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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  March 20, 2018 5:30am-6:01am CET

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with some junk and instructions from a book. page of fourteen william come dream the boy wanted to build a wind turbine to provide his village with electricity designed to his life. and citing journey along the way to. go with milk march twenty first t.w. . hitch into tomorrow today coming up. resistant germs what makes tuberculosis so hard to fight. physicist and pop icon the late stephen hawking and these inspiring life. wasn't art intelligence how robots are learning to paint.
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in eight hundred eighty two hot car announced his discovery of the pathogen that causes tuberculosis the disease remains a scourge to this day to raise awareness the w.h.o. marks will to be day every year on march twenty fourth. poor countries in particular see high numbers of new cases many of them a multi resistant strains that compu treated with antibiotics. we visit one hundred had country in eastern europe ukraine. this somber sassing is home to the boy a car sanatorium in the ukrainian capital kiev more than one hundred fifty tuberculosis patients are undergoing treatment here many have a multi drug resistant form of the disease this means the drugs used to combat the papa john have little or no effect. the sixty eight year old who'd
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previously enjoyed good health only learned of his condition by chance. when i had a routine checkup at work they saw something on the x. ray i didn't even have any symptoms i felt fine. lawyer who's in his late twenty's would prefer to be at home with his wife and daughter unlike to zele he's pretty sure he knows how he contract of the disease. i got me a multi resistant strain of tuberculosis from my body after he was released from prison. the facility has no isolation wards and no proper ventilation this makes it especially hard to fight multi resistant tb but physicians follow demerit points to an even bigger problem. the. treatment is still the easiest way to develop
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a strain resistant tuberculosis. the biggest problem with this is that the treatment takes a really long time to complete twenty months. it's hard to stay with it even highly motivated people find it hard to take large amounts of medication every day for twenty months. because. the pathogen thrives in crowded places especially where it's cold and there's a little from lice it spreads easily through sneezing coughing and even just regular conversation. it's easy to identify the signature red pattern under a microscope but distinguishing the regular kind from the multi resistant strain is expensive and lengthy it takes up to two months to get a diagnosis that means people with the multi resistant strain can unknowingly continue to infect others. the lab at the sanatorium is able to determine if
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a strain is resistant to the antibiotic of refined person it's one of the most effective anti tuberculosis drugs on the marcus. she is in the computer controlled tests can produce results within a few hours but in order to know if it's resistant to other drugs they have to take bacterial cultures that take several weeks using genetic testing it's possible to decode the pathogens genome in a matter of days but that's expensive and to date there are only four devices in all of ukraine that can do this the lab here is still waiting to get one. questions remain as to why this multi resistant strain is so prevalent in ukraine. besides the problem with people not sticking to the full course of treatment experts point to the country's overstretched health care system.
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patients like these here in the car are too often housed in cramped quarters. this has drawn widespread criticism. we still have people sharing rooms but you haitians aren't isolated and have too much contact with each other. in this environment you can imagine how easy it is for patients to infect each other with resistant strains but we're still optimistic that we're getting new technology treatment methods and resources in us civil the sort of. after years of seeing infections rise the number of cases in ukraine dropped for the first time in twenty sixteen for doctors and patients here their bottom line in the fight against multi resistant tb faster diagnostics and better long term care for patients.
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one major risk factor for typical. but what is the current state of medical treatment. discovered the t.v. business and influential reset is following in his footsteps. we visit. at the institute for infection and i ask him how far he's come. it's the coughing and sneezing season. is it this easy to be infected with tuberculosis i'm here to talk with tb expert stefan. here in germany could i catch tb by airborne transmission like someone coughing on me. if the person has to send coughs on you then you have a large chance of getting infected but in germany you won't often encounter people
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with tuberculosis. but getting coughed on once would be enough we estimate that you'd have to be exposed more than ten times statistically speaking to actually be infected and that's what i'd be more at risk for example in ukraine. in. fifteen you cry in the risk is higher of course and if you spend a lot of time in a hospital with lots of tb patients then your chance of being infected is almost one hundred percent and. one out of every ten infected people actually develops the disease but is there protection against tb. why can't i get vaccinated against tuberculosis like the flu. the immune response to the tuberculosis pathogen that's our own bodies defense system against it is far more complicated than in the case of the flu we're still not sure how best to muster those defenses and medical
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. science has ignored tuberculosis for too long my wish is that we'll find a way to conquer tuberculosis. and his team have taken a major step in that direction in trials in india. has developed a vaccine against tb it's designed to help people who have been infected from developing a recurrent disease. the chance of being infected with the pathogen it's especially high in india. india is one of the countries with an especially high rate of tuberculosis we believe that at least a million people have tb in india and that the multi resistant forms are on the rise. worldwide one point seven million people die of tb each year making it the deadliest infectious disease on our planet and. hope of what some call.
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tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that break into healthy cells and survive their . discoverer or better car develop the first vaccine against it but it failed step on calvin has been doing research on t.v. for thirty five years now and he hopes his latest vaccine will be a breakthrough. for our initial clinical trial succeed then we would have a vaccine that also works in adults it would be the first to tb vaccine for both young people and adults. planck institute we've always tried to combine basic research with applications by sick research is the main focus but we don't say ok let's do something new we want to advance from basic research into applications for me a great goal would be reached if this vaccine proved itself in the clinical. and i'm
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quite hopeful that we. wouldn't be the kind of breakthrough that could lead to a nobel prize would i don't want to comment on that. that's not what you're aiming for. except i don't want to discuss that now. well that may be a while yet stefan cough month says it could take at least another five years before a vaccine against tb has completed clinical trials. for more about two but he knows this and other science stories just go to our website and get in touch with us on twitter at hash tag to if you license for example all right us on facebook we'd love to hear from you. bacteria like the tb pathogen unlike risk of organisms other common tiny microbes
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of hunger. small is still virus. one of the us sent in a question about them. as our omaha son sollie from sudan wants to know what are viruses. a tick bite can transmit viruses such as a form of encephalitis called t b e v in humans the pathogen can cause a fatal inflammation of the brain. other viral diseases are airborne so there are lots of ways they can spread. that's clever viruses which consist of just d.n.a. or r.n.a. in a protective envelope they don't have their own metabolism so they need a host like humans or other organisms in order to reproduce in the case of an infection a virus hijacks the host cell and injects its genetic material into it then becomes
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a factory for making new viruses. many viruses can spread between species. the pathogens responsible for aids are able may have traveled from apes to humans. rodents can transmit hunter viruses for example. birds some flu viruses a vaccine may prevent infection. even though as in the case of flu the vaccine constantly has to be adapted as the virus mutates. one type of antiviral vaccine protects against cervical cancer and sometimes viruses aren't pathogens but helpers. certainly parvovirus is for example target tumor cells without damaging surrounding healthy cells researchers are hoping to use them to develop a viral therapy to treat glioblastoma a highly aggressive brain cancer. if
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you have a science question send it in by going to our website. if we answer it on the show you'll get out d.v.d. featuring a lighthearted look at albert einstein's most famous theories. the most important thing is to never stop asking questions. his life was film worthy the british movie the theory of everything tells the story of stephen hawking's first marriage and early career after he was diagnosed with a terminal illness. the great physicist was immensely popular with scientists and nonscientists alike. shown by the response to his death on social media. we asked you how you will
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remember stephen hawking and what he means to you. on facebook where it color pulls in marvelous and extraordinary and says. i will not forget him. for tossed and hawking was the brightest mind since albert einstein he believes the nobel prize should go to hawking posthumously for his work on black holes. stina field of history tweets that hawking is a huge inspiration to because he didn't let his disease defeat him. she thinks other people in his position might not have continued doing science but he persevered with passion. and to use a profound flora leaves a message for hawking in a parallel universe asking him for an explanation for our existence.
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let's take a look back at this exceptional physicist who died at age seventy six. stephen hawking was an inspiration to many he defied a disabling disease. to become one of the great physicists of our time and a cultural icon instantly recognizable by his wheelchair and his computer generated voice. press and didn't detract from his sense of humor. here a lot of me i work. i would love to be
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able to leap from building to building. stephen hawking was born in oxford on january eighth one thousand nine hundred forty two on the three hundred anniversary of galileo's death as he like to point out. at seventeen he began his undergraduate studies at oxford university instead of madison as his father had wished he studied physics and chemistry. later he said he'd been a bad student spending less time on his subjects than on the other joys of university life. then at twenty one he was diagnosed with a terminal neurodegenerative illness. stage so.
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that's our total joy is still with us or older girl because she told me at work and two or three years. i would read up an early. so i wish to try. cooking put much of his energy into theoretical physics three years after his diagnosis he received his ph d. the topic of his thesis was nothing less than the origin of the universe which he describes them as a singularity in which the laws of physics no longer seem to hold it created a stir in the field of cosmology. hoping received the position of the university of cambridge over the years he helped nurture generations of physicists many of his students became friends for life. by. went to cambridge i checked into the college and then i went to the department and and stephen came in and i was introduced to
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him we chatted for a couple of minutes i couldn't understand him i remember at first because his voice was very monotonic. but i was i was struck by his eyes and by a lively he was. at cambridge talking to valid pioneering theories he was elected luke asian professor of mathematics. his work took him to the intersection of science philosophy and religion. to the origin of the cosmos time travel and above all black holes these massive regions of space that swallow liason matter did not conform to accepted theories hawking incorporated quantum mechanics to gain new insights. throughout his career he was obsessed with the question of what happened to the matter that vanished into a black hole and to find answers some of which he later revised he never found the
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ultimate one. one of hawking's graces theories was an apparent paradox black holes not only gain mass and grow. they also evaporate losing energy which is equivalent to maf this discovery overturned all previous notions i think he turkle the biggest and the most important problems in gravitational physics and he tackled these problems successfully and many people. attack or work on big problems but very few people actually resolve the skipped there are many examples in physics where we only realise in hindsight than an individual's achievement was far greater than it seemed up close. but even from today's perspective he did great things in those and. then nine hundred eighty eight hawking published a brief history of time the popular science book has been
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translated into forty languages i just sold more than ten million copies. i try to share with the public my excitement of pollock of progress we have made in understanding the laws of nature and history of the universe and he succeeded in conveying that excitement the book made talking famous around the world people thronged his lecture is he used his popularity to speak out about causes close to his heart. although there was no place for a creator in his cosmology he was a frequent guest at the vatican. he tried to mediate in the middle east and later joined an academic boycott of israel in support of palestinians. he also joined public protests against the u.s.
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led war in iraq. stephen hawking received numerous awards and honors for his life's work. in two thousand and seven his dream of flying was realized when he took part in a nasa parabolic fleiss' for those seconds in zero gravity he could move freely if. that was. the north. face. of the really going i think he was a great role model for the younger generation. so because he showed how exciting a research field by cosmology could be between food and what fundamental questions it offers to researchers and. since you feel you annoyed and i think he got many young people to enter this field and retain that fascination to achieve new
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scientific understanding. will robots ever replace people stephen hawking won't about this saying hey i could spell the end of the human race but despite the potential dangers the field of robotics is continuing to make huge strides even in daring robots with creativity putting us into the to fishel intelligence. this artist is a robot fittingly enough it's working on a painting inspired by the side by classic blade runner about
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a world which pits humans against robots. the robot artist is called eat david fortunately he's benevolent unlike the replicants in blade runner he's still learning how to use a brush. and that's a long way to go before he can match human intelligence. as we start with a photo of the camera this is compared to the input image for every input image the robot calculates where to position the next brush stroke we can adapt to external factors such as altered light differences in color that is to say the robot adapts it knows that certain colors don't produce the original effect so it adjusts from. berlin based artist graver has collaborated with the david on a number of paintings a graduate of life art school she sees the robot as
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a useful aid for developing her ideas. aren't in themselves creation of but they can support creativity in the humans who use them alternately they just algorithms albeit highly complex ones but they'll never be as complex as humans are . i-t. expert thomas linda maya begs to differ he's confident that the day will come when a robot can create its own work of art and has an understanding of what is considered aesthetically pleasing kind of sight and that's when we can program a machine to recognize that with a blue and green go well together or not and this would allow it to recognize if a painting uses that a cli pleasing other components a subjective the way people respond to or not work has to do with their personal experience with a robot aleck's these experiences and can't make decisions based on them for the time being robots counter to that but in the long run it might be possible what is
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the use of us last month when by then it's something you believe. how far. this world will matter which is often just this short sighted five film starring david hasselhoff was written by an artificial intelligence program called david boeri fed with hundreds of screenplays it was directed by oscar sharpe the lines and plots are borderline nonsensical. but the program learns quickly. are robots a threat to creative endeavors or might they actually be an enrichment. so. people tend to be afraid of the new it makes them insecure they worry about adjusting but that's not how i see it as. arch and artificial intelligence for now robots can only be an artist's assistant but the day may come
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and they can create their own masterpieces. that's all for today the next time we'll be setting up hamburgers but this minced meat is special it was grown in the lab how does that work and how does it taste find out next week on tomorrow today until then but i. the but. the but. the but. the but.
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the but the but . the but the for the because. the be. played. the from the to criminal of to find true against me smile and subscribe one of the ego and keep most understand the incoming cool go slumming can use capital now because mission going to fight against the terror militia al-shabaab to get recruits young people i'm good
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news the ozarks remain strong. the fast pace of life in the digital shift has the lowdown on the web showing new developments and providing useful information on the way to use phone lines and interviews with makers engineers are. shifts in forty five minutes on. make your smart t.v. even smarter portland or small towns. watching a lot of women want to. up to date. extraordinary and. decide what's on. find out that. smart.
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yeah i'm beautiful and i've heard it before and it never grows old. i'm worshiped from my looks and my scent my looks but here's the thing. life starts with me. you see i feed. every fruit comes from me. everybody taito me every kernel of corn me every grain of rice me me me me i know but it's true. and sometimes i feed their souls. i am their words when they have none i say i love you without a sound. i'm sorry without a voice. i inspired the greatest of them painters poets pattern makers i've been amused at them all. but in my
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experience people underestimate the power of a pretty little flowers. because their life does start with me. and without me. brags that negotiators say they've largely agree to a deal of britain's withdrawal from the european union it lays i plans for a two year transition period following brags that. the deal with allow britain to stay in the single market and customs union until the end of twenty twenty a versing the economic chaos of us.


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