tv Doc Film - The Germans - Luther and the Nation Deutsche Welle June 17, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
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at the homes of europe a region in change. a country that took a long time tina's for. people who only started regarding themselves as german as the centuries progressed. who are they. where did they come from. questions about the history of the german people. for the revolution. for democracy. for the republic. played. initially montanus that was only calling for a renewal of the church and its face but the pope and the emperor saw him as a threat and he was demonized by proms.
an overwhelming majority of the population at home supported him would martin luther divide or unite the germans. april sixteenth fifteen twenty one it looked like a reenactment of palm sunday in jerusalem. a man branded a heretic by the church celebrated like the messiah in the german city of wars. i. wasn't good there brother mountain. i we could still turn back i i. invented and if death itself were
awaiting me i would not turn back you unleashed on. martin luther on his way to the imperial diet of forms and assembly of the holy roman empire on german soil an event that would change the course of history. never before had a man of the people excited such enthusiasm ordinary people peasants and members of the low aristocracy in particular put their hopes in a smug fit that. even if the pope and the amphora were against him martin luther knew the people of germany were on his side. he was celebrated like a victim but his biggest test was still to come would he remain steadfast. i. merge you're taking
a difficult path i wouldn't want to be in your shoes. to china. it covered his feet under started a song and now it might prove too high for my voice it's all for the cheers of support did nothing to relieve his anxiety what will be contested behind these doors wasn't a matter of who had the right place it's a new thing it was a matter of life and death. germany in the early sixteenth century did not exist as a united political entity territorial princes ruled over their own regions of the ten million german speakers one in ten lived in towns the rest in the countryside. the dominant belief was one of a god given order of rulers and the ruled one empire one face one amphora it was the idea that held the holy roman empire of the german nation together but it was
beginning to unravel. at first the only criticized abusive practices of the church nepotism corruption and waste but then he publicly rejected any into meijer all sarti between man and gone. he singled out the dignitaries of the roman catholic church who he said behave like princes rather than priests for luther only the bible was infallible. luther accused gone's representatives on earth of hubris after leader the tenth was crowned pope in fifteen thirteen he was more an arts page than an ecclesiastical leader holding cold with pomp and extravagance to underline his power and glory. this pope from the powerful medici family wasn't interested in theology since god has given us the. papacy he said let us enjoy it leo transformed rome into
a cultural center and political power but he depleted the papal treasury in the process. he commissioned a massive renovation to send peter's basilica in the vatican to pay for it leo encourage the sale of indulgences and exemption from punishment for cities. luther maintained only the mercy of jesus could absolve sin not money. the only path to salvation was face not demons his ninety five theses attacking corrupt church practices were quick to second acted across the country the pope threatened luther with excommunication but luther responded by publicly burning the bill humble monk motivated solely by his conscience. also. the reformation was triggered by the dispute over indulgences of luther was convinced that believers were being
duped and that their salvation was in jeopardy lloyd bigging. he believed the indulgences were lolling people into a false sense of security with disastrous consequences vegging d. gunson coffer ta list by the time luther was summons to the diet of forms the pope had already branded him a heretic. he was given the opportunity to recant before the emperor of princes and nobles of the empire if he did not he faced an imperial ban and death. decision day had arrived. he must recount. because. luther must recant or he'll burn his sight unless he finds powerful supporters luther already had frederick the wise elector
of saxony had watched his rebellious subjects popularity grow and he sympathized with luther's criticisms of the roman catholic church and so he will rouse the emperor's rules one way or another. but the empress rolls down the role of a god goddess. frederick the wise was powerful he was one of seven electors in the empire who chose the emperor and the others with the margrave of brandon book the king of bohemia the count palatine. of the rhine and the archbishop's of cologne months and trip. any candidate for king and emperor had to make concessions to the powerful princes that also was true of the hapsburg and for a chance the fifth who was elected in fifty nineteen. than of vive and his election wasn't without controversy if there was opposition and skepticism coulier the roman
curia had a different candid if there were very strong reservations because of his immensely powerful position to go home and that was prejudice against him as it was viewed as a foreigner in the empire over which he now presided the imminence of kaiser for. the habsburg emperor was unfamiliar with germany and its people even as ruler of the world he could not override the german princes the image he cultivated wasn't just posturing charles was right in saying the sun never sets on his empire. his prayer book has survived to this day it doesn't just testify to the hapsburg ruinous piety one page depicts the most powerful man on earth kneeling at the feet of a guardian angel. the page shows signs of wear and tan and indication perhaps of the young and for his insecurity. as
a devout catholic charles was determined to silence the heretic from the conduct but the german princes forced him to hear live throughout. the emperor who spoke no german was represented at the diet of alms by the archbishop of trias legal advisor the empire's top tier will witnesses to an unequal jewel of german david against a supremely powerful goliath. yes in c.f.s. i met. well we're gathered here to put an end to the blasphemous lie a spread by dr martin luther from that under eighteen who tell us that. it's with heretics zeal yes cast doubts on take the law thora to his writings to question the author of the of the church and in so doing he has destroyed the unity of all christians genial tell martin luther are you ready to recount your life's an
iris here and now he gets to be there who. even knows his powerful supporters advised him to recant. me when no one can deny that through the pope's laws the consciences of the faithful have been most beautifully troubled. on does and also the possessions of the germination have been devoured by unbelievable tyranny or that if then i recant the only effect will be to add strength to such tyranny to open not the windows but the main doors to such blasphemy. vanished unless i am convinced by the testimony of scripture or by clear reason i cannot and will not recant anything.
so help me god. a man. last. luther's appearance before the diet of forms went down in history as a turning point in european history but luther didn't have the benefit of hindsight he dared to stand up to the most power. the man on the planet perhaps because he knew he wasn't alone. in the luthor knew he had a far reaching social reform movement beyond him and that's enabled him to act the way he did involves in volved in the towns he have the support of the middle class as the intellectual elite associate it with the humanist money as well as to a degree that the backing of the imperial not strong and
a portion of the clergy supported him to die it is clear what's all this coincided with the calculated use of a nation to power the media the battle to shape public opinion began involves. it was the first propaganda war in european history fought by followers and opponents of the reform of the friar from a german backwater became an international household name one placed on an equal footing with the pope in the fight for the one true faith. god. thousands of flies were printed some portrayed luther is a saint stuffing the greedy mouth of the roman demon others put trade him as a divider and a messenger of the devil as a satanic heretic doomed and damned. this visual propaganda in the form of caricature as in say rich people who couldn't read . in the battle for hearts and minds
looters supporters made headway but ultimately it was up to the em for it to pass judgement on the reform of. the hapsburg ruler made his position on luther clear since the king of the germans didn't speak german he composed it in french. how many fish do you understand what he's saying. you don't need to understand french to know he has it in for losers and the tightening cotton be lickin to. use or is to sign if you concerned about him he did make these roma. whatever the empress ponders can only end one way if you must love. me a little he wants to see luther burns. to do that he has to get some photos up while he studied this. in the edict informs charles the fifth declared luther and
me of the church and state he upheld a previously issued guarantee of safe conduct but as soon as it expired luther was to be arrested and punished would he come to that. set off to return to that and back but the journey was interrupted. what was dot com says you got. yes and i know who they're hunting to. deep in the woods foresman ambush luther's carriage. goads if they don't want you. luthor had been briefed on the plan what looked like a kidnapping was in fact a rescue operation. to prevent the implementation of the edict of
alms the reformer was bundled off to a secret location. who know what to do or say implementing the forms was difficult for the offered him from a legal perspective he had no executive organs to enforce in kind he depended on the willingness of the regional princes to publish the edict and to enforce it and in that territory they trust and understand these as the naturally frederick the wise and had no such intention to. for those devices it docked it garnished on. luther's princely protector had different plans frederick the wise hid the reformer advanced book cast on their eyes enough in his area of jurisdiction. as a territorial prince the electorate saxony made use of his autonomy to secretly defy the amphora. the persecuted reformer was given a comfortable room in front or castle he was to want for nothing.
though forced into hiding luther had not been silenced his writings spread across europe. faced with an unknown period of confinement luthor decided to make good use of his time. he adopted a pseudonym younger york and changed his appearance. and he began a revolutionary work a translation of the bible into german luther wanted the word of god to be accessible to everyone including lay readers he rejected church doctrine that maintained the pope was the sole authority of interpreter of scripture his followers would come to be called evangelical from the latin and german words for
gospel. it took luther just a few weeks to complete his translation of the new testament into german. a new communications technology gave him fast access to a wide audience the printing press. the individual letters were cast back to front laid out in galleys and fixed in position the includes made of linseed oil insert a formula which produced pages that haven't faded in centuries the sheet was printed in the press this device later lent its name to an entire branch of media the press.
at the start of the sixteenth century there were four hundred printing facilities in the german speaking world. as print shop in fitting berg was the first to publish luther's new testament in september fifteenth twenty two. was sixty six reprints the work had had a run of one hundred thousand copies by fifteen twenty five it was the first bestseller in german history. loses translation wasn't always literal he used everyday language with colloquial turns of phrase. the new testament in german a translation by martin luther. traveling booksellers often luther's bible for sale at markets demand was huge. kunstler he read yes and then read.
in a cup a sample come and listen listen to what he's reading the new testament in germany after my address commented out at a time of widespread illiteracy reading out loud was a common practice. once at school he does forget only indian got discussed in. aunt field i share. let me feel i and others come by the time of its birth or lick their not. the words of the bible in the language of the germans really want at least seventy units use a church. in chicago if. my body is satellite these are. absolute. values established these are on the books. that's going to. lose his translation of the complete primal was published in german in fifteen twenty four an original copy is
preserved in the anna amalia library environment. luther's work had a profound impact on the development of the german language the author dedicated it to his protected electoral saxony his bible and to standardize ation of the german language which in turn fostered a stronger sense of common identity among german speakers. who does speak luther's bible translation didn't just serve to strengthen the sense of community within the protestant movement it also had a long term impact on the german nation as a whole doctrine his language became the language of literature he thought was interesting lee and unbeknown to them catholics were also impacted by this development if it happened behind their backs such as league that in workings of
the south dakota making a fast. it wasn't just the bible that spread from the back but so too did lose his reformation teachings neither would have been possible without the protection of the saxon prince but frederick the wise never fully embraced luther's teachings and remained a catholic all his life. holed up with a council luther was aware of the debt he owed the prince for protection his. action you so new that in return the elector expected luther's loyalty that loyalty was put to the test by development that shook wide swathes of german speaking europe and brought those regions to the brink of outright civil war. a bloody uprising staged by peasants demanding greater rights and freedom encouraged by luther's reformation ideas they used his arguments to justify their
revolt the peasants war posed a deep dilemma for luther. should he stay true to his conscience or to his princely protector. the peasants war panorama in franken hausen is one of the largest paintings in the world in great detail it depicts the first revolution on german soil emboldened by the religious reform movement the peasants saw to overthrow the feudal system under which they were bound to the estates of nobleman and forced to give up most of what they produced. the revolt was sparked by opposition to new taxes and duty on the german service and based on the interpretation of scripture paying
a times on the fruits of the earth had long been exacted on the peasant as a form of church tax. but now the lord sought to extend this payment to the possession of animals the tax collectors invoked divine law to justify their demands. luther's translation of the bible into german allowed people to verify those demands by can. sultan scripture themselves. it's a complete injustice to take a ties to animals to. the consulate how dare you don't the rightfulness of our actions are strange those who possess launch stock have to pay a times for them so that's what it says in the bible are parish priest have vouchers for the. holders what for the we voted for ourselves and later the bible says nothing of the sort if they cannot watch yourself your lot
mouth will undo you you will pay a tithe on all your animals at the end of that or in coins and if you don't see you in court on the second word the emperor the judge we would be as steadfast as dr luther extortionist i many peasants refuse to continue tolerating such conditions luther was their role model and the bunch of the least shew the emblem of their revolvers. when the conflict threatened to escalate the peasants called for luther the reformer left his hiding place in front of council and travelled to the rebels in the hope of defusing the situation. it was.
luther that shown how to resist the all star ity of the emperor and pope both townspeople and peasants now wanted to follow his example. i was asked what if god spoke german yes i tell you yes. yeah how else would you have understood your prayers he had a son so i could be the first one god has understood them and he is ons of them done own it adds yet. is that also true for the prayers of us has a nice bow on. the peasants expected luther to side with them. got hurt out he brought god also he is the peasants and he sees the injustice done to them. but fighting injustice with injustice is not god's
will it's the will of the devil not a step towards. luther distanced himself from the peasants when violence broke out in may fifteen twenty five they also targeted members of the high nobility. yet this is now it's your turn count i knew to meet your judgement hasn't so be it go. i. have blood shed triggered a radical change of heart and he said he now saw the devil at work and even appeal to the german princes to crush the peasants. let whoever can stab strangle and kill them like mad dogs. luther described the war against the peasants as a battle against the forces of evil. the
decisive battle took place near franklin hausen in fear in jail six thousand peasants lost their lives. was luther advocated the preservation of divinely appointed all storage to secure his reformation he sacrificed the peasants . to the end of a people's hero. the peasants and the reformer were not seeking the same types of freedom. he was a father that five see as a the core issue at the time was the term freedom the term had different meanings for different players to it at the luther. man first and foremost the freedom of a christian regarded as in the us
a law the passons it meant the freedom from jews and bond because it is for the princes it was the political freedom to rule their territories for fools and it was a similar story for the town magistrate's florian on the end he was a finished artist mother starter. one man's freedom was another man's loss catholic property was lost to the church wherever rulers adopted the new faith in outsell and saxony the monastery was disbanded the building turned into a quarry. it was a fake the oldest indian prior investment was spared. the electorate saxony gave the property to his famous object martin luther and his new family. i am i am in june fifteenth twenty five martin luther married the former nun catalina from
bora the reformer had called for the abolition of celibacy in his earliest writings . luther's married life was not untouched by political upheaval my debt is no latin and my bedroom no library just these last lines it's urgent people are waiting. at forty two the former monk became the master of his own household and a happy husband god gave me cater and i don't want to give her up not for france nor for venice. come alex come to me. is lent over have already been transferred by. endeavor to dr luther himself is supposed to have said twice a long time not. well then it must be right. catalina and martin luther founded an institution of us the clerical marriage had
a tremendous impact on the cultural history because it effectively ended religions demonization of sexuality for toys for sex were due to masters also made of flesh and blood wasn't mentioned off life not mass it was a bombshell oft do not just for luther it's contemporary because lawson i wanted nobody inside goodness and. as you know bomber. the reformation didn't just revolutionize family life with its emphasis on the sermon it also transformed religious services. the core message is depicted above the altar of the church in the back salvation cannot be earned through good works sacraments or indulgences was. salvation is attained only through the grace of
god. was there was no longer any into imagery between god and humankind neither a pope nor a church. luther had pave the way to a new world order. charles the fifth was determined to prevent its emergence after the edict of vons he'd left germany to wage war on numerous fronts. neglecting the struggle against the reformation. protestantism spread now charles decided to reassert his authority as the chief defender of catholic christendom he would restore the old order one amphora one empire one church. after the pope agreed to crown him emperor in belonging in february fifteenth
thirty channels travel to germany with his army of mercenaries there was a renewed showdown with luther's followers this time at the diet of spork. the chancellor of saxony christiane bear spoke for the protestants. my your majesty in this document we have laid down the basic doctrine of our faith. the lutherans wanted a settlement for church unity it would suffice if there was agreement on the teaching of the gospel and administration of the sacraments they sought to sever their faith from the papal hierarchy and rome. but the confession of our spoke that laid down the core lutheran doctrine was rejected by both the emperor and the papal envoy. the employer will startle you a new confession however he believes only the roman curia is qualified and intitled
to compose texts of this nature. that tax lacks any polemical antagonism with regard to the church in rome and indeed if any text ever had a shot at facilitating an agreement it was the outs book confession he tried to help to and the confession of tara. a lot of time has passed since warms the ideas are not confined to this book they are out there in the world. so. soon. xylem his majesty regrets not having eliminated the heretic and his ideas at ones involving. the lutheran powers knew that a confrontation with the emperor was just a matter of time. with these as this document peace is within reach everyone may keep their faith wherever they are and
without feeling constrained or threatened if. charles hope to turn back the clock he was ready for the battle against protestant princes towns and landholders if necessary he would settle the protestant challenge by force of arms. as i know my estate his majesty isn't afraid of war he gives you six months before his mercenaries enforce peace like defeat. in spoke charles reinstated the edict of warm condemning luther. once again the lutheran princes left the diet under protest and to the noun protestants was coined a label for their new political identity. by the mid sixteenth century only the big varian heartlands parts of bohemia and austria as well as the territories to the
west of the rhine remained roman catholic pope had lost all influence across the rest of the empire. luther and self but only been able to follow the events in out spoke from afar. does that is the day that he ended without the protestants the news for now spoke was bleak. yes it looks bad. a military showdown was looming luther's life's work was in danger he had only wanted to reform the church but a gun at the wrath of the highest authorities he'd wanted to liberate christians but it fosters strife. there i do knows what god wants and what plans he has for us germans.
martin luther sense that the conflict with the church of the emperor was coming to a head a peaceful solution is not in sight. this is the first map of protestant germany drawn up by the cartographer sebastian minster in the mid sixteenth century the borders between the principalities play as insignificant a role as the holy roman empire but this vision was threatened by the specter of empire about to strike back. fearing the worst austins rally together in the town of. eighteen princes and representatives from twenty eight towns in the empire joined forces in a new defensive alliance. they demanded the
right to choose their religion and their territories. the document drawing up the schmo cultic league in april fifteenth forty seven the alliance was put to the test channels as troops approach the river from the west closing in on the unsuspecting forces of the shall come that lead encamped on the east and back. the protestants led by john frederick of saxony trusted in god. by i have news from the scouts of the emperor has advanced as far as allows a state of its followers on here still have to cross the alps that buys us john that skipped on sight sight time enough to prepare the warm welcome the emperor deserves and found two of us. the protestant army felt safe on the other
side of the river which it deemed impossible for the emperor's artillery. but charles was determined to take the initiative on the cover a stick for his soldiers forded the elder cut down the guards and secured a floating bridge. if it succeeded the surprise attack would route the troops. the men under electron john frederick trusted in god. but the emperor's troops banked on the element of surprise. the for.
the stealthy attack caused panic among the forward scouts of the small county clean . up. here. dressed in splendid armor charles arrived wholly unexpected while most of his infantry had crossed the floating bridge the cavalry found a fort higher up stream. his defeat of the protestants at the battle of mubarak was decisive. the portrayed by titian commemorating his victory had charles reached his goal of returning germany to the empires fold. after his triumph on the battlefield the emperor went on to capture the town where everything and begun that in the. but the man he had declared an enemy of the state
was no longer alive. the great reformer had died at the age of sixty two one year before the battle of middleburg in february fifteenth forty six. looked as lunch was to go luther's long term impact on germany and the germans is to cultural and more specifically the linguistic achievement which through this translation of the bible has had repercussions far beyond the protestant territories does he also had a political event that he supported the development of territorial states of the modernity and in this respect you could say that luther at vons to federalize ation of jennifer his young daughter chance on getting. luther's vision of a new face surge division the church in germany fractured into the good. with the loss of church unity the old political order to was irretrievably lost.
yet the man who found refuge in casa left behind far more than a theological legacy. martin luther's appearance involves was a rallying cry not only for freedom of religion but also for freedom and secular offense in germany and elsewhere his translation of the bible laid the foundation for a nation bound together by a common language luther was a unifying and a divine or his legacy has shaped german history five centuries.
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