tv Doc Film - Apocalypse - Never- Ending War 1918 - 1929 Part 2 Deutsche Welle December 2, 2018 10:15am-11:00am CET
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for four years from nine hundred fourteen to nine hundred eighteen europe seemed on course to destroy itself. on august the fourth nine hundred fourteen germany invaded belgium. most of the world's major powers was soon drawn into the conflict. following the end of world war one europe began the long slow process of reconstruction. parts of belgium and northern france were devastated.
austrian writer i said that the war had affected him deeply. all the pale horses of the apocalypse that stormed into my life revolution and famine terror epidemics and the nationalism that has poisoned the flowering of our european culture. an estimated forty million people were killed in the wall entire towns and villages were destroyed some farm fields were polluted by poison gas. large amounts of unexploded ordnance posed a real threat to life and limb. these materials including artillery shells had to be removed by hand. these farmers are clearing away munitions in the peak of the region of france.
people simply tried to make the best of a bad situation. if. the. french authorities ordered captured german soldiers to clear minefields a clear violation of the hague conventions which outlined the basic rights of prisoners. during the war france captured more than three hundred thousand german troops. in which coulter was sent to a prisoner of war camp at sweden knee of their dung. they
seem to consider me a criminal. it's clear enough that the french hate us and they want us to play. many of the prisoners were suffering from hunger and disease. all of them just wanted to return home. life was also difficult for many french civilians for example post-war inflation drove up the prices of basic foods. volunteers arrived from america to help in the reconstruction effort. philanthropist and morgan and dr and mary dyke set up a civilian relief organization called the american committee for devastated france
. about three hundred fifty american women signed up to serve with the organization morgan wrote to her mother that she enjoyed her work. the people here need us they've suffered under german occupation they don't have much food and they sleep on bare floors but now they're doing better. half. dead. there were now an estimated six million war orphans in europe. these polish children eventually found new homes with families in the united states .
in fronts the authorities made all things like these and more mountain wards of the state and looked after them until they became adults. there were millions of orphans or abandoned children in russia this led to an increase in juvenile delinquency across the country. street children who didn't have enough to eat often stole food the bolshevik government set up a number of all from the agency but not nearly enough to deal effectively with the problem. britain center large numbers of all forms to live with families in rural canada some of the children were put to work on farms.
a canadian m.p. g.s. what's worth sharply criticized this policy i were using children as cheap labor. i was many found a better life in canada than they had known in the slums of britain. was the fact that many british women emigrated to commonwealth countries including australia the media claimed there was a shortage of men since seven hundred thousand british troops had been killed in the war path was. throughout europe relatives mourned the loss of family members in the conflict. lithuanian poet oscar milosz described the emotions these people experienced as they filed past rumors of crosses. over debt.
but the dead are not as dead as i am. many families wanted to remove the bodies of their loved ones from mass graves so that they could be given a proper burial. the remains were often exchanged by military personnel. the bodies of an estimated two hundred thirty thousand victims were recovered in this way and returned to their relatives. nearly one point eight million soldiers are buried in france and there are seven hundred thousand french seven hundred fifty thousand germans three hundred thousand british including sixty thousand canadians four thousand americans many desperate relatives turn to the occult. try
to find missing soldiers. spiritism have become increasingly popular in the previous few decades. internee was a prominent french spiritist philosopher. countless souls float above us eager to communicate. those who died in the war want to show themselves to their relatives. many critics dismissed spiritism as a fraud when. monuments to soldiers who died in the wall were erected in many cities there are an estimated one hundred seventy six thousand world war one memorials in france alone.
they include a park a dedicated to soldiers of canada's royal newfoundland regiment. this bronze statue represent the regiment symbol accountable. the unit suffered heavy casualties in the battle of the song. around the world sculptors worked day and night to keep up with the demand for war memorials. was. on november the eleventh nineteen twenty king george the fifth unveiled a war memorial in central london it's news the senate charts which means empty to integrate. this cough and containing the remains of an unknown soldier who was then buried at nearby were. minster abbey the senator has
since become the focus of british remembrance and commemoration ceremonies. efforts to create a similar memorial in france have been underway for several years a friendship piece said it was the right thing to do. to take your rightful place so that we cannot say that the land you have saved has forgotten its greatest heroes so that reaping mothers who have no place to mourn may near let your grave and say. my son you are here. france is unknown soldier is buried at the uk to cheer once in paris the grave is marked with an eternal flame.
a similar memorial was unveiled in belgium in one nine hundred twenty two. king i'll bet you took part in the ceremonies. america's unknown soldier was laid to rest of the national cemetery near washington national family known for sure the supreme allied commander during the war attended the ceremony. a crow indian chief called plenty coups also took part several decades before he had joined forces with the u.s. army to defend his tribe against enemies including the sioux. plenty coups paid tribute to the unknown soldier by placing his war bonnet on the ceremonial stuff on the great.
vosh told general pershing that he wanted to visit the western u.s. . i want to see the indian tribes. in late november one thousand nine hundred twenty one plus travel to north dakota where he met the sioux chief read tom of all. at a ceremony the chief presented for sure the peace pipe which the two men then smoothed the chief gave for sassoon name which translates as charging son. i. will name some of the nineteen nineteen nineteen the american president woodrow wilson now. by a stroke was handed a serious defeat by the u.s. senate which refused to ratify that assigned peace treaty those who voted against the treaty believed it would limit the senate's ability to declare war at the same time many americans simply wanted to get on with their lives and to stay out of
future european conflicts. was i many young women rejected social norms and sought greater independence they were known as flap us. zelda fitzgerald the wife of author f. scott fitzgerald wrote about them. they walked from their lethargy bobbed their hair put on their best earrings and with a great deal of audacity and rouge went into the battle. a flapper flirted because it was fun and wore a one piece bathing suit because she had a good figure she refused to be bored because she was not boring. and she knew that she was doing things that she had always wanted to do. i i i i i i i i. the senate by failing to
ratify that aside treaty shattered wilson's dream of u.s. participation in the league of nations i. am the being held its first session in paris in january nine hundred twenty and later that year moved its headquarters to geneva. the organizations main goal was to preserve world peace but could it do so if the united states was not a member of. several posts that aside agreements change the map of europe and the middle east. a nine hundred nineteen treaty formally dissolved the austro hungary and empires and created an independent state of austria on one nine hundred twenty treaty set up the independent state of hungary to new states appeared on the map shifa slovakia and a nation that would later be known as yugoslavia. the new boarders paid little attention
to ethnic distribution germans were now living in poland and czechoslovakia and gary ns and remain here and sabs croats and slovenes in yugoslavia these ethnic groups have lived together more or less peacefully in the australian garion empire . the ottoman empire had been home to a diverse mix of ethnic and religious groups including our ups. the treaty of seventy signed in one nine hundred twenty outline to the break up of the empire and the creation of a new state that would mainly include ethnic turnips. form autumn and territory in the middle east would be divided between france and britain france was given a league of nations mandate to govern lebanon and syria. a
similar mandate for palestine trans-jordan and iraq was awarded to britain. there were huge reserves of petroleum in iraq and they would now be controlled mostly by british and. the treaty also provided for and of thomas kurdish region in the new turkish stay. home jewish communities had existed in palestine for centuries. beginning in one nine hundred twenty large numbers of jews most of them from europe began immigrating to the region. zionist organizations demanded that a national home for jewish people should be created in palestine. during the war britain had said that any new jewish state should not disrupt existing arab communities britta made these and other promises to win arab support against the ottomans. the british officer t.e.
lawrence better known as lawrence of arabia served as a liaison between the british and arab forces. in november one thousand nine hundred twenty one the jewish agency for palestine was created to oversee jewish interests in the region zionist leader and future israeli president hi invites man noted at the time palestine will be as jewish as an england is english and america is america. the seeds of the conflict between palestinian jews and arabs had been seven. in one nine hundred twenty tensions were running high in constantinople now nana's istanbul. immediately after the armistice allied troops occupied the city by this time a nationalist movement was already taking shape. the end. the
movement was led by general most a fucking mind who had laid off a man forces to victory in the campaign. the nationalists were opposed to the partition of the country as outlined in the treaty of said. if we accept the allies demands there will be no end to their greed. came i organized a new army its primary goal was to drive out greek troops that had occupied the coastal city of smyrna in may nineteen nineteen and then taken over much of western turkey. came out of forces launched a counterattack in august nineteen twenty two. they pushed greek troops all the way back to view g. and co. on september the nights nine hundred twenty two came out as troops reoccupied the city of smyrna.
four days later a fire broke out in the city's armenian district and spread quickly at least ten thousand speak a lot said to have died. evidence indicates that the blaze was started by turkish troops came out later denied any responsibility. for tens of thousands of ethnic armenians and greeks fled to the docks to escape the flames at least one hundred fifty thousand were evacuated by british and american ships. meanwhile officials at the league of nations were actively working to repatriate prisoners of war and to improve living conditions for wall refugees. one of these diplomats was norwegian explorer a humanitarian and future nobel laureate feature of munson in one thousand nine hundred twenty one one. and was appointed the league's high commissioner for
refugees. in one thousand twenty two he began issuing refugee travel documents that came to be known as nansen passports. an estimated four hundred fifty thousand of these documents were issued to people who could not obtain passports from their governments the recipients included russian french artist marshall guy and russian composer sergey rachmaninoff and igor stravinsky. many of the refugees wanted to emigrate to the u.s. and made their way to the french quarter shell board to book passage on ships. many of them were housed at the newly constructed or tele long teak. the facility could accommodate and process two thousand refugees at a time they were given a thorough medical examination and disinfected if necessary the refugees were housed in the hotel's dormitories until they were cleared to leave. at this time
the united states still welcomes immigrants all the restrictions would be imposed in one nine hundred twenty four. the statue of liberty served as a beacon for many of them a poem written by emma lazarus is inscribed on a plaque inside the statues pedestal. give me your tired your poor your huddled masses yearning to breathe free the wretched refuse of your teeming shore when. in montreal a rally was organized to call attention to the plight of ukrainian jews famine and anti semitic attacks were widespread in ukraine. an estimated one hundred thousand jews were killed in ukraine during the russian civil war mostly by anti communist forces the war would continue until nine hundred twenty three. the bolshevik red army defeated
a coalition of opposition forces known as the white army soviet rule was now imposed across the country. the union of soviet socialist republics was officially declared on december the twenty second one thousand nine hundred twenty two the new states now covered nearly one sixth of the us land surface. there was a major famine from one nine hundred twenty one to twenty two one major cause feel thora he seized commodities from peasants to feed the cities and the military. an estimated five million people died in the famine. food supplies donated by your top of united states soon started arriving. will shop for also an american relief worker described the situation in one region . people hit weeds mixed with ground bones tree bark and clay
they also eat meat from horses dogs cats and rats and they eat straw. they're amazing and dozens die every day. the stench is appalling. by the end of the civil war an estimated one point five million russians had left the country. many of them settled in france often in paris only so. wealthy emigres continued to lead lives of luxury.
among them was prince philip you support who had coordinated the murder of rusk routine in one nine hundred sixteen. how can you not feel comfortable in paris the city brightens the mind of the. yusupov was a close friend of grand duke dimitri a first cousin of tile nicolas the second dimitri had a brief relationship with fashion designer coco chanel. but there are conflicting reports on how chanel came up with the idea for the distinctive bottle for her perfume chanel number five some say she got the concept from dimitri. in the bottles design has remained essentially the same to this day. russian emigres idolized son nicholas who was murdered by the bush of x.
in one nine hundred eighteen do you suppose that the russian community in paris was thriving there are russian shops and restaurants we have all four docks chargers training schools and retirement homes paris is a natural destination for immigrants. life in paris was harder for those who had served in the towers army and didn't have a lot of money. many of them ended up driving taxi cabs for a living. the last of these drivers retired in one thousand nine hundred seventy at the age of ninety two. the emigres were concerned about the spread of soviet influence throughout the world. the economic and social dislocation was caused by world war one prompted many people to join communist parties they believed communism would bring about equality for all.
support for the communists grew in london berlin new york milan and room. one of the founders of the italian communist party and sonia graham she travel to moscow in one nine hundred twenty one to study the soviet system. one lives for the party. in italy many anti communist veterans joined a movement led by war hero gabriella john once you. know opposed the treaty of versailles because it ordered italy to hand over territory to the new yugoslav state including domination and the city of fuming now called being. our victory has been ruined.
done to sought to make italy a first rate european power. italy your time has come under four years lie ahead i hear the thunder of eagles tearing through the night. in september one thousand nine hundred nineteen done shows troops occupied few. italian governments kept trying to drive out of the city and he finally left in december nineteen twenty. she wrote that europe was in a state of transition. the old world is dying and the new world does not have been born in times like these gruesome phenomena appear. those phenomena included benito mussolini his wife noted that mussolini had
a certain natural magnetism. his eyes constant spell over you his gaze was wanting his pupils flashed he knew that his eyes exerted power on others. in the years before the war mostly leni had been a socialist and worked as a journalist in one thousand nine hundred fourteen he became a fervent nationalist. in milan in one thousand nine hundred he founded a fascist combat squad which consisted of about two hundred men. mostly copied much from company done on steel lead his supporters wore black shirts. used the ancient roman salute. carried daggers and popularized the slogan annoyed with us. by nine hundred twenty two mostly nice organization had grown to include three hundred thousand man.
his populist slogans helped him to bring together veterans disabled veterans the unemployed and members of the lower and middle classes alike. muzzling his black shirts often engaged leftist in street battles their slogan was many for legal i don't care. facility promised to restore law and order he enforced his policies by arming his supporters with clubs. mussolini also promised to put a stop to labor strikes. that helped win the support of industrialists including giovanni oniony founder of the fia total movil company.
the political situation in italy was changing quickly. on october the twenty eight thousand nine hundred twenty two about thirty thousand fascist militiamen gathered in rome to demand the resignation of the prime minister this became known as the so-called march on rome i. mostly leni arrived the next day from his headquarters in milan i i i am he wore a suit and tie instead of his usual fascist uniform.
on october the twenty ninth king viktor emmanuel appointed mussolini prime minister . as the head of government mussolini chose a policy of cooperation with the catholic church and pursued his aim of transforming italy intuited challenged hereon states. in germany militarist and nationalist factions united around general eerie shooting dogs who had been the de facto second in command of german forces during the war i knew danoff would later suppose. not at all hitler. hitler said. our people are miserable we must act now also that they do not join the communists. in january nine hundred twenty three french and belgian troops occupied the rule
region because germany had fallen behind in its war reparations payments. those payments contributed to an economic crisis that included runaway inflation the german government kept printing more and more money. much one point a loaf of bread cost four hundred sixty billion marks. the thirteen year old son described the situation. when our father brings home his daily pay we spend it right away because the money will soon be worthless. in the rule region tensions increased between the local residents and the occupation troops. these pictures show a french officer assaulting germans who failed to remove their hats during
a funeral procession. called november the ninth one thousand nine hundred twenty three hitler and his cohorts staged a coup attempt in munich. the uprising was quickly put down by police and soldiers. hitler was arrested. stefan sag wrote at the time. in one nine hundred twenty three the swastikas disappeared and the brownshirts and ad off hitler were forgotten. in his rather comfortable prison cell. set about writing his political manifesto to be called mine comes my struggle this work outlines hitler's political and social ideology and maps out his plans for germany. in spain generally again prematurely vera overthrew the parliamentary government in
september nineteen twenty three and set up a military dictatorship. by a young and talented army officer francisco franco rose steadily through the ranks during the early years of primitive the various regime. franco was now about to embark on a successful career with the spanish foreign legion in morocco. in one thousand nine hundred twenty one franco had been promoted to deputy commander of the legion of spain controlled a strip of land in northern morocco that included the brief mountains the rest of morocco was a french protectorate during world war one local residents were forced to work in the mines that provided wrong materials for french armaments factories.
in september one nine hundred twenty one the people of the reef region declared their independence from spain. pat the uprising was led by mohammed abdul karim who managed to unite the various berber tribes. on july the twenty first the insurgents inflicted a decisive defeat on spanish troops at the battle of and while. the rebels suffered. eight hundred casualties out of a force of about three thousand experts differ on the number of spanish troops that were killed or wounded but the losses were huge. in september nine hundred twenty five french and spanish supported by warships landed on the northern moroccan coast pushed inland and defeated the insurgence. atrocities were
committed by both sides. in this moroccan soldier beheaded his brother who had joined the rebels. a number of spanish soldiers were executed by the insurgents after they had surrendered. the french and spanish launched air attacks against rebel positions. spain used mustard gas a chemical weapon against the insurgents. the combat use of naval air and ground forces finally brought an end to the fighting. in may nine hundred twenty six up till cream surrendered to the french news reels of this event was shown in french cinema. his elderly father and his
family who seek the protection of the victors. historians defilement significance of the brief war some see it as the last of the colonial conflicts others believe it set the stage for future walls of the colonizing nation . the years immediately following world war one were mobbed by major social and political dislocation. many people abandon religion and turn to political and. to try to make some sense of light. by the mid nine hundred twenty s. fascist movements were growing throughout europe. communism had spread to the shores of the united states in nineteen nineteen this led to a red scare during which a number of communists and anarchists would be ported. about two hundred fifty of
them were sent to russia on the transport ship dubbed the soviets on. was. that. in january nine hundred twenty the united states out from all the production importation and sale of alcoholic beverages this was commonly known as prohibition and its supporters had claimed for decades that alcohol contributed to a decline in moral values. we all sort of cheese and force the new law with a vengeance destroying large quantities of b.-l. wine and spirits. thanks much.
organized criminal gangs stepped in it wants to fill the void. chicago mob boss al capone made a fortune selling illegal alcohol. this era is often referred to as the roaring twenty's dances and pleading the charleston became popular. people engaged in daring public stunts and not to cinemas to see the. chocola. hundred u.s. senator albert beveridge had to pledge that the twentieth century will be america and american thought will dominate american progress will give a color and direction america detroit make it a la strange. america
exported jazz to europe. american entertain edges of bacon became the teamsters paris french writer. loves attention as the writer says on has found its style. the french referred to the one nine hundred twenty s. as a crazy thing i mean if i'm. honest tending weybridge in his memoir a movable feast. to live in paris was like being given a great treasure. jazz music was also popular in berlin defense my described these years in his memoir the road of yesterday. as the value of money decreased all other values began to slip and talk of enthusiastic ecstasy a mixture of impatience and fanaticism golden times for everything that was extravagant and uncontrollable.
in the postwar he is many people wanted to live life to the fullest and bury their memories of tara and death. in germany hitler promised to tear up the vast side treaty and to restore the country to its pre-war glory. by the late one nine hundred twenty s. economic crises threaten to spin out of control and plunks the world once again in the conflict. after world war one the people of europe demonstrated a remarkable will to survive but did the politicians learn lessons from the war and take action to settle disputes peacefully. the sad fact of the matter is that they did not.
when she sleep waiting. waiting for a lifeline to see. syria. good morning where are you why aren't you answering a different call brings them closer together. but it hurts because they feel powerless to help. they worry about the ones they flipped. i'm trying to be strong. the war continues to haunt those who fled from syria. i'm. the wrong my from our two part documentary starts december eighth on d w.
this is the d w news live from berlin g. twenty leaders managed to agree on a joint communique at their summit in argentina despite tensions over trade and climate. and on the sidelines of a summit u.s. president donald trump and his chinese counterpart xi jinping make a step towards defusing their trade war also coming up.