tv Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine Deutsche Welle November 11, 2018 10:30pm-11:00pm CET
africa on the moon. the stories of those people in a different shaping their nation. and their continent of africa on the move stories about motivational change makers taking their destinies into their own hands. t w multimedia series from africa. d.w. dot com africa. welcome to the science show on t.w. coming up this time on tomorrow today. definable at the center of our solar system the sun has many secrets but researchers are making fascinating discoveries the core rotates faster than the outside and some activity varies in
intensity while. there's even more news from space at greenbank observatory astronomers are listening in on faraway galaxies. the sun is nearly one hundred fifty million kilometers away from the earth it's night takes more than eight minutes to reach us but only a part of it gets through the atmosphere to the surface of our planet that's good because that's what's enabled life to develop here the he said the sun makes evaporate clouds form it rains plants grow thanks to the sunlight which triggers photosynthesis that produces much of the oxygen. and food for humans and other animals. and sunlight causes our bodies to form vitamin d. . the sun is the source of life a fiery ball with a fast spinning core. around four and
a half billion years ago our solar system developed out of a rotating cloud of gas and dust. a huge fireball appeared at the center of our star the sun. the planets of continue to rotate around it to this day but what about the sun itself does it stand still. galileo was the first to observe dark spots on the sun surface back of me early seventeenth century with the help of a so-called hellyer scope he was able to project the sun spots on the paper and mark that position. it was clear that the sun spots were moving indicating that the sun was rotating today such observations are made around the clock using data provided by satellites the sun rotates on its axis every twenty five days at its
equator at the poles one rotation takes thirty five days so the surface of this fiery mass is actually moving at different speeds. and what about the sun's. completely hidden from view as it also rotates. last year that question was finally answered definitively. an international team of scientists managed to measure with high precision the rate at which the sun's core rotates. and they discovered that it actually moves much faster than the surface. they found out that. the rotation of the core of the sun. is significantly faster. in the rest. why factor three to four.
how were the scientists able to look inside the sun to find out what was happening long is a helio seismologist he and his team at the max planck institute for solar system research study the oscillations on the surface of the sun these reveal a lot about the sun's structure and dynamics. sound waves are produced which typically oscillate for a period of about five minutes. if we could hear in space we would discover that the sun is in fact incredibly noisy. the sun makes sound in its inside. the convection near the surface excites. sound waves which you're looking at here is. presents the motion inside the sun that are associated with a particular mood. measuring the frequency of this mood will tell us about the
conditions in the sun within this region. until last year because helio seismic measurements only allowed scientists to evaluate movements in the answer most layers of the sun. but now by analyzing other waves they've been able to penetrate right to the center this was made possible thanks to data provided by the soho satellite which is part of a joint mission by nasa and the european space agency the satellite has spent the past sixteen years measuring the rhythmic oscillations but warped the shape of the sun. experts weren't surprised that the sun's core rotates faster than its surface as the core grew out of that original rotating gas cloud they actually thought it would spin even faster. the outer layers of the sun are believed to be slowed down. by the magnetic field. that
couple those two interstellar space. winds ok the question is how. as. do the outer layers. couple choosey inside of the sun to make it slow down and this coupling may also happens when you however the details. absolutely not understood. the astrophysicists want to learn more about the magnetic fields inside the sun including how they slow down the outer layers of these magnetic fields are also responsible for the dark spots the european space agency plans to launch it solo orbital mission in twenty twenty it's designed to find out more about the sun's in a workings but helio seismologists are looking forward to lots of exciting new data . when mass is the russians on the sun whole
ionized mass it's worth the effort the atmosphere at the poles about planet begins to blow an amazing natural spectacle. of aurora's are caused by magnetic disturbances due to the streams of charged particles from the sun the light show is beautiful and homeless but solar storms can pose a danger here on. a burning sea then mass since time immemorial the sun has been a source of fascination. at the max planck institute for solar system research in getting and scientists are studying coronal mass ejections or c m e's in particular they want to know why these solar eruptions occur with varying frequency overly eleven year cycle. we think they result from a dynamo inside the sun but we don't know exactly how it works. the sun is one
hundred fifty million kilometers away and it's incredibly hot the temperature in the core reaches fifteen million degrees celsius as hydrogen. nuclei combine to form helium this nuclear fusion has been the source of the sun's heat and light for more than four billion years. to us the sun looks like an evenly shaped ball but in fact it's a rotating and shapeshifting gashes mass that generates a chaotic magnetic field the individual magnetic field lines can be seen as loops towering up to eighty thousand kilometers above the surface. of the field lines guide the motion of plasma and hot gases. that's what the magnetic field is constantly changing and twisting that means the magnetic field lines can cross each other that can cause the entire thing to become unstable that you could make shit like elastic bands that are suddenly catapulted away if
you can then very. this powerful solar eruptions occur repeatedly propelling millions of tons of solar gas some plasma into space. that can send a storm of electromagnetic particles hurtling towards our planet. the earth's magnetic field protects us. but at the poles where the protective shield is weakest oxygen and nitrogen molecules are excited in the atmosphere and glow that's the aurora also known as the northern or southern lights the fascinating display is harmless but solar storms can destroy satellites and they pose a risk to astronauts on spacewalks a powerful solar storm can even knock out power supplies on parts of the earth. these are leaving our lives depend on electronics in many ways the electricity plays a game grow all over the us it's such
a poet shut down computers wipe out memory and so on. and i wouldn't want to be on an airplane. if the onboard computer system failed for example. to michelin's islands it was presumed. so what's needed is a more reliable early warning system the european space agency plans to send the satellite mission to the sun in twenty twenty. the data sent back by the solar orbiter will improve our understanding of solar eruptions the spacecraft protected by heat shield will measure the magnetic field deep below the sun's surface one imaging instrument it will carry was developed in getting him. even more than that in future we hope to be able to predict just like a weather forecast exactly when a solar eruption will occur. so perhaps one day solar activity will form a standard part of the weather report.
without the sun we have no green plants remember the synthesis it's arguably the most important chemical process for life on earth. by sunlight carbon dioxide and water are converted into oxygen and glucose in the plants sounds like hard work so do plants need to relax sometimes if you are from the us sent us a question about that. do trees sleep. we all know human beings need sleep our inner body clock regulates when we feel tired following the earth's cycle of day and night. animals also have body clocks that set the read them for waking and sleeping. many flowers close their petals and hang their heads at certain times of day their resting periods
also follow the rhythm of day and night. but what about trees. well it was only a few years ago that scientists were finally able to answer that question with the help of laser scanners. from dusk till dawn they scanned trees with infrared light . in each case they found that the whole tree droops that night. the clones millions of laser scanning points revealed that the position of the leaves and branches changed as the night progressed they moved lower by as much as ten centimeters. in the morning they gradually returned to their original position. but whether the trees like the animals around them are awakened by and enter a body clock is still not clear. but what is clear is that trees
do indeed appear to rest at certain times of the day. if outline is read why ave latin and. do you have a science question that you've always wanted on say it when happy to help out send it to us as a video text over a smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise at the thank you can i just ask. you'll find as i did have a dot com stash son. all drop us a line at t.w. underscores site tech on facebook d.w. dot science. green leaves don't only produce oxygen they also provide us with food to eat and we're not the only ones feeding off the insects tromp on them too. but to the plants below that it's scientists have bred an ingenious plan to help answer that question. how does
a plant react when it gets bitten by a hungry caterpillar. chance have a kind of signaling system researchers have found that when an leaf is damaged it can warn distantly leaves. how does that work. when the leaf is wound it it releases an amino acid which triggers and into cellular cascade of calcium ions when calcium levels spike a special molecular sensor glows revealing how the plant activates a defense mechanism into instantly moves. now back to outer space our milky way is just one of countless galaxies. the chance of there being life and at least one of them is pretty good. how can we
know if we're not alone in the universe. new technology allows us to listen for radio signals from peeps. but we have to keep noise on earth from interfering. the journey from washington d.c. takes four hours we're heading to a place in pocahontas county in west virginia called greenback it's located within the national radio quiet zone cell service m firebag y. and here when the radio breaks up we know we've arrived in the only inhabited region in the world where radio transmissions are restricted by law. and that's why what looks like a u.f.o. perched in the hills it's in fact the green bank telescope the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope it's news to study far flung galaxies and fundamental questions of physics. portable electronic devices are banned and
close to the telescope even gasoline engines are prohibited because of their spark plugs. nothing is allowed to interfere with the study of the universe. well it has to do with the incredible sensitivity of the telescope that's behind us . a cell phone like your single cell phone if it were on standby placed on the planet mars it would be the brightest radio object to us in the sky it would completely overwhelm what the astronomers trying to do. the radio astronomers at the greenbank observatory listen in on the remote whispers of the universe in order to discover answers to profound cosmological questions astonishingly what they're recording now actually took place billions of years ago. so the telescope is to some extent a time machine we can see what happened at that period in the development. and as
we move forward we take snapshots along to a timeline to determine how a star. is born how it lives our guys. in the control room the electronics are shielded by copper walls to prevent electromagnetic radiation from causing interference to. the steps microwave oven is kept inside an aluminum cabinet. that's hella scopus steered from here it can rotate three hundred sixty degrees and see eighty five percent of the heavens it also keeps an ear out for possible signs of extraterrestrial life we don't know necessarily if we're talking about a carbon based life form like we're used to could be a silicon based life form that still has some means of communication all we can do is use the technology that we have on hand. and try to guess
what their communication would look like so that we could intercept and decode. that. jonah bazerman belongs to the radio frequency interference police in green bank says he patrols the area on the lookout for band cellphones microwave ovens and wireless devices so this is actually some audio coming from the main problems used to be radios and t.v. remote controls but nowadays jonah has a lot more to contend with the technology advances him better job security in a lot of ways i mean it's technology is just exploding quality technology. yeah it's a very busy. anyone who breaches the quiet zone rules faces
a fifty dollar fine. despite their proximity to the ultra high tech observatory the one hundred fifty residents of green bank lead lives that seem stuck in a time warp. the connectivity ban even extends to the local high school. the students agree that has its disadvantages but it definitely has plus points to say that i think our social skills maybe have risen because of it i feel like i'm more comfortable just sitting down have. conversation rather than texting to be more connected to the people around me and to. to be more involved in the community and not constantly devise. their building teams they are building these connections with other individuals that i think strengthens their ability to relate to others. for some people green bank is
a veritable refuge a place where they can enjoy a digital detox diane shoes says that back home in iowa electromagnetic fields were making her sick she had permanent headaches and rashes her husband built her a farraday cage an enclosure to block electromagnetic fields but still she fled here to escape the waves by being without exposure is has healed me or has me better so i can be function and more as a normal person and i can do some things instead of living in the farraday cage and also helps other so-called electra sensitives she has a little cabin on her property and that's where carmen sharers living for now she moved here from virginia beach where she says she also suffers from electromagnetic hyper sensitivity and used to wear a warning sign around her neck when ever she went out. you know when that people don't carry cell phones and i can approach them and i live in isolation what i'm
leavin and reading out of each and i am not sick over here i am a healthy person and i am full of light. so it all goes to prove you can be happy without a smartphone or internet. and the people of green grind also find it pretty cool to be living in a place that some touch with the cosmos. the greenbank observatory has picked up mysterious radio pulses from a source that's been denoted f.o.p. twelve eleven o two. it's about three billion light years from the astronomers use artificial intelligence to signal which they hope are coming from an alien civilization. talking about messages from space picked up by the greenbank of symmetry check the stars. looks like
a skull doesn't it. it's the asteroid twenty fifteen t v one forty five which is just passed by at a distance of around fourteen million kilometers. the asteroid measured six hundred meters across. the ice a one hundred metre wide craters. its next fly by will be in twenty twenty one but not as close so give it away before it's gone. the solar wind that streams plasma from the sun is responsible for polar lights here on. the flashes and this also generated by plasma plasma is often called the fourth state of matter it makes up much of the material in star. like things storms generate cast. the atmosphere causing it to glow now plasma spawning an application much closer to home.
the plasma lamp was invented more than a hundred years ago in the one nine hundred eighty s. it was a popular novelty item. today yon venter and. i working on a novel application of plasma or ionized gas as a gentle disinfectant the physicists produce a plasma and use it to generate active substances in water. the i think got switched in the fundamental states of matter are solids and liquids and gases and then when we put more energy into a gas we create a plasma plasma has special characteristics that we can exploit like. we can use it to split at particles and put them back together again and in such a way that we can get these particles into the liquid for bucky the liquid then becomes anti-bacterial but only for two minutes so the plasma and water have to be
brought together right before use it's a strong disinfectant that can even kill spore forming bacteria that no other approved ten disinfected can touch these bacterial spores can be extremely dangerous they kill many people every year. are active substances the first want to act against certain spores in particular against clostridium spores and not only is it highly effective the product we end up with is water based. so it doesn't draw your hands out in the same way that alcohol based products do it's also very environmentally friendly pointlessness. in fact after the two minutes are out the water is so clean you could drink it. the two physicists have tested their product at the university of a stock and proved how effective it is they've applied for a patent so now they want to set up a company and launch their product onto the market. they already know what they
want to dispenser for the disinfectant to look like. they want to create it themselves using the plasma institute's three d. printer. it needs to be practical and versatile and that's your. first target clients will be hospitals nursing homes and doctor's offices these places use more than twenty million liters of disinfectant a year we want to start with this market we hope that we'll be able to help a lot of patients. in moscow before both agree. the researchers say it will likely be another five years before their plasma disinfection device is ready but it's already won them and innovation award. that soulful now next time will be lifting off with a storm. some of them are base of flying is from other.
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is deja vu news live from berlin wall came one hundred years since the end of world war one. of the more than sixteen vulgate is attend the ceremony in paris a century off the guns fall silent in the great hall of the bloody conflicts that came to millions of lives. hundreds of thousands take to the streets off walsall to mock one hundred years of polish independence but many members off now.