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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  November 15, 2018 8:30am-9:00am CET

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in the battle for freedom dignity. against repression and violence they took more of the powers of social media. the messages are spreading like wildfire and thousands of followers are joining the. on. the streets of. the world changing the. digital. start up twenty. dollars. welcome to the science show on d w coming up this time on tomorrow today. definable at the center of our solar system the sun has many secrets but researchers are making fascinating discoveries the core rotates faster than the outside and so that activity varies in intensity while. this is
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even more news from space at the greenbank observatory astronomers are listening in on faraway galaxies. the sun is nearly one hundred fifty million kilometers away from the earth its night takes more than eight minutes to reach us but only a part of it gets through the atmosphere to the surface of our planet that's good because that's what's enabled life to develop here that he said the sun makes most evaporate clouds form it rains plants grow thanks to the sunlight which triggers photosynthesis that produces much of the oxygen we believe and food for humans and other animals. and sunlight causes our bodies to form vitamin d. . the sun is the source of life a fiery ball with a fuss. spinning cool. around four and
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a half billion years ago our solar system developed out of a rotating cloud of gas and dust. a huge fireball appeared at the center of our star the sun. the planets of continue to rotate around it to this day but what about the sun itself does it stand still. galileo was the first to observe dark spots on the sun surface back to me early seventeenth century with the help of a so-called heavier scope he was able to project the sun spots on the paper and mark that position. it was clear that the sunspots were moving indicating that the sun was rotating today such observations are made around the clock using data provided by satellites the sun rotates on its axis every twenty five days at its
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equator at the poles one rotation takes thirty five days so the surface of this fiery mass is actually moving at different speeds. and what about the sun's in a. completely hidden from view does it also rotate. last year that question was finally answered definitively. an international team of scientists managed to measure with high precision the rate at which the sun's core red tape. and they discovered that it actually moves much faster than the surface. they found out that. the rotation of the core of the sun. is significantly faster than in the rest of the radiator. by a factor of three to four. how were the scientists able to look inside the sun to find
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out what was happening. long is a helio seismologist dynamics. sound waves are produced which typically oscillate for a period of about five minutes. if we could hear in space we would discover that the sun is in fact incredibly noisy. the sun makes sound in its inside. the connection near the surface excites. sound waves which you're looking at here. is. presents the motion inside the sun associated with a particular mood. measuring the frequency of this mood will tell us about the conditions in the sun within this region. until last year because helio seismic measurements only allowed scientists to evaluate movements in the answer
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most layers of the sun. but now by analyzing other waves they've been able to penetrate right to the center this was made possible thanks to data provided by the soho satellite which is part of a joint mission by nasa and the european space agency the satellite has spent the past sixteen years measuring the rhythmic oscillations that walk the shape of the sun. experts weren't surprised that the sun's core rotates faster than its surface as the core grew out of that original rotating gas cloud they actually thought it would spin even faster. outer layers of the sun are believed to be slowed down. by the magnetic field. that couple those two interstellar space. winds. the question is how. those. do the outer layers. couple
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choosey inside of the sun to make it slow down and this coupling may also happens when you however the details. absolutely not understood. the astrophysicists want to learn more about the magnetic fields inside the sun including how they slow down the outer layers these magnetic fields are also responsible for the dark spots but galileo first noted that it's these fields that produce the eruptive solar winds that could pose a threat to us here on earth. the european space agency plans to launch it solo orbiter mission in twenty twenty it's designed to find out more about the suns in a workings but helio seismologists are looking forward to lots of exciting new data . when most of the russians on the sun whole
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ionized matter it's worth yet the atmosphere at the polls about planet begins to be . an amazing natural spectacle. the rumors are caused by magnetic disturbances due to the streams of charged particles from the sun the light show is beautiful and harmless but solar storms can pose a danger here and. a burning see the masts since time immemorial the sun has been a source of fascination. at the max planck institute for solar system research in getting and scientists are studying coronal mass ejections or c m e's in particular they want to know why these solar eruptions occur with varying frequency over an eleven year cycle. we think they result from a dynamo inside the sun but we don't know exactly how it works. the sun is one
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hundred fifty million kilometers away and it's incredibly hot as the temperature in the core reaches fifteen million degrees celsius as hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium this nuclear fusion has been the source of the sun's heat and light for more than four billion years. to earth's the sun looks like an evenly shaped ball that in fact it's a rotating and shapeshifting gashes mass that generates a chaotic magnetic field the individual magnetic field lines can be seen as loops towering up to eighty thousand kilometers above the surface. of the field lines guide the motion of plasma and hot gases. that's money for the magnetic field is constantly changing and twisting that means the magnetic field lines can cross each other that can cause the entire finke to become unstable you could make shit like elastic bands but a sudden they catapulted away. these powerful solar eruptions
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occur repeatedly propelling millions of tons of solar gas and plasma into space. that can send a storm of electromagnetic particles hurtling towards our planet. the earth's magnetic field protects us. but at the poles where the protective shield is weakest oxygen and nitrogen molecules are excited in the atmosphere and glow that's the aurora also known as the northern or southern lights the fascinating display is harmless but solar storms can destroy satellites and they pose a risk to astronauts on space walks a powerful solar storm can even knock out power supplies on parts of the earth. leaving our lives depend on electronics in many ways the electricity plays a game. all over the of this it's such
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a poet college coach shut down computers wipe out memory and so on and so forth and i wouldn't want to be on an airplane if the onboard computer system failed for examples especially if timid incitements it was possible. so what's needed is a more reliable early warning system the european space agency plans to send the satellite mission to the sun in two thousand and twenty. the data sent back by the solar orbiter will improve our understanding of solar eruptions the spacecraft protected by a heat shield will measure the magnetic field deep below the sun's surface one imaging instrument it will carry was developed in getting an. even one in that in future we hope to be able to predict just like a weather forecast exactly when a solar eruption will occur. so perhaps one day solar activity will form a standard part of the weather report.
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without the sun we have no green plants remember it's a synthesis it's arguably the most important chemical process for life on earth. by sunlight carbon dioxide and water are converted into oxygen and glucose in the plants sounds like hard work so do plants need to relax sometimes if you are from the us sent us a question about that. do trees sleep. we all know human beings need sleep our inner body clock regulates when we feel tired following the earth's cycle of day and night. animals also have body clocks that set the read them for waking and sleeping. many flowers close their petals and hang their heads at certain times of day their resting periods also follow the rhythm of day and night. but what about
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trees. well it was only a few years ago that scientists were finally able to answer that question with the help of laser scanners. from dusk till dawn they scanned trees with infrared light . in each case they found that the whole tree droops that night. the clones of millions of laser scanning points revealed that the position of the leaves and branches changed as the night progressed they moved lower by as much as ten centimeters. in the morning they gradually returned to their original position. but whether the trees like the animals around them are awakened by and enter a body clock is still not clear. but what is clear is that trees
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do indeed appear to rest at certain times of the day. if outlet is read why ave latin. do you have a science question that you've always wanted allan say it when happy to help out send it to us as a video text over a spell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you can i just ask. you the finest at d w dot com slash son. all drop us a line at d w underscore site tech on facebook d.w. dot science. green leaves don't only produce oxygen they also provide us with food to eat and we're not the only ones feeding off them insects chomp on them too. but to the fancy feel that. scientists have bred an ingenious plan to help answer that question. how does
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a plant react when it gets bitten by a hungry caterpillar. plants have a kind of signaling system researchers have found that when the leaf is damaged it can warn distant leaves. how does that work. when the leaf is wounded it releases an amino acid which triggers an intercellular cascade of calcium i on this when calcium levels spike a special molecular sensor close revealing how the plant activates a defense mechanism in distant leaves. now back to outer space our milky way is just one of countless galaxies. the chance of there being life and at least one of them is pretty good. how can we
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know if we're not alone in the universe. new technology allows us to listen for radio signals from deep space but we have to keep noise on earth from interfering. with. the journey from washington d.c. takes four hours we're heading to a place in pocahontas county in west virginia called green bank it's located within the national radio quiet zone cell service from wildfire. and here when the radio breaks up we know we've arrived in the only inhabited region in the world where radio transmissions are restricted by law. and that's why what looks like a u.f.o. perched in the hills is in fact the green bank telescope the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope it's news to study far flung galaxies and fundamental questions of physics. portable electronic devices are banned and close to the
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telescope even gasoline engines are prohibited because of their spark plugs. nothing is allowed to interfere with the study of the universe. well it has to do with the incredible sensitivity of the telescope that's behind us. like you are single cell phone if it were on standby placed on the planet mars it would be the brightest radio object to us in the sky it would completely overwhelm what the astronomers trying to do. the radio astronomers at the greenbank observatory listen in on the remote whispers of the universe in order to discover answers to profound cosmological questions astonishingly what they're recording now actually took place billions of years ago. so that telescope is to some extent a time machine we can see what happened at that period in the development of the
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universe and as we move forward we take snapshots along the toddler to determine how a star. is born of how it lives our guys. in the control room the electronics are shielded by copper walls to prevent electromagnetic radiation from causing interference on. the steps microwave oven is kept inside an aluminum cabinet. that's hella scopus steered from here it can rotate three hundred sixty degrees and see eighty five percent of the heavens it also keeps an ear out for possible signs of extraterrestrial life we don't know necessarily if we're talking about a carbon based life form like we're used to could be a silicon based life form that still has some means of communication all we can do is use the technology that we have on hand. and try to guess
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what their communication would look like so that we could intercept and decode. that. jonah bazerman belongs to the radio frequency interference police in green bank says he patrols the area on the lookout for banned cell phones microwave ovens and wireless devices so this is actually some audio coming from the main problems used to be radios and t.v. remote controls but nowadays john has a lot more to contend with. the technology advances have better job security in a lot of ways i mean is this technology that is exploding quality technology. yeah i think it's a very busy. anyone who breaches the quiet zone rules faces
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a fifty dollar fine and. despite their proximity to the ultra high tech observatory the one hundred fifty residents of green bank lead lives that seem stuck in a time warp. the connectivity ban even extends to the local high school. the students agree that has its disadvantages but it definitely has plus points to something that i so our social skills maybe have risen because of it i feel like i'm more comfortable. sitting down having a conversation rather than taxing to be more connected to the people around me and to. to be more involved in the community and not constantly through device. they are building teams they are building these connections with other individuals that i think strengthens their ability to relate to others. for some people green bank is a veritable refuge a place where they can enjoy
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a digital detox time and shoes says that back home in iowa electromagnetic fields were making her sick she had permanent headaches and rashes her husband built her a farraday cage an enclosure to block electromagnetic fields but still she fled here to escape the waves by being without exposure is has healed me or has me better so i can be function and more as a normal person and i can do some things instead of living in the ferrety cage and also helps other so-called electra sensitives she has a little cabin on her property and that's where carmen sharers living for now she moved here from virginia beach where she says she also suffers from electromagnetic hyper sensitivity and used to wear a warning sign around her neck when ever she went out. you know when that people don't carry cell phones and i can approach them and i live in isolation when i'm
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leavin. and i am not sick already here i am a healthy person and i am full of life. so it all goes to prove that you can be happy without a smartphone or internet. and the people of greenbank also find it pretty cool to be living in a place that some touch with the cosmos. the greenback observatory has picked up mysterious radio pulses from a source that's been denoted for b twelve eleven zero two. it's about three billion light years from the astronomers use artificial intelligence to signal which they hope are coming from an alien civilization. talking about messages from space picked up by the greenback of symmetry check the stars. looks like
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a skull doesn't it. it's the asteroid twenty fifteen t v one forty five which is just passed by at a distance of around forty million kilometers. the asteroid measured six hundred mi says across. the ice a one hundred metre wide crater is. its next fly by will be in twenty twenty one but not as close so give it away before it's gone. the solar wind that streams plasma from the sun is responsible for polar lights here on earth. the flashes in this lump are also generated by plasma. lessness often called the fourth states of matter it makes up much of the material in stars . like things storms generate plus. the atmosphere causing it to glow now plasma spawning an application much closer to home.
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the plasma lamp was invented more than a hundred years ago in the one nine hundred eighty s. it was a popular novelty item. today yon venter and. i working on a novel application of plasma or ionized gas as a gentle disinfectant. the physicists produce a plasma and use it to generate active substances in water. the i think got certain of the fundamental states of matter all solids and liquids and gases and then when we put more energy into a gas we create a plasma plasma has special characteristics that we can exploit like. we can use it to split the air particles and put them back together again and in such a way that we can get these particles into the liquid from. the liquid then becomes anti-bacterial but only for two minutes so the possum and water have to be brought
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together right before yes it's a strong disinfectant that can even kill spore forming bacteria that no other approved ten disinfected can touch these bacterial spores can be extremely dangerous they kill many people every year. are active substances the first want to act against certain spores in particular against clostridium spores and not only is it highly effective the product we end up with is water based. so it doesn't draw your hands out in the same way that alcohol based products do it's also very environmentally friendly pointlessness. in fact after the two minutes are up the water is so clean you could drink it. the two physicists have tested their product at the university of stock and proved how effective it is they've applied for. patent so now they want to set up a company and launch their product onto the market. they already know what they
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want to dispenser for the disinfectant to look like. they want to create it themselves using the plasma institute's three d. printer. it needs to be practical and versatile when that isn't our first target clients will be hospitals nursing homes and doctor's offices these places use more than twenty million liters of disinfectant a year we want to start with this market we hope that we'll be able to help a lot of patients and before us agree it's the researchers say it will likely be another five years before their plasma disinfection device is ready but it's already won them and innovation award. that's all for now next time we'll be lifting off with still. some of them a base of flying and other. scientists have found that stalks flying skills
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determine how well the crew coordinates its migration patterns. and which books will make the longest journey. join us for that next week on tomorrow today see you soon top i. move. on. i'm going to.
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enter the conflict zone confronting the powerful. serbia is pushing ahead with clues join the european union with the brussels who so far from impressed with its reforms far just this week resisting the serbian foreign minister. i'm out for that beach. why so little progress on so many key issues. conflicts up. in thirty minutes to double.
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story so that people will know for information they provide the opinions they want to express d.w. on facebook and twitter up to date and in touch follow us. when the mountains call follow their voice. visit the place which is covered with snow for half the year. the place where ancient and modern meet. where beauty is natural and nature creates beauty. go there and hear the
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words of the mountains each small step. respect the threshold. to a giant leap. and go to a place where the borders are covered with snow. feel a moment of happiness. a moment which lasts for ever. allow yourself to be welcomed and cumbered by the best toasts. remember that memories. full of smiles never in. those other mountains of georgia that's good it see.
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this is state of the news coming to you live from berlin the european union lays out the next steps in britain's withdrawal as gregg's it gets real chief negotiator michele bunny a hands over the draft deal to the council president altos he says european leaders will meet in ten days time to sign off on britain's divorce also coming up mexico lends my go.


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