tv Doc Film - Luther the Reformation and Women Deutsche Welle November 1, 2017 4:15am-4:46am CET
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the the japanese came in vegas house of music. up close to be the best there could be and unplugged. it. very night groups starting november third on t.w. . she was the best known woman of her time and one of the most successful business women and yet catalina luthor died lonely and impoverished how did that come about. in his will martin luther named his wife as his sole heir he wanted her to be financially secure he even made had the legal guardian of the children a woman that was unusual and it was against the law. luther wanted catarina
to be able to control her own destiny after his death did he really have such a new understanding of the roles of men and women the famous reformer a pioneer of gender equality. the big. catalina from bora traveled an unusual path to become catarina luther her life would have been unthinkable without the reformation catarina was a polarizing figure had portray its worst circulated in europe by the thousands some vilified her but for others she became a role model. that's interesting interesting thing about catarina fun board and was that she was the woman that luther side people wanted to know what this new way looked like she was the one actually living with me way. just
a few decades earlier only one idea was considered worthy for women the virgin mary . and we didn't have father. in the convent nuns so to emulate that role model catalina foreign born i was one of them however not by choice. catalina spent more than fifteen years of her life in the mummy and torn convent in him sion near leipzig in saxony today only ruins are left of it. five hundred years ago more than forty nuns lived in him. they were so-called enclosed or cloistered nuns isolated from the outside world discipline and a b.d. ans ruled their daily life every three hours the bells called them to prayer at night too they were awakened for chanting and devotions a doorway can still be seen in the top floor it allowed the nuns to get to prayer
in the. church at night without having to go outside. but a convent like this was also a privileged place. my god when you were together with the members of your own class you had access to education and medical care that was more than most artistic rights are thinking so it's hard to. catalina from boulder learned much more in the convent than she would have done outside reading writing a bit of latin and singing. she probably also learned arithmetic and how to run a household but despite the privileges for some women this life of chastity was an ordeal women who became nuns could never leave the convent again.
a way out first emerged with martin luther the reforma examined the values and norms of his time with reference to the bible he rejected rules if in his opinion they contravened the word of god as laid out in the scriptures he concluded that a life of chastity in a convent was not all done by god. being a fruitful and multiply that's what it says in genesis and that was the relevant fact if they listen and do with the protestant reform as it says people should enjoy their sex humanity and their physicality that's true for women and for nine and they're supposed to marry have children and thereby fulfill god's will. according to luther god's grace alone will save a person not a chaste life behind monastic walls monks and nuns were leading a life no closer to god's will than people outside the monastery.
and that meant nobody should be forced to lead a life behind convent walls luther's ideas spread very quickly helped by flyers printed in large numbers these writings also found their way into convents such as an engine where they had an explosive impact. because just. what happened there in april fifteenth twenty three has been seen as an important step for women's rights catalina from bora and eleven other nuns took their fight into their own hands. just. dish with in this step was bold in a way we can hardly comprende today qatari now was opting for total uncertain to be keep ferdie into visit. the nuns and those helping them escape had to
leave catholic territories fast as they could because the local ruler george the bearded was a firm opponent of the reformation that's ok your cutter invited george with considerable force side to toughen up the punishment for helping nuns escape my noise this was now by death and it was a year later one such helper an eminent lights a citizen was beheaded for this very offense. to take you to sweden and talked at all. despite the risks countless women chose to follow catalina from boras example causing a huge stir some of them even wrote down their life stories supported the women by having their statements printed and by writing prefaces to them himself.
as i saw it as a film of advertising to invite women to leave their convents and seek out a new way of life namely the life of a homemaker wife and mother. witan bag one of the seats of the elector of saxony was at the heart of the reformation in fifteen twenty three. many of the escaped nuns fled to the center of the new faith the penniless women hope they would receive protection and help in fighting back not least from the himself. cut of enough and. stand by thank you cotton enough to know that you have turned to me in your crunch says of conscience. martin luther penned writings defending the women from defamation the reform was also gave these women prospects. one of the most famous works by the painter lucas can ask can be found in that
parish church the reformation all to peace many of the people depicted here were among the most influential supporters of the reformation. pastor your highness bukan haagen the reformer philip milan thought here shown carrying out a baptism with lucas kind of himself at his side many of the former nuns found refuge in these men's homes. parsonage for example in some cases for years. an unmarried woman five hundred years ago stood almost no chance of providing for herself other than by working as a servant or a prostitute. catalina from bora learned that in the time that she was put up in the crime a household you'll have to marry anyone.
anyone. does i'll end it and then you go live reform as well advocating for women was in life as a wife and mother as a woman was to be the head of a household she was to be in charge in the home and raise the children and feel it is all you can at sea and. and she was to do that in line with the new face for that women had to be able to read the bible in his pamphlet advice to the city councilors of all german cities martin luther urged something completely new the establishment of schools for girls as well as boys. song a dome boys are protestant pastor with an interest in the women of the reformation period says luther provided a crucial push towards greater equality although that wasn't luther's actual goal. sure cooling was one of the big demands of the reformation the aim was for everyone
to read what it said in the bible and decide for themselves whether what preachers were saying was corrected. the town of clima not far from the name should incumbant one of the first girls' schools was set up here in fifteen twenty nine. time magdaléna func stop it's the eldest of the nuns who fled with catalina became head mistress in the building of what is now the municipal museum she told the girls handicrafts music a bit of mathematics history and religious education. this is an against liabilities and that was a completely new role not least of all my standing in a funny style pits to be a single woman walking and running a school and that's why there was local resistance to watch he was doing so martin luther and his a says he it regularly ensured that she got support. an unmarried woman standing on her own two feet didn't fit the standard view of the sexes at the
time it wasn't what the reformers had had in mind either ultimately many of the escaped nuns married supporters of the reformation. i do. i do. the most famous wedding of the day was between martin luther and catalina fumble. this marriage didn't just have supporters on the contrary. to the fast that's the truth about luther's wife. the syndicate his sinful acts of the holy people to please the devil in him. but you know throwing. the marriage between a nun and
a monk gave critics of the reformation a point of attack in response to the taunts the painter lucas kind of produced a series of portraits of catarina the only one of a wife of a famous reformer she became known throughout the land when her face appeared on flyers. the metaphysical word for comparison it was like a tabloid portraying the royals it's basically that to satisfy people's curiosity that the people wanted to know who was that woman that can to side. it. just as martin had done during his time as an orchestra in cannes and the luther's made their home in the black monastery invest in their catalina set about transforming the abandoned and derelict mastic complex.
the luther's house still exists although it has changed over the centuries the place where luther lived and worked became a museum in one thousand nine hundred three some rooms like luther's. you know study have survived. shortly after getting married catalina turned the form a monastery into a flourishing business with agriculture an animal husbandry a brewery an old shit and a vegetable garden and all this in the spirit of luther. luther lived in a world that was determined to shape by an order of creation and according to this woman has a clear tosk to bear children and to run the household and i know how sue for your . invitation back catarina wasn't the only woman to manage a launch household on her own in the crown
a house which still stands in the center of town the living and working areas came together the couple functioned as a team. looked after the children and made sure the family and staff were clothed and fed lucas cranach represented the family in the outside world and ran the paint his studio where he also created the portraits of martin and catalina luther a division of labor in line with the ideas of the reformation. in the home of reform of philip my film his wife ran the home along with a student guest house historian martin toy believes that upper class women primarily define themselves via their husbands. the diff in the end they really define themselves as wives not tests independent people with whom the reform is in hans the status of women as wives and married women gain
their self-respect from that one of them was catalina who now run a hostel for students in the luther house. get the money up front you have to stuff your own straw sex they'll be a bell for the evening mirror. what's up i want to speak with a man of the house i want my money i am the man of the house oh. believe her she is the man of the house mr cater how much for nine silver pieces i'll give you eight the sack sound quite full the last acts are as full as they should be wait there i'll get the town judge. catalina was skilled at running her business so skilled in fact that in the eyes of many she was pushing the limits of the new woman. writer kathleen vertica has studied gender roles for years in her view these roles still determine how men and women are permitted to behave with regard to their job
to fashion and in everyday life. and ideas but i women and men can form sub conscious me in a way these areas there are very subtle expectations and rows that come into play you when you really notice it when a man or woman goes against those expectations that's when you get a lot of derogatory words such as book. catalina was so assertive in her manner that even luther sometimes called his wife mr kite. in several publications luther oppose the general disparagement of women in his day in his reformist tract to the christian nobility of the german nation he stated that all people were equal before god men and women luther was convinced of a priesthood of all believers. this pre-settlement the priesthood
of all the leavers means that thanks to baptism of faith all people are equal in the eyes of god that they are loved and accepted by god in the same way as the social and gender disparity between them shouldn't have any impact on their relationship to god in him because of your god has for had this kind of like a daughter but luther was an impulsive and sometimes contradictory character. while he revered catalina and asked her to join him at the table he could be derogatory and insulting about women when in the company of other men. and i don't sign off in one lecture he said when it comes to adam and eve and god it's like this adam the man is like the sun eve is like the moon we know the sun shines on its own but the moon needs the light from another source to put it polemic like martin luther is saying adam is move god like than eve that's
un-biblical of course but it shows that he's a child of his time and kings and that side of. the parish church and didn't back also contains clues about luther's variable relationship to women. the hymnal still contains the song lord christ the only son of god written by elizabeth cohen a former nun who married one of luther's students invent and she composed new religious songs and luther had one of her works included in the hymnal thereby honoring crusader as the first female him writer. martin luther also preached here in the witan the church as captured in a painting by lucas kind of although men and women were equal before god in luther's mind it was inconceivable to him to carry this equality into society to each gender had its role and for luther it was only imaginable in exceptional circumstances for women to take on the role of pasta and preach.
in games and he acknowledged a kind of female emergency remedy when it came to preaching if the men failed if the men were silent too cowardly to preach the gospel and so avowed their faith that no woman is entitled to them if a man comes along then she should return to her proper roads. however even in luther's day there were women who openly and eloquently presented deathy illogical views to the public quite in the spirit of the priesthood of all believers one such was our goal of who in fifteen twenty three invited the professors of the university of english not to debate the bible with her which they refused to do does it stone he's dead it's surprising that while the role of female preacher emerged from the ideas of the reformation it took five hundred years for women to be allowed to preach from the pulpit in
a protestant chant. first society had to change over those five hundred years but the reformation and luther gave an important impetus not least when it came to sexuality. but one major aspect that changed during the reformation for women in particular was that sexuality was no longer seen as something sinful it was seen as a good thing but only in the very narrow context of marriage. to luther the christian family was almost a continuation of the monastery by different means eating together singing christian hymns and intemperate in bible verses. that obviously still got. the luther's family life had a role model function for centuries luther also redefined the role of men as fathers. my martin luther said
a man shouldn't feel about washing diapers and rocking his child in his own hands that was pleasing to god. by fifteen forty a good forty people were living with the nooses in the black ministry their own children a few other relatives stuff and guests along with several students who paid for a room and board. it was a flourishing business the original front door of the little house still exists catalina gave this expensive sandstone work to her husband for his fifty seventh birthday a clear indication of that wealth. catalina luther was essential to keeping life going in the black monastery if you have a list she did everything to support a husband to stand by his signed and to see this as the main purpose of the life of . she also worked to raise the children and to provide
a living environment associate to the black man a street where he was as happy as a fish in water that's how we wanted to live like and she made it possible avoid his or leave or move to. martin luther wanted catalina to be able to maintain her independence after his death to the rittenberg archives contain a copy of the will that the reformer wrote four years before he died in it he highlighted cattle in a special talent for running a household and made her his sole land in addition luther went against the legal norms of the day and made her the children's legal guardian. as they were talking and he did this with the conviction that she would be better at it and i could add responsibilities a system and this will is evidence that he viewed her as an unreserved lee capable person and his friend complex figure press on head. catalina and martin luther were
married for twenty one years in his lifetime he was able to guarantee her status as the manager of the household. but he died when catalina was forty seven with his testament luther trying to establish more rights for his wife than widows were allowed at the time even the famous reformer couldn't fight the established legal system. catherine caterina had to accept legal guardians for herself because it was inconceivable that a woman could be the legal guardian of her children are very close to. catalinas independence was curtailed after martin luther's death as a widow she had few rights in society however she successfully fought to stay in the black monastery and keep running the student guest house. but just a few months after luther's death the first religious war broke out on german soil
the fighting even reached rittenberg catarina as a state outside the town gates was destroyed she was economically ruined and in fifteen twenty two she had to flee once again this time from crop failures and the plague. on the elbe or the university of it in bag fled here from the plague and catarina followed but just outside the town she had an accident with her carriage injured luther's widow was taken to this house in the center of talk out. she spent her last few weeks in these two small rooms catalina never recovered from her injuries she died in torgau in fifteen fifty two at the age of fifty three six years after the death of her husband.
was laid to rest in st mary's church a burial place that had been reserved for members of the electors family it was a mark of respect for catalina the independent woman that martin luther signed. i knew there was an incredibly powerful character who was also subject to powerful mood swings we might call him manic depressive not living with that required a high degree of inner strength which she undoubtedly got in part from the interpretation of the christian faith as put forward by luther that's because most busy little flaws no have to shift up. luther and the reformation open doors to women leading them away from the ideal of convent life and out into the world. as wives and mothers. step
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