tv Doc Film - Apocalypse - Never- Ending War 1918 - 1929 Part 2 Deutsche Welle November 29, 2018 4:15am-5:01am CET
the seventy seven percent plus one for africa charge. anyone every is man knows if the child needs food the food cannot afford mary's meals can reflect a lot of problems then drop out of the school because they really do nothing when it comes from home that could have easily been us. at any one of the. ears.
a long slow process of reconstruction. parts of belgium and northern france were devastated. austrian writer. said that the war had affected him deeply. all the pale horses of the apocalypse have stormed into my life revolution and famine terror epidemics and the nationalism that has poisoned the flowering of our european culture. an estimated forty million people were killed in the wall and towns and villages were destroyed some farm fields were polluted by poison gas. large amounts of unexploded ordnance posed a real threat to life and limb. these materials including artillery shells had to be removed by hand.
these farmers are clearing away munitions in the peak of the region of france. people simply tried to make the best of a bad situation. the . french authorities ordered captured german soldiers to clear minefields a clear violation of the hague conventions which outlined the basic rights of prisoners. during the war france captured more than
three hundred thousand german troops. then we're told was sent to a prisoner of war camp at sweet near their dung. they seem to consider me a criminal. it's clear enough that the french hate us and they want us to pay for. many of the prisoners were suffering from hunger and disease. all of them just wanted to return home. life was also difficult for many french civilians for example post-war inflation drove up the prices of basic foods. volunteers arrived from america to help in the reconstruction effort. philanthropist and morgan and doctor and money dyke set up
a civilian relief organization called the american committee for devastated france . about three hundred fifty american women signed up to serve with the organization morgan wrote to her mother that she enjoyed her work ethic. the people here need us they've suffered under german occupation they don't have much food and they sleep on bare floors but now they're doing better. than. they were now an estimated six million war orphans in europe.
these polish children eventually found new homes with families in the united states . in france the authorities made all things like these i'm all mouth wards of the state and looked after them until they became adults. that will millions of orphans or abandoned children in russia this led to an increase in juvenile delinquency across the country. street children who didn't have enough to eat often stole food the bolshevik government set up a number of false images but not nearly enough to deal effectively with the problem .
christian center knowledge numbers are all things to live with families in rural canada some of the children were put to work on farms. a canadian m.p. j.s. woodworth sharply criticized this policy i were using children as cheap labor. i was many from tibet and life in canada as in they had known in the slums of britain. i was laughing at that many british women emigrated to commonwealth countries including australia the media claimed there was a shortage of men since seven hundred thousand british troops had been killed in the war path i was. throughout europe relatives mourn the loss of family members in the conflict. let's
you anian poet of the milosz describe the emotions these people experienced as they filed past rooms of crosses. over to it. but the dead are not as dead as i am. many families wanted to remove the bodies of their loved ones from mass graves so that they could be given a proper burial. the remains were often excused by military personnel. the bodies of an estimated two hundred thirty thousand victims were recovered in this way and return to their relatives. nearly one point eight million soldiers are buried in france alone seven hundred thousand french seven hundred fifty thousand
germans three hundred thousand british including sixty thousand canadians and thirty four thousand americans many desperate relatives turn to the occult. try to find missing soldiers. spiritism had become increasingly popular in the previous few decades. internee was a prominent french spiritist philosopher. countless souls float above us eager to communicate. those who died on the wall want to show themselves to their relatives. many critics dismissed spiritism as a fraud. monuments to soldiers who died in the
war were erected in many cities there are an estimated one hundred seventy six thousand world war one memorials in france and. they include a park a dedicated to soldiers of canada's royal newfoundland regiment. this bronze statue represent the original symbol account of. the unit suffered heavy casualties in the battle of the song. around the world sculptors worked day and night to keep up with the demand for war memorials. was. on november the eleventh nineteen twenty king george the fifth unveiled a war memorial in central london it's news the senate starts which means empty tomb
in greek. this coffin containing the remains of an unknown soldier was then buried at nearby. westminster abbey the senator's office since become the focus of british remembrance and commemoration ceremonies. efforts to create a similar memorial in france had been underway for several years a french in peace and it was the right thing to do. to take your rightful place so that we cannot say that the lands you have saved has forgotten its greatest heroes so that reaping mothers who have no place to mourn may near let your grave and say. my son you are here.
france is unknown soldier is buried at the octave triodes in paris the grave is march with an eternal flame. a similar memorial was unveiled in belgium in one nine hundred twenty two. king i'll bet you took part in the ceremonies. america's unknown soldier was laid to rest at arlington national cemetery near washington marshall family known for the supreme allied commander jury in the war attended the ceremony. a crow indian chief called plenty coups also took part several decades before he had joined forces with the u.s. army to defend his tribe against enemies including the sioux. plenty coups paid tribute
to the unknown soldier by placing his war bonnet on the ceremonial staff on the brink. vosh told general pershing that he wanted to visit the western u.s. . i want to see the indian tribes. in late november one thousand nine hundred twenty one plus travel to north dakota where he met the suci fred tom of all his letters ceremony the chief presented for sure the peace pipe which the two men then smoked the chief gave for sassoon name which translates as charging sunda. on november the nineteenth one thousand nine hundred nineteen the american president woodrow wilson now partially paralyzed by a stroke was handed a serious defeat by the u.s. senate which refused to ratify that assigned peace treaty those who voted against
the treaty believed it would limit the senate's ability to declare war at the same time many americans simply wanted to get on with their lives and to stay out of future european conflicts was i many young women rejected social norms and sought greater independence they were known as flap us. zelda fitzgerald the wife of author f. scott fitzgerald wrote about them. they walked from their lethargy bought their hair put on their best earrings and with a great deal of audacity and rouge went into the battle. a flapper flirted because it was fun and were a one piece bathing suit because she had a good figure she refused to be bored because she was not boring. but she knew that she was doing things that she had always wanted to do. i i.
i . the senate by failing to ratify the versailles treaty shattered wilson's dream of u.s. participation in the league of nations i. held its first session in paris in january nine hundred twenty and later that year moved its headquarters to geneva. the organizations main goal was to preserve world peace but could it do so if the united states was not a member. of. several posts that aside agreements changed the map of europe and the middle east. a nine hundred nineteen treaty formally dissolved the austro hungary an empath and created an independent state of austria on one nine hundred twenty treaty set up the
independent state of hungary two new states appeared on the map czechoslovakia and a nation that would later be known as yugoslavia. the new boarders paid little attention to ethnic distribution germans were now living in poland and czechoslovakia on gary and in romania and salads croats and slovenes in yugoslavia these ethnic groups have lived together more or less peacefully in the australian garion empire. the ottoman empire had been home to a diverse mix of ethnic and religious groups including arabs. the treaty of sever signed in one nine hundred twenty outlines the breakup of the empire and the creation of a new state that would mainly include as nick turnips. form a ottoman territory in the middle east would be divided between france and britain
france was given a league of nations mandate to govern lebanon and syria. a similar mandate for palestine trans-jordan and iraq was awarded to brazil. there were huge reserves of petroleum in iraq and they would now be controlled mostly by british and. the treaty also provided for an autonomous kurdish region in the new turkey stay. jewish communities had existed in palestine for centuries. beginning in one nine hundred twenty large numbers of jews most of them from europe began immigrating to the region. zionist organizations demanded that a national home for jewish people should be created in palestine. during the war britain had said that any new jewish state should not disrupt
existing arab communities britain made these and other promises to win arab support against the ottomans. the british officer t.e. lawrence better known as lawrence of arabia served as a liaison between the british and arab forces. in november one thousand nine hundred twenty one the jewish agency for palestine was created to willacy jewish interests in the region. zionist leader and future israeli president hi invites man noted at the time palestine will be as jewish as an england is english and america is america. the seeds of the conflicts between palestinian jews and arabs had been severed. in one nine hundred twenty tensions were running high in constantinople now known as istanbul. immediately
after the armistice allied troops occupied the city by this time a nationalist movement was already taking shape. the end. the movement was led by general mostafa. who had led autumn and forces to victory in the gallipoli campaign. the nationalists who were opposed to the partition of the country as outlined in the treaty have said. if we accept the allies demands there will be no end to their greed. came our organized a new army its primary goal was to drive out greek troops that had occupied the coastal city of smyrna in may ninety ninety and then taken over much of western turkey. to mother's forces launched a counterattack in all this nine hundred twenty two. they pushed greek troops all the way back to the aegean coast. on
september the ninth one thousand nine hundred twenty two commands troops reoccupied the city of smyrna. four days later a fire broke out in the city's armenian district and spread quickly at least ten thousand people are said to have died. evidence indicates that the blaze was started by turkish troops came out later denied any responsibility. for tens of thousands of ethnic armenians and greeks fled to the docks to escape the flames at least one hundred fifty thousand were evacuated by british and american ships. meanwhile officials at the league of nations were actively working to repatriate prisoners of war and to improve living conditions for war refugees. one of these diplomats was
norwegian explora humanitarian and future nobel laureate feature of finance and in one thousand nine hundred twenty one now. anson was appointed the leeks high commissioner for refugees. in one thousand twenty two he began issuing refugee travel documents that came to be known as nuns and passports. an estimated four hundred fifty thousand of these documents were issued to people who could not obtain passports from their governments the recipients included russian french artist mark shot guy and russian composer sergey rachmaninoff and igor stravinsky. many of the refugees wanted to emigrate to the u.s. and made their way to the french quarter shell board to book passage on ships. many of them were housed at the newly constructed or telecom aunty. the facility could accommodate and process two thousand refugees at a time they were given
a thorough medical examination and disinfected if necessary the refugees were housed in the hotel's dormitories until they were cleared to leave. at this time the united states still welcomed immigrants all the restrictions would be imposed in one nine hundred twenty four. the statue of liberty served as a beacon for many of them a poem written by emma lazarus is inscribed on a plaque inside the statues pedestal. give me your tired your poor your huddled masses yearning to breathe free the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. in montreal a rally was organized to call attention to the plight of ukrainian jews famine and anti-semitic attacks were widespread in ukraine. an estimated one hundred thousand jews were killed in ukraine during the russian civil
war mostly by anti communist forces who war would continue until nine hundred twenty three. the bolsheviks red army defeated a coalition of opposition forces known as the white on. soviet rule was now imposed across the country. the union of soviet socialist republics was officially declared on december the twenty second nineteen twenty two the new states now covered nearly one sixth of the us land surface. there was a major famine from one nine hundred twenty one to twenty two one major cause feel thora he seized commodities from peasants to feed the cities and the military. an estimated five million people died in the famine. food supplies donated by your top of united states soon started arriving.
will shout from an american relief worker described the situation in one region. people yet we back stroke ground bones tree bark and clay they also eat meat from horses dogs cats and rats and they eat straw. there are macy and dozens die every day. the stench is appalling. by the end of the civil war an estimated one point five million russians had left the country. many of them settled in france often in paris only just.
wealthy emigres continued to lead lives of luxury. among them was prince felix you support who had coordinated the murder of rusk routine in one nine hundred sixteen. how can you not feel comfortable in paris the city brightens the mind. you support was a close friend of grandeur dimitri a first cousin of tom nicolas the second dimitri had a brief relationship with fashion designer coco chanel. there are conflicting reports on how chanel came up with the idea for the distinctive bottle for her perfume chanel number five some say she got the concept from dimitri. in the bottles design has remained essentially the same to this day.
the. russian emigres idolized son nicholas who was murdered by the botia vixen one nine hundred eighteen you suppose for it that the russian community in paris was thriving there are russian shops and restaurants we have all four docks chargers training schools and retirement homes paris is a natural destination for immigrants. life in paris was harder for those who had served in the towers army and didn't have a lot of money. many of them ended up driving taxi cabs for a living. the last of these drivers retired in one nine hundred seventy at the age of ninety two. the emigres were concerned about the spread of soviet influence throughout the world. the economic and social dislocation was
caused by world war one prompted many people to join communist parties they believed communism would bring about equality for all. support for the communists grew in london berlin new york. and drove. one of the founders of the italian communist party until new gramsci travel to moscow in one nine hundred twenty one to study the soviet system. one lives for the party. in italy many anti communist veterans joined a movement led by war hero gabriela john once you. show a pair is the treaty of versailles because it ordered italy to hand over territory to the new yugoslav state including domination and the city of fuming now called
being cast. our victory has been ruined. the ones who sought to make italy a first rate european power. to believe your time has come under for years lie ahead i hear the thunder of eagles tearing through the night. in september one thousand nine hundred nineteen done shows troops occupied fuming. the italian government kept trying to drive out of the city and he finally left in december nineteen twenty. plus she wrote that europe was in a state of transition. the old world is dying and the new world has not been born in times like these gruesome phenomena appear.
phenomena included benito mussolini his wife kill a noted that mussolini had a certain natural magnetism his eyes constant style over you his gaze was wanting his pupils flashed he knew that his eyes exerted power on others. in the years before the war mostly leni had been a socialist and worked as a journalist in one thousand nine hundred fourteen he became a fervent nationalist. in midland in one thousand nine hundred he founded a fascist combat squad which consisted of about two hundred men. mostly copied much from capt really don't see all. his supporters wore black shirts. used the ancient roman salute. carry daggers and popularized the slogan under way
with us. by nine hundred twenty two mostly nice organization had grown to include three hundred thousand men. his populist slogans helped him to bring together veterans disabled veterans the unemployed and members of the lower and middle classes alike. muzzling these blackshirts often engaged leftists in street battles their slogan was mean if legal i don't care. mr levy promised to restore law and order he enforced his policies by arming his supporters with clubs.
mussolini also promised to put a stop to labor strikes. that helped win the support of industrialists including giovanni oniony founder of the fia at automobile company. the political situation in italy was changing quickly. on october the twenty eight thousand nine hundred twenty two about thirty thousand fascist militiamen gathered in rome to demand the resignation of the prime minister this became known as the so-called march on road i. mostly menial rived the next day from his headquarters in milan i. i that i am he wore a suit and tie instead of his usual fascist uniform.
on october the twenty ninth king viktor emmanuel appointed mussolini prime minister . as the head of government mussolini chose a policy of cooperation with the catholic church and pursued his aim of transforming italy into a challenged arion state. in germany militarist and nationalist factions united around general erie shooting dogs who had been the de facto second in command of german forces during the war. luden doff would later. not at all hitler. hitler said. our people are miserable we must act now also that they do not join the communists.
in january nine hundred twenty three the french and belgian troops occupied the rule region because germany had fallen behind in its war reparations payments. those payments contributed to an economic crisis that included runaway inflation the german government kept printing more and more money. by one point a loaf of bread cost four hundred sixty billion marks. the thirteen year old son described the situation. where no father brings home his daily pay we spend it right away because the money will soon be worthless. in the rule region tensions increased between the local residents and the
occupation troops. these pictures show a french officer assaulting germans who failed to remove their hats during a funeral procession. called november the ninth one thousand nine hundred twenty three it's not and his cohorts staged a coup attempt in munich. the uprising was quickly put down by police and soldiers . hitler was arrested. stefan five at the time. in one nine hundred twenty three the swastikas disappeared and the brownshirts and ad off hitler were forgotten. in his rather comfortable prison cell. well set about writing his political manifesto to be called mine comes my struggle this work outlines hitler's political and social ideology and maps out
his plans for germany. and spain in general me again primo daily vera overthrew the parliamentary government in september nineteen twenty three and set up a military dictatorship. by a young and talented army officer francisco franco rose steadily through the ranks during the early years of primitive the various regime. franco was now about to embark on a successful career with the spanish foreign legion and morocco. in one thousand nine hundred twenty one franco had been promoted to deputy commander of the legion of spain controlled a strip of land in northern morocco that included the brief mountains the rest of morocco was a french protectorate during world war one local residents were forced to work in
the mines that provided wrong materials for french armaments factories. in september one thousand nine hundred eighty one the people of the reef region declared their independence from spain. paddy the uprising was led by mohammed abdul karim who managed to unite the various berber tribes. on july the twenty first the insurgents inflicted a decisive defeat on spanish troops at the battle of and while. the rebels suffered. eight hundred casualties out of a force of about three thousand experts differ on the number of spanish troops that were killed or wounded but the losses were huge. in september nine hundred
twenty five french and spanish supported by warships landed on the northern moroccan coast pushed inland under fisa the insurgence. atrocities were committed by both sides. this moroccan soldier beheaded his brother who had joined the rebels. a number of spanish soldiers were executed by the insurgents after they had surrendered. the french and spanish launched air attacks against rebel physician. spain used mustard gas a chemical weapon against the insurgents. of the combat use of naval air and ground forces finally brought an end to the fighting.
in may nine hundred twenty six up to korean surrendered to the french news reels of this event was shown in french cinema. is elderly father and his family who seek the protection of the victors. historians defilement significance of the brief war some see it as the last of the colonial conflicts others believe it set the stage for future walls of d. colonizing. the years immediately following world war one were mobbed by major social and political dislocation. many people abandon religion and turn to political and. meant to try to make some sense of life. by the mid nine hundred twenty s. fascist movements were growing throughout europe. communism
had spread to the shores of the united states in one thousand nine hundred nineteen this led to a red scare during which a number of communists and anarchists would be ported. about two hundred fifty of them was sent to russia all the transport ship dubbed the soviets on. was. that in january nine hundred twenty the united states out from all the production importation and sale of alcoholic beverages this was commonly known as prohibition and its supporters had claimed for decades that alcohol contributed to a decline in moral values. we all sort of cheese and forced the new law with a vengeance destroying large quantities of b.-l. wine and spirits. thank you thank you thank.
you. all good nice trim and the gang stepped in with wants to fill the void. chicago mob boss al capone made a fortune selling illegal alcohol. was. this era is often referred to as the roaring twenty's i mean johnson is admitting the charleston became popular. people engaged in daring public stunts and flocked to cinemas to see the. chocola. hundred u.s. senator al but the average had to pledge that the twentieth century will be america american thought will dominate american progress will give
a color and direction american detroit make it a law strange. america exported jazz to europe. american entertain edges of bacon became the teamsters paris french writer. loves attention as the rot of sizzle has found its style. the french results of the one nine hundred twenty s. is a crazy thing i'm a farmer. and his tending way religion is a movable feast. to live in paris was like being given a great treasure. jazz music was also popular in berlin stefan zweig described these years in his memoir of yesterday. as the value of money decreased all other values began to slip and talk of enthusiastic ecstasy
a mixture of impatience and fanaticism golden times for everything that was extravagant and until. in the post-war years many people wanted to live life to the fullest and bury them memories of tara and death. in germany hitler promised to tear up the veil side treaty and to restore the country to its pre-war glory. by the late one nine hundred twenty s. economic crises threaten to spin out of control and plunge the world once again into conflict. after world war one the people of europe demonstrated a remarkable will to survive but did the politicians learn lessons from the war and take action to settle disputes peacefully. the sad fact of the matter is that they
did not. enter the conflict zone confronting the powerful klyce week in a special edition causing zone is coming to you from the falling foam policy for my guest is a veteran of australia the chief negotiator for south america asked. if his dream of the indifference to state ever came true what would it look like
a conflict. if thirty minutes to the coach. was. anxiously waiting. waiting for life. flying to syria. good morning where are you at why aren't you mentoring. every call brings them closer together. but it hurts because they feel powerless to help. but feel like i'm letting people down what and for what. they worry about the more they slipped behind. the. line of trying to be strong but deep down i'm broken that it was.
the war continues to haunt those who fled from syria. i'm trying to reach them but nobody yet says the war on my phone or to hurt him and three starts december eighth on t w. russia's president vladimir putin has accused ukraine of committing a premeditated act of provocation in the naval confrontation off crimea tensions between moscow and kiev escalated after russia seized three ukrainian vessels on sunday at least a dozen ukrainian soldiers have been detained pending trial for. the bank of england has warned