passes this legislation to declare juneteenth a national holiday. with this step, congress is ensuring that one of the most momentous offense in our history, which has been celebrated by millions, particularly black americans, for 150 years now is officially recognized. it's enshrined in our history books and it takes its place of honor in our nation. juneteenth is a beautiful and proud celebration of freedom for black americans. it marks the day two years after president lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation when
major general gordon granger and union soldiers delivered the news of freedom in galveston, texas, not far from your district, madam speaker. general granger declared that all are free with the rights and rights of property and i know that texas's place in our special place in our history is cherished by its delegation, especially as i mentioned you, madam speaker, representative sheila jackson lee, representing houston. thank you for being the author of the legislation, the house companion of s. 475. thank you to the congressional black caucus, the distinguished chair, congresswoman joyce beatty of ohio, to including re danny davis. thank you to oversight committee chairman maloney and
congratulate on yesterday's passage of s. 475, without objection. and let me salute the leaders who carried this fight including the late ronald myers led the campaign to make juneteenth a national day of celebration. juneteenth has evolved into a day of not only celebration but of reflection. this day reminds us of the history by injustice and our responsibility for the future of progress for all, honoring the idea of equality that is america's heritage and america's hope. i feel very honored to be here with the black caucus, as i mentioned already, to speak on behalf of this legislation. i thank them for making this day possible. i also had the honor of
traveling them to ghana as we observed the 400th anniversary of the first slaves coming to america. john lewis was with us to go to the door of no return, which is now the door of return which urges people to come back. 400 years ago, the first slaves were pushed from africa into dungeons, on to slave ships which were death ships that came across the ocean to a place where they would be enslaved for hundreds of years. this challenges the conscience of the world and certainly to america to even think about what happened to people in our country over that period of time. but to be there with the black caucus was a very, very special honor. and to see the connection between that door of no return in ghana and the connection to
our members of congress on the floor of this house today serving with such dignity and pride. we know that the fight against racism has far to go, but it is a fight that continues with the renewed sense of urgency all the time. sparked by the murder of george floyd and many others. we salute karen bass has she continues on the justice and policing act. as we fight for its passage, the house is committed to advance justice and fairness and opportunity for all. that is the purpose of our plaque caucus in this congress, the black caucus is the conscience of the house of representatives. i urge a bipartisan vote on this important legislation and i thank all members who have led
this effort that strengthens america. i hope we can have a strong bipartisan vote and yield back. the speaker pro tempore: the gentlelady yields back. the gentleman from new york reserves. the gentleman from kentucky is recognized. mr. comer: i yield three minutes to the the gentleman from texas, mr. weber. mr. weber: today, the house moves to establish june 19th as the juneteenth national independent day a holiday commemorating the end of slavery. june 19th marks the day that union troops arrived in galveston tech as in what is the 14th congressional, the gulf coast of texas. they announced to announce and
are enforce the emancipation. general granger delivered the news of the emancipation proclamation. and that was his intent and it was the law and should have been a way to go. and the and litigation of slavery was a milestone underwritten by the truths of natural law that all humans are created equal and should enjoy the same protections under the law. engrained in texas culture, migrate texas, this special day has been recognized, the chairmanwoman has recognized in 47 of the 50 states in the united states and long overdue to be recognized as a federal holiday. i have been working with sheila
jackson lee and senator cornyn. this should be rooted in the work we need to do and will continue to do as a country that has endured periods of racial tensions which have tried to divide our people. let it not be so. as abraham quoted the bible, he said a house divided against itself cannot stand. our country can, should and will unite beyond the divisions that we have faced and this is a long way towards that. the forces try to divide our nation will not prevail as we stand firm in our identity as americans. we are going through the fires and made stronger than ever. juneteenth reminds us of the freedom so bravely defended by many americans and encourageses
us to remain steadfast against division and we have a ways to go. a house divided cannot stand. that is absolutely true. but a house that is united is unshakeable. mr. speaker, this is a step toward that unification. mr. speaker, i yield back. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman yields back the balance of his time. the gentlelady from new york is recognized. mrs. maloney: i recognize the gentlelady from texas, the author of the companion to the senate bill, representative jackson lee, for three minutes. the speaker pro tempore: the gentlelady from texas, the author of the bill, is recognized for three minutes. ms. jackson lee: i thank the gentlewoman from new york for her courtesies. it has been a long journey and not been yesterday, the day before or last month or a few
years before, one could argue it has been 12 years so people have been involved and danny davis, my colleague in the united states senate, senator cornyn, barbara rose collins, 25 years ago with a resolution and others unnamed. organizations across the nation and some international. it has been a long journey and not been an easy journey. and when we stand here today, should be reminded of the fact that there were people who continue to experience the whips of a whip for two more years. even as president lincoln stood in the shining sun in the aftermath of get is burg to unite the union and proclaim the slaves free. i had the privilege of being midnight in the national
archives looking at that document and it took two years for general granger to get tore texas. but in that two years, we realized thaling tragedy continued and brutality continued, even into the 20th century. but today, i salute the miraculous coming together of the speaker, the leader hoyer, whip clyburn, chairman jeffries and others, that brought this to the floor through a rule, chairman mcgovern and then a debate and then here we are today, the long journey and here we are. i'm grateful as i said earlier that racial divide has fallen out of the sky and crushing it to the earth for the juneteenth holiday. h.r. 1320 was a bipartisan bill with over 166 sponsors and as well, now s. 475.
we are delighted to note that the president will sign this bill. in the words of general granger was said, the people of texas are informed in accordance, all slaves are free. in the same year, the 13th amendment was passed. this bill and this day is about freedom. at gettysburg, that is what president lincoln said this nation under god shall have a new birth of freedom. we push the justice and policing are george floyd justice act and there is another act that my freedom is your freedom and your freedom is my freedom. yes, slambs suffered, continuously. even in the 20th century, they were hung. but we have a time tom debate and vote on the floor of the
house. diverse persons can stand and join us. so i want to offer to my colleagues to be reminded this has been a long journey and mountains and valleys and we stand here to vote for the juneteenth independence national day, a federal. freedom is now. the speaker pro tempore: the gentlelady's time has expired. the gentleman from kentucky. mr. comer: i yield three minutes to the gentleman from kentucky. senator collins: i rise in support of the -- >> and the democrats have brother it to the floor. it is just wrong that this holiday -- the arguments against it are c.b.o. is not real and does not and in anticipation of the holiday and increased
productivity and the positive impact of the economy by by those who celebrate the holiday. mr. higgins: the c.b.o. score is not an argument. we support the holiday. why would the democrats to politicize of the name of independence day. why would it not be named the juneteenth national emancipation day. why would we want to inject conflict about this? i don't understand this body and the way it moves forward. contrary to the best interests of the american people. we all support the holiday. i'm supporting in support of the bill and my democrat friends know this, my objection is to the naming of the bill. and where would that have been
confronted? in committee. this bill was not brought to committee. bull directly to the floor for a vote. a trap set by my democratic colleagues that they knew would reject to the naming of this bill and the co-opting of our independence day and did not bring it to committee where we can have this conversation legitimately. everyone on oversight committee we have jurisdiction over national holidays. we wanted to offer amendments. did that happen? no. while amendments, no. this was brought directly to the floor. that's what is wrong about this body and this bizarre realm of washington d.c. and despite that we are going to support the bill and i'm going to support the bill because i support the holiday and i
support the communities. my black are americans have been celebrating this holiday for 100 years. what's wrong with that? this legislation brings the federal government more in alignment with the sovereign states which is the constitution that i certainly support but i object for the historical record since there was no committee activity. i object to the process that democrats use to bring this bill to the floor and the name by which it is entitled. i yield. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman yields back the balance of his time. the gentlelady from new york is recognized. mrs. maloney: i recognize the the gentleman from maryland for two minutes. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman is recognized. mr. mfume: mr. speaker, i rise in support of the juneteenth
national independence day act. and to recognize and honor a day that symbolizes freedom for all african ancestors and americans. my thanks to sheila jackson lee for taking the lead on this important legislation and for doing the hard work to put the united states congress on this day, a day that means so much to so many. as an original co-sponsor of the legislation, i am proud to say that once again, we are at the doorstep of history and acknowledge that history in a new light. juneteenth is a reminder we must continue to move forward and honor and in recognition of ourselves, our families, our neighbors and the nameless and faceless generations of african-americans we will never know. . .
it is all captured in poet of lang tonk hughs who he wrote, i too sing america. i am the darker brother. they send me to the kitchen to eat when company comes. but i laugh and i eat well and i grow strong. tomorrow i will be at the table when the company comes. and nobody will dare send me to the kitchen then. for they will see how beautiful i am and be ashamed. for i too am america. madam speaker, i urge passage of this national juneteenth independence act and encourage all of my colleagues to do the same. i yield back. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman yields back the balance of his time. the gentleman from kentucky is recognized. >> madam speaker, i yield three minutes to the gentleman from texas, mr. roy. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman from texas, fellow texan, is recognized for three minutes.
mr. roy: i thank the gentleman from kentucky. i thank, madam speaker, and i applaud the work by the speaker. my colleague from texas on her work on this important recognition. and the gentlelady, the speaker, knows that we've discussed on the floor some of the concerns that i have that i share with my colleague from louisiana. i wish, because i do believe that there will be some division that comes out of embracing this so quickly, rather than running it through committee, by embracing a name that is going to be seen as conflicting, whether correlated something with our july 4 national independence recognition. i understand and it's been referred to as independence day over the years, and i understand that and i understand why. i think for purposes of recognition by the united states government, it would be my preference and i'd offer an amendment if such things were ever done on the floor of this body, it's not, which is a sad state of affairs for the people's house, we literally
never amend anything on the floor of this body. i would offer an amendment, embracing the recognition of this important day, june 19, 1865, and what that meant. for the actual end of slavery and obviously we then pass the 13th amendment -- passed the 13th amendment later that year in december. and i think it would be important and i believe and it's been referred to in our history as jubilee day, emancipation day, freedom day. i would be amenable to any of those names. i don't believe that the title national independence day, i think, works. and i would prefer that we just have a debate on that and i wish we'd have done that in committee. i agree with the gentleman from louisiana that it would have been preferred that we have that ability to do that. and that we should remember why regular order matters. as i told the speaker, the gentlelady, earlier, i would prefer we have this be unanimous. and i'm afraid it's not going to be unanimous.
it will go -- it will pass overwhelmingly and it's ood that we will pass it and that this day will be commemorated as it should. as we've been commemorating in texas for a long time. but it would be my strong preference and i just wish this body, i wish we could get back to a time where we could just sit down and work together when we have these minor differences. because i believe if we did, we really would probably pass this unanimously. might be one or two who would vote no because of the 660 million or whatever people would say, but we'd recognize the importance of the day and i would just implore my colleagues going forwar that on all of these issues, particularly where there's so much agreement, that we would find a way to come together to be able to hash out some of these differences so there could be a more unanimous belief and buy into what we're doing. but with that i will yieldack. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman yields back the balance of h time. the gentleman from kentucky reserves. the gentlewoman from new york is recognized. mrs. maloney: i now recognize the distinguished gentleman from soutcarolina and democratic
whip, representative james clybn, for five minutes. the speaker pro tempore: the distinguished democratic whip, mr. clyburn, is now recognized. mr. clyburn: thank you very much, madam saker. and thank the gentlelady for yielding me this time. thank you very much. i do have some prepared remarks here which i -- don't tell my staff that i'm not going to use them. i want to speak just little bit about what i just heard i think some of our challenges are in this great country of ours. and it is a great country. it does not need to be made great again. our problem is making this greatness accessible and affordable for all of its citizens. and i think one of the ways that we do that is to recognize that
we have a shared history in this country. but it's a history that is spotted with a lot of inequities, inequalities and a lot of things that we ought to be about the business of working to try and level off the so-called playing field. and one of those i think is really about the ability to communicate. when we talk about juneteenth, i often equate the history of juneteenth with our country's inability to communicate. because after the emancipation proclamation signed by abraham lincoln in 1862 to be effective
january 1, 1863, freeing all the slaves in the union states, former slave states, now under union control. now, when that happened there was a big meeting down on the banks of a river in buford county, south carolina, near port royal. 4,000 save -- slaves came to listen to general saxton read the emancipation proclamation. on that day they were freed. however, it was june 19, 1865, 2 1/2 years later, before it was communicated to those who were
enslaved in texas. the failure to communicate kept them in slavery for another 2 1/2 years. the failure to communicate is what seemed to keep us from coming together as one people today. if we learn the lessons of history as was once said to us, when we learn the lessons of history, we are to repeat them if we don't. so i would hope that as we turn this piece of legislation into law and create a national holiday for juneteenth, keep a couple things in mind. it's not lost on me that this building that we all meet in was built by slaves. and one of the little-known facts was a man named philip
reid who was enslaved in charleston, south carolina, and who came after being bought to washington, d.c., worked in the foundry. and the statue on top of this building, lady liberty, when the foundry made the statue of lady liberty, they couldn't get it on top of the building. all of those learned people, who had been free all of their lives, could not figure out how to get that statue on top of this building. philip reid, enslaved, figured it to -- it out. and he showed them how to get that statue on top of this building. he was able to communicate some lessons that only he could
teach, though he was unlearned. in fact, it was against the law to even teach him to read. and his name was reid. spelt a little differently. now, i would hope that we would pass this law. i suspect we won't do it with the senate did and do it unanimously. though i think it will be a tremendous demonstration of unity for every one of us to vote to pass this law, recognizing june 19 as a national holiday. madam speaker, i reluctantly yield back the balance of my time. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman yields back the balance of his time. the gentlewoman from new york reserves. the gentleman from kentucky is recognized. >> madam speaker, i yield three
minutes to the gentleman from ohio, mr. davidson. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman from ohio is recognized for three minutes. mr. davidson: thank you, madam speaker. the bill before us rightly commemorates june 19, 1865, the day major general gordon granger arrived in galveston, texas, announcing the end of the civil war and the formal end of slavery. it is effectively freedom day for the last enslaved americans. of course that was only in law. in practice, america failed to secure the blessings of liberty for those formerly enslaved americans. instead, when abraham lincoln was assassinated, the assassin effectively muted reconstruction. leaders like pennsylvania congressman thaddeus stevens rightly called for a much more aggressive reconstruction, but he failed to persuade his colleagues. the long struggle in defense of freedom is part of america's
history, independence our founders eloquently stated that all people are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights. that among them are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. winning the revolution offered the potential for leaders like john adams to rightly persuade their colleagues to end slavery. but they failed. their failure set the stage for the civil war and the failure to complete reconstruction meant 100 years of jim crow and separate but equal that continued into my dad's lifetime. america's failure to rightly recognize our painful and often unjust history have meant ongoing division, open wounds that continue to fester, so today let us not fail to persuade our colleagues. let us recognize this holiday. it should, however, be known as
freedom day, or simply juneteenth, not national independence day, which recognizes the declaration, not freedom. but the declaration of independence. i hope we can correct that in the future. but let's not allow perfect to become the enemy of this good bill. i urge its passage and i yield. the speaker pro tempore: the gentleman yields back the balance of his time. the gentlewoman from new york is recognized. mrs. maloney: i now recognize the gentlewoman from michigan and a member of the oversight committee, representative tlaib, for two minutes. the speaker pro tempore: the gentlewoman from michigan is recognized for two minutes. ms. tlaib: well, thank you so much. thank you to our wonderful colleague, congresswoman lee jackson, for -- jackson lee, for this amazing,
>> i kwleeled two minutes to my friend from kentucky, mr. massie. >> the gentleman is recognized for two minutes. >> thank you, madam chair. i fully support creating a day to celebrate the abolition of slavery, a dark portion of our nation's history. however, naming this day as national independence day will
create confusion and force americans to pick one of those days as their independence day based on their racial identity. why can't we name it emancipation day and come together to celebrate, all co-lorks all ethnicity,, and then come together on independence day which celebrates the creation of our country, throwing off an oppressive government, come together as black and white and all races and celebrate that day too. why ask americans to pick one of the two independence days to celebrate? i think it's wrong to do that. i think this day is misnamed. i do support creating a holiday and recognizing that wonderful day, that wonderful time when we got rid of slavery in this country but let's celebrate those -- both of those days. independence day and the day we celebrate emancipation and ridding our country of slavery.
let's celebrate those two days together as one nation under god. indivisible. and i yield back. >> the gentleman yields back. the gentlewoman from new york is recognized. >> i recognize the gentleman from illinois, a member of the oversight committee, representative danny dais. >> the gentleman from illinois, representative danny davis is recognized for two minutes. >> thank you, madam speaker, i rise in strong support of the recognition of juneteenth as a national holiday. to celebrate the ending of the most horrific period, the most horrific policy and practices this nation has ever known. slavery. i heard one of my colleagues suggest a moment ago that
perhaps the cost of juneteenth is not known. i guarantee you that whatever the cost, it will not come close to the cost of slavery. juneteenth is the recognition that darkness can come to light. that there is a celebration as my fore maher -- forefathers and mothers struggles to endure the horror they experienced. and so, celebrating juneteenth as a national holiday is simply an idea whose time has come. i'm proud to vote for this resolution. and i yield back the balance of my time. >> the gentleman yields back.
the gentleman from kentucky is recognized. >> reserve. >> the gentleman from kentucky reserves. the gentlewoman from new york is recognized. >> i now recognize the distinguished gentlelady from michigan and a member of the oversight committee, representative brenda lawrence for two minutes. >> thank you, madam chair. >> the gentlewoman from michigan is recognized for two minutes. >> thank you, madam chair. and to the speaker. i rise here today in strong support of juneteenth national independence day. i want my colleague on the other side, i want to say my white colleague on the other side, getting your independence from being enslaved in a country is different from a country getting independence to rule themselves. it is not a day that you can loop together. that is inappropriate. it's a day for reflection,
commemorating the end of slavery. it's also a recognition that we have so much work to do. to rid this country of systemic racism, discrimination and hate. let's talk about it. the george floyd justice in policing, h.r. 4, john lewis voting rights act, we still have much work to do. juneteenth, what we're doing today, should empower us to fight even harder every single day for criminal justice reform, for racial equality, and for economic empowerment of black people in america. we are still, today, living through the blatant racism and slavery that denied us education, denied us opportunity for economic development, and denied us the right to have a job and own property. it is still, today, an issue in america.
we have a responsibility to teach every generation of black and white americans the pride of a people who have survived, endured and succeeded in these united states of america. despite slavery. i urge my colleagues to vote yes on this legislation. because black history is american history. we cannot hold our heads and try to ignore the sins of this country, but we can together come together and celebrate a time when we made the right decision. i yield back. >> the gentlewoman yields back. the gentleman from -- the gentlewoman from new york reserves. the gentleman from kentucky. the gentleman from kentucky reserves. the gentlewoman is recognized. >> i recognize the gentlelady from california, a cardinal on the appropriations committee, representative barbara lee for
one minute. >> the gentlewoman is recognized for one minute. >> thank you very much. i want to thank the gentlewoman for yielding, thank you to congresswoman sheila jackson lee for his persistent, consistent leadership on so many issue, especially getting the bill to the floor today. as another daughter of texas i'm deeply connected to the history of juneteenth my grandfather, william calhoun paris, who helped raise me, was born in galveston texas, just 10 years after general granger announced that enslaved africans were free fled brutal, barbaric institution of slavery my ancestors, my great grandmother, were enslaved around texas. so many in the african-american community, we celebrated juneteenth as our liberation day. to us it celebrates the day that enslaved africans were recognized as free men, women, and children. yet it didn't stop. the persistence of racial disparities in housing income,
education, the wealth gap and other areas of injustice as african-americans really are experiencing today. the direct result of the racism embedded in our institutions from our founding so it's not purely symbolic to make juneteenth a holiday. it's an important step toward the country reckoning with the truth of its legacy of slavery in the past as manifested today. let me just -- may i have another 30 seconds. it's manifested in the racial injustices which all of us must work together to end. and so yes, it is so important that we have the truth told of this legacy of slavery so we can move forward and work together to end these racial injustices. and i'm reminded of dr. maya an yes low and what she once -- an yes lieu and what she once wrote. i am the dream and hope of the slaves and i re