tv Doc Film - Apocalypse - Never- Ending War 1918 - 1929 Part 2 Deutsche Welle November 21, 2018 6:15am-7:01am CET
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for four years from nine hundred fourteen thousand nine hundred eighteen europe seemed on course to destroy itself. the force nine hundred fourteen germany invaded belgium. most of the world's major powers will soon drawn into the conflict. following the end of world war one europe began the long slow process of
reconstruction. parts of belgium and northern france were devastated. austrian writer i said that the war had affected him deeply. all the pale horses of the apocalypse that stormed into my life revolution and famine terror epidemics and the nationalism that has poisoned the flowering of our european culture. an estimated forty million people were killed in the wall. and villages were destroyed some farm fields were polluted by poison gas. large amounts of unexploded ordnance posed a real threat to life and limb. these materials including artillery shells had to be removed by hand.
these farmers are clearing away munitions in the peak of the region of france. people simply tried to make the best of a bad situation. the . french authorities ordered captured german soldiers to clear minefields a clear violation of the hague conventions that outlined the basic rights of prisoners. during the war france captured more than
three hundred thousand german troops. then which cult was sent to a prisoner of war camp at sweet near there done. they seem to consider me a criminal. but it's clear enough that the french hate us and they want us to pay. many of the prisoners were suffering from hunger and disease. all of them just wanted to return home. life was also difficult for many french civilians for example post-war inflation drove up the prices of basic foods. volunteers arrived from america to help in the reconstruction effort. philanthropist and morgan and dr anne marie dyke set up
a civilian relief organization called the american committee for devastated france . about three hundred fifty american women signed up to serve with the organization morgan wrote to her mother that she enjoyed her work. ethic. the people here need us they've suffered under german occupation they don't have much food and they sleep on bare floors but now they're doing better. that. there were now an estimated six million war orphans in europe.
these polish children eventually found new homes with families in the united states . in france the authorities made all things like these and more mountain wards of the state and looked after them until they became adults. and. there were millions of orphans or abandoned children in russia this led to an increase in juvenile delinquency across the country. street children who didn't have enough to eat often stole food the bolshevik government set up a number of orphanages but not nearly enough to deal effectively with the problem. rich in the center large numbers of walthamstow to live with families in rural
canada some of the children were put to work on farms. a canadian m.p. j.s. woodworth sharply criticized this policy were using children as cheap labor. was many found a better life in canada other they had known in the slums of britain. was was that. many british women emigrated to commonwealth countries including australia the media claimed there was a shortage of men since seven hundred thousand british troops had been killed in the war lag was. throughout europe relatives mourn the loss of family members in the conflict. list
you anian poet author milosz described the emotions these people experienced as they filed past rooms of crosses. over dead. but the dead are not as dead as i am. many families wanted to remove the bodies of their loved ones from mass graves so that they could be given a proper burial. the remains were often excused by military personnel. the bodies of an estimated two hundred thirty thousand victims were recovered in this way and returned to their relatives. nearly one point eight million soldiers are buried in france alone seven hundred thousand french seven hundred fifty
thousand germans three hundred thousand british including sixty thousand canadians i'm certain four thousand americans many desperate relatives turn to the occult. to try to find missing soldiers. spiritism have become increasingly popular in the previous few decades. older ni was a prominent french spiritist philosopher. countless souls float above us eager to communicate. those who died in the war want to show themselves to their relatives. many critics dismissed spiritism as a fraud were. monuments to soldiers who died in the
wall were erected in many cities there are an estimated one hundred seventy six thousand world war one memorials in france and. they include a park in dedicated to soldiers of canada's royal newfoundland regiment. this bronze statue represent the original symbol account of who. the unit suffered heavy casualties in the battle of the song. around the world sculptors worked day and night to keep up with the demand for war memorials. was. on november the eleventh it's nineteen twenty king george the fifth unveiled a war memorial in central london it's news the senate charts which means empty to
integrate. this cough and containing the remains of an unknown soldier who was then buried at nearby. westminster abbey the senator has since become the focus of british remembrance and commemoration ceremonies. efforts to create a similar memorial in france had been underway for several years a friendship piece said it was the right thing to do. take your rightful place so that we cannot say that the land you have saved has forgotten its greatest heroes so that weeping mothers who have no place to mourn may near let your grave and say. my son you are here.
france's unknown soldier is buried at the octave triomphe in paris the grave is march with an eternal flame. a similar memorial was unveiled in belgium in one nine hundred twenty two. king i'll bet you took part in the ceremonies. america's unknown soldier was laid to rest at arlington national cemetery near washington national family know for sure the supreme allied commander during the war attended the ceremony. a crow indian chief called plenty coups also took part several decades before he had joined forces with the u.s. army to defend his tribe against enemies including the sioux. plenty coups paid
tribute to the unknown soldier by placing his war bonnet on the ceremonial stuff on the great. vosh told general pershing that he wanted to visit the western u.s. . i want to see the indian tribes. in late november one thousand nine hundred twenty one plus travel to north dakota where he met the suci fred tomahawk him at a ceremony the chief presented social the peace pipe which the two men then smoothed the chief gave for sassoon name which translates as charging son. i. on november the nineteenth one thousand nine hundred nineteen the american president woodrow wilson now partially paralyzed by a stroke was handed a serious defeat by the us senate which refused to ratify that aside peace treaty
those who voted against the treaty believed it would limit the senate's ability to declare war at the same time many americans simply wanted to get on with their lives and to stay out of future european conflicts. was i many young women rejected social norms and sought greater independence they were known as flappers. zelda fitzgerald the wife of author f. scott fitzgerald wrote about them. they walk from their letter g bob their hair put on their best earrings and with a great deal of audacity and rouge went into the battle. a flapper flirted because it was fun and were a one piece bathing suit because she had a good figure she refused to be bored because she was not boring. and she knew that she was doing things that she had always wanted to do. i i
i . the senate by failing to ratify the versailles treaty shattered wilson's dream of u.s. participation in the league of nations i. held its first session in paris in january nine hundred twenty and later that year moved its headquarters to geneva. the organizations main goal was to preserve world peace but could it do so if the united states was not a member. of several posts that side agreements change the map of europe and the middle east. a nine hundred nineteen treaty formally dissolved the australian garion empire and created an independent state of austria on one nine hundred twenty treaty set up
the independent state of hungary to new states appeared on the map to slovakia and a nation that would later be known as yugoslavia. the new boarders paid little attention to ethnic distribution germans were now living in poland and czechoslovakia and garion as in romania and sabs croats and slovenes in yugoslavia these ethnic groups have lived together more or less peacefully in the australian garion empire. the ottoman empire had been home to a diverse mix of ethnic and religious groups including out of. the treaty of sever signed in one nine hundred twenty outlines the breakup of the empire and the creation of a new state that would mainly include as nick turse. former ottoman territory in the middle east would be divided between france and britain
france was given a league of nations mandate to govern lebanon and syria. a similar mandate for palestine trans-jordan and iraq was awarded to brazil. there were huge reserves of petroleum in iraq and they would now be controlled mostly by britain. the treaty also provided far enough thomas kurdish region in the new turkish state. jewish communities had existed in palestine for centuries. beginning in one nine hundred twenty large numbers of jews most of them from europe began immigrating to the region. zionist organizations demanded that a national home for jewish people should be created in palestine. during the war britain had said that any new jewish state should not disrupt
existing arab communities britain made these and other promises to win arab support against the ottomans. the british officer t.e. lawrence better known as lawrence of arabia served as a liaison between the british and arab forces. in november nine hundred twenty one the jewish agency for palestine was created to oversee jewish interests in the region. zionist leader and future israeli president hi invites man noted at the time palestine will be as jewish as an england is english and america is america. the seeds of the conflicts between palestinian jews and arabs had been sown. in one thousand nine hundred twenty tensions were running high in constantinople now known as istanbul. immediately after the armistice allied troops occupied the
city by this time a nationalist movement was already taking shape. the end. the movement was led by general mostafa actually miles who had led off from an forces to victory in the campaign. the nationalists were opposed to the partition of the country as outlined in the treaty of said. if we accept the allies demands there will be no end to their greed. in my organized a new army its primary goal was to drive out greek troops that had occupied the coastal city of smyrna in may nineteen nineteen and then taken over much of western turkey. to mass forces launched a counterattack in all this nine hundred twenty two. they pushed greek troops all the way back to the aegean coast. on
september the ninth one thousand nine hundred twenty two commands troops reoccupied the city of smyrna. four days later a fire broke out in the city's armenian district and spread quickly at least ten thousand people are said to have died. evidence indicates that the blaze was started by turkish troops came out later denied any responsibility. tens of thousands of ethnic armenians and greeks fled to the docks to escape the flames at least one hundred fifty thousand were evacuated by british and american ships. meanwhile officials at the league of nations were actively working to repatriate prisoners of war and to improve living conditions for war refugees. one of these diplomats was
norwegian explora humanitarian and future nobel laureate feature of nansen in one thousand nine hundred twenty one now. anderson was appointed the league's high commissioner for refugees. in one thousand twenty two he began issuing refugee travel documents that came to be known as nansen passports. an estimated four hundred fifty thousand of these documents were issued to people who could not obtain passports from their governments the recipients included russian french artist mark shot guy and russian composer sergey rachmaninoff and igor stravinsky. many of the refugees wanted to emigrate to the us and made their way to the french quarter shelf or to book passage on ships. many of them were housed at the newly constructed or tele. the facility could accommodate and
process two thousand refugees at a time they were given a thorough medical examination and disinfected if necessary the refugees were housed in a hotel dormitories until they were cleared to leave. at this time the united states still welcomed immigrants all the restrictions would be imposed in one nine hundred twenty four. the statue of liberty served as a beacon for many of them a poem written by emma lazarus is inscribed on a plaque inside the statues pedestal. give me your tired your poor your huddled masses yearning to breathe free the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. in montreal a rally was organized to call attention to the plight of ukrainian jews famine and anti-semitic attacks were widespread in ukraine. an estimated one hundred thousand jews were killed in ukraine during the russian civil
war mostly by anti communist forces the war would continue until nine hundred twenty three. the bolshevik red army defeated a coalition of opposition forces known as the white army soviet rule was now imposed across the country. the union of soviet socialist republics was officially declared on december the twenty second nineteen twenty two the new states now covered nearly one sixth of the us land surface. there was a major famine from one nine hundred twenty one to twenty two one major cause the authorities seized commodities from peasants to feed the cities and the military. an estimated five million people died in the famine. food supplies donated by your tip of the united states soon started arriving.
will shout for also an american relief worker describes a situation in one region. people hit we smack stuart ground balls tree bark and clay they also eat meat from horses dogs cats and rats and they eat straw. there are macey and dozens die every day. the stench is appalling. by the end of the civil war an estimated one point five million russians had left the country. many of them settled in france often in paris only just.
wealthy emigres continued to lead lives of luxury. among them was prince felix you support who had coordinated the murder of russ putin in nine hundred sixteen. how can you not feel comfortable in paris the city brightens the mind. that. you support was a close friend of grand duke dimitri a first cousin of nicholas the second dimitri had a brief relationship with fashion designer coco chanel and. there are conflicting reports on how chanel came up with the idea for the distinctive bottle for her number five some say she got the concept from dimitri. in the bottles design has remained essentially the same to this day.
russian emigres idolized son nicholas who was murdered by the boesch of aix in one nine hundred eighteen you suppose that the russian community in paris was thriving there are russian shops and restaurants we have all four docks trudges training schools and retirement homes paris is a natural destination for immigrants. life in paris was harder for those who had served in the sars army and didn't have a lot of money. many of them ended up driving taxi cabs for a living. the last of these drivers retired in one nine hundred seventy at the age of ninety two. the emigres welcome sound about the spread of soviet influence throughout the world. the economic and social dislocation was
caused by world war one prompted many people to join communist parties they believed communism would bring about equality for all. support for the communists grew in london berlin new york. and drove. one of the founders of the italian communist party until new gramsci travel to moscow in one nine hundred twenty one to study the soviet system. one lives for the party. in italy many anti communist veterans joined a movement led by war hero gabriela done once you. show opposed the treaty of that side because it ordered italy to hand over territory to the new yugoslav state including domination and the city of fuming now called being cut.
our victory has been ruined. by doug burns who sought to make italy a first rate european power. to believe your time has come under four years lie ahead i hear the thunder of eagles tearing through the night. in september one thousand nine hundred nineteen john shows troops occupied few men . i think italian government kept trying to drive out of the city and he finally left in december nineteenth twenty. five. rather she wrote that europe was in a state of transition. the old world is dying and the new world has not been born in times like these gruesome phenomena appear.
close phenomena included benito mussolini his wife noted that mussolini had a certain natural magnetism. his eyes const a spell over you his gaze was wanting his pupils flashed in knew that his eyes exerted power on others. in the years before the war mostly he had been a socialist and worked as a journalist in one thousand nine hundred fourteen he became a fervent nationalist. in midland in one thousand nine hundred he founded a fascist combat squad which consisted of about two hundred men. mostly copied much from cavalierly don't steal. his supporters wore black shirts. he was the ancient roman salute. carried daggers and popularized the slogan annoyed
with us. by nine hundred twenty two mostly nice organization had grown to include three hundred thousand men. his populist slogans helped him to bring together veterans disabled veterans the unemployed and members of the lower and middle classes alike. muzzling his black shirts often engaged leftists in street battles their slogan was mean if legal i didn't care. was a lady promised to restore law and order he enforced his policies by arming his supporters with clubs.
mussolini also promised to put a stop to labor strikes. that helped win the support of industrialists including giovanni onion leaks founder of the fi out automobile company. the political situation in italy was changing quickly. on october the twenty eight nineteen twenty two about thirty thousand fascist militiamen gathered in rome to demand the resignation of the prime minister speaking known as the so-called march on rome i. mostly nereid the next day from his headquarters in milan i i at that i he wore a suit and tie instead of his usual fascist uniform. on
october the twenty ninth king victory manual appointed mussolini prime minister. as the head of government mussolini chose a policy of cooperation with the catholic church and pursued his aim of transforming italy into a chair tallaght arion stage. in germany militarist and nationalist factions united around general eerie shooting dogs who had been the de facto second in command of german forces during the war i knew danoff would later suppose. not at all hitler. hitler said. our people are miserable we must act now so that they do not join the communists.
in january nine hundred twenty three french and belgian troops occupied the rule region because germany had fallen behind in its war require a sions payments. those payments contributed to an economic crisis that included runaway inflation the german government kept printing more and more money . by its one point a loaf of bread cost four hundred sixty billion marks. the thirteen year old amanda described the situation. when a father brings home his daily pay we spend it right away because the money will soon be worthless. in the rule region tensions increased between the local residents and the
occupation troops. these pictures show a french officer assaulting germans who failed to remove their hats during a funeral procession. on november the ninth one thousand nine hundred twenty three hitler and his cohorts staged a coup attempt in munich. the uprising was quickly put down by police and soldiers. hitler was arrested. stefan side wrote at the time. in one nine hundred twenty three the swastikas disappeared and the brownshirts and ad off hitler were forgotten. in his rather comfortable prison cell. set about writing his political manifesto to be called mind comes my struggle this work outlines hitler's political and social ideology and maps out his plans for germany.
in spain generally gain prematurely vera overthrew the parliamentary government in september nineteen twenty three and set up a military dictatorship. by a young and talented army officer francisco franco rose steadily through the ranks during the early years of primitive the various regime. franco was now about to embark on a successful career with the spanish foreign legion in morocco. in one thousand nine hundred twenty one franco had been promoted to deputy commander of the legion spain controlled a strip of land in northern morocco that includes a v. for mounds of the rest of morocco was a french protectorate during world war one local residents were forced to work in
the mines that provided wrong materials for french armaments factories. in september nineteenth twenty one the people of the reef region declared their independence from spain. pat the uprising was led by mohammed abdul karim who managed to unite the various berber tribes. on july the twenty first the insurgents inflicted a decisive defeat on spanish troops at the battle of. the rebel and suffered. eight hundred casualties out of a force of about three thousand experts differ on the number of spanish troops that were killed or wounded but the losses were huge. in september nineteenth
twenty five french and spanish units supported by warships landed on the northern moroccan coast pushed inland under fisa the insurgence. atrocities were committed by both sides. this moroccan soldier beheaded his brother who had joined the rebels. a number of spanish soldiers were executed by the insurgents after they had surrendered and. the french and spanish launched air attacks against rebel positions. in. spain used mustard gas a chemical weapon against the insurgents. the combat teams of naval air and ground forces finally brought an end to the fighting.
in a nine hundred twenty six up to cream surrendered to the french news reels of this event was shown in french cinema. is elderly father and his family sic the protection of the victors. historians differ on the significance of the reef war some see it as the last of the colonial conflicts others believe it set the stage for future walls of decolonization. the years of mediately following world war one were mobbed by major social and political dislocation. many people abandon religion and turn to political and. ajman to try to make some sense of light. by the mid nine hundred twenty s. fascist movements were growing throughout your. communism
it spread to the shores of the united states in one nine hundred nineteen this led to a red scare during which a number of communists and anika switch reported. about two hundred fifty of them were sent to russia on a transport ship dubbed the soviets all. was. back. in january nine hundred twenty the united states out from all the production importation and sale of alcoholic beverages this was commonly known as prohibition and its supporters had claimed for decades that alcohol contributed to a decline in moral values. he also reggie's unfolds the new law with a vengeance destroying large quantities of b.l. wine and spirits. thanks much.
organized criminal gang stepped in it once to fill the void. chicago mob boss al capone made a fortune selling illegal alcohol. the zero is often referred to as the roaring twenty's i mean dances and leading the charleston became popular. people engaged in daring public stunts and not to cinemas to see the. chocola. hundred u.s. senator albert beveridge had to pledge that the twentieth century will be america american thought will dominate american progress will give
a color and direction american detroit make it a lot strange. america exported jazz to europe. american entertainment joseph baker became
the teamsters paris french writer. loves attention. the right of citizens has found its style. the french referred to the one nine hundred twenty s. as the crazy the i'm a foreigner. and this tending weybridge in his memoir a movable feast. to live in paris was like being given a great treasure. jazz music was also popular in berlin stefan zweig described these years in his memoir the road of yesterday. as the value of money decreased all other values began to slip and talk of enthusiastic
ecstasy a mixture of impatience and fanaticism golden times for everything that was extravagant and uncontrollable. in the postwar he is many people wanted
to live life to the fullest and bury their memories of tara and death. in germany hitler promised to tear up the vast side treaty and to restore the country to its pre-war glory. by the late one nine hundred twenty s. economic crises threaten to spin out of control and climbs the world once again into conflict. after world war one the people of europe demonstrated a remarkable will to survive but did the politicians learn lessons from the war and take action to settle disputes peacefully. the sad fact of the matter is that they
three thousand you know thirty minutes on d w. vis a vis the wus lawyer from berlin to bring in our correspondent ophelia harmes already joins us from. rio de janeiro now we're here to find out what happened with music of the correspondent founder it's not and we do have some of breaking news it's coming into us now and it's all about the perspective closer of w. news thank you for joining us. and. that technology digital experiences more transforming the more we will be seen to be ready for it. the second season of our documentary series founder's family. join german founders of the show as least for our digital future. moments
valley starts november twenty fourth on g.w. . business d w news live from berlin the european union prepares for a showdown with italy students have been out protesting in rome again slashed funding for education but the european commission says italy last obey euro zone deficit spending rolls off the us government says as italy first also coming up theresa may goes to brussels to finalize the price of the old books thrown her
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