tv Doc Film - The Angel Chronicles Deutsche Welle December 29, 2018 8:15am-9:01am CET
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when christianity first arose it was without images it had only words only scripture images were first introduced into the christian's assembly rooms where they were concentrated at the far end of the simple whole colby exclaims yeah but once the walls were adorned with images they told a story. how did these images arise how did these stories come a bunch of what role. did angels play in the stories of conflict between power and
light. the angels proclaim what god wishes to tell people that is their calling. they were imagined to be all new present always talking guiding advising and judging people and so they became a central theme of the pictorial history of the week old western art. i am. christianity became the state religion of the roman empire at a time when it was already beginning to collapse the city of. room the capital was
a civilized metropolis of millions whose standards of living and represented the pinnacle of human history. the roman emperor has placed themselves on the same level as the gods even today we talk of their buildings and legacies as monumental which also means overwhelming. different baptist because two of the christianity whether it likes it or not is also an add to the roman empire they were temporally contingents the roman empire had a claim to universality christianity also claimed universality and translated it into the commandment to go into the world and preach the gospel to all creation because the condition. of. the first images the first picture oriel symbols arose alongside the
script when the christian or a trees in rome was still hidden underground in the catholic or. these pictures were different from those of pre-christian and to critique and portrayed angels wearing halos instead of winged messengers with laurel reeds but in the beginning there were very few specifically christian images. to take our measure let your hats can talk matter the antique roman religion didn't develop any dogma and for that reason provided no order from our border first becomes apparent in christianity for instance in the hierarchy of the angels who we can see as the successor to the mynah functional gods of the romans one of those but continuity and transformation volatile. but what were the models for the superhuman images in christendom where they the heroes of antiquity early christian
imagery has its roots in the assyrian babylonian period with its anthropomorphic creatures for example the firy and winged cherub. but this isn't because if let's take a. the concept of demons which in the greek hero were neither good nor bad the morning demons were only intermediaries between the debt is and humanity in christianity they are rico defined as unclean spirits the new testament teaches us that they are the repudiated and resentful gods of the greeks for rick give us an incomplete lightish to get at a christian. instead of adopting the pictorial world of antiquity christianity chose to take a detour through demonic beings which took on an idealized human form copied from
the n.t. god's angels are based on models taken from antiquity and the babylonian demons even their name reflects these roots anger loss is greek for messenger and the chair of bears a resemblance to the early demons. certain uses is the pseudo dionysius is the ideal author because he imagines the angels heaven as a world organized according to three sets of three it's made up of spheres nested in each other until they reach the highest mystery who's caught him is that he's got. one front isn't person to hand from his highest mistry perceived only as a sea of light divine glory is radiated to the world below so now it consists not just of visible light but also of the knowledge of who god actually is this is
based on the first level of angels the seris from them to the cherubs who pass it on via an almost visible spiritual connection to the throne of the political masters and self identified. and thus the portrayal of angels in the late middle ages is above all an indication of the primary thing communicated by christian images order. the successfully thrown off these are reflections on quo. asked jensen how can i portray god how can i portray what is holy and purely spiritual without it becoming sensible and being dragged down to the level of antiquity which the christians termed paganism. thus and because now are going on. the picture of a hierarchical order in heaven is the key to christian imagery order is the prerequisite for perfection.
the first step towards a self-contained christian iconography of angels didn't take place in rome in the fourth century a.d. the roman empire collapsed into two hobs rome and the western part of the empire was overrun by the goths then reconquered by eastern roman by xantia in the mid six century rome became a provincial city of the buys and time empire with rivera as its capital. this is where the first systematic pictorial history of the still young christendom as a synthesis of greek philosophy and the christian doctrine of salvation was developed. did private love as it is of youth as a simple we took at least part of the high number three is normally reserved as a symbol of the day it is this not in the old testament we also have angel often
essentially when the prophet is equal or i desire allowed to look up to heaven they see being surrounding got a few they are either ordered in groups of four or have four facets for example equal like lion like or human like beings and older figures. are few it is something that was imported from the babylonian iconography and integrated into christendom god is surrounded by groups of four figures when seated on him. is thrown and that's why alongside the number three which symbolizes gaunt there is a number for an extension symbolizing his rule in all four world least he has an era as i figure since that's also why the derivatives of three and four twelve and twenty four were also endowed with a wholly systematic significance height system that should be taught to. the oldest mosaics of christian iconography out to be found in the sacred buildings of ravenna opposite a series of martyrs there's
a series of holy virgins that individual expressions are not important but the series and the number. sixteen prophet stand above them which signifies twelve plus four and the fact that they are placed above the virgins on the martyrs expresses their place in the hierarchy and they're all foraging within christendom . even higher up scenes portraying christ's passion even this position denotes hierarchy order here in rivendell hierarchy is formulated and translated into a system of images. the beginning and end of this mural are reserved for the key figures of holy scripture mary and christ they are positioned formally alongside each of them are two angels that look out directly on the viewer the angels are the courtiers whole body guards of mary
and jesus christ. her. this simple pictorial system became a canon upon which everything else was based from then on the churches became larger and the at ces and jones expressed the unity and perfection of the christian cross mass. in the way it. rangely it's images the christian pictorial system took over and transcended the by sam time court order and its portrayal of power and representation. the guys you know you read the thirty year jubilee eulogy on constantine the great we can discern a formula for order in the wild one god one empire one emperor constantine was an
advocate of egalitarianism not exactly a hierarchy order this system of subservience this reflected socio political relationships and. in. our our revenue was where the synthesis between the systematic thinking of the greeks and the christian doctrine of salvation became translated into imagery. amidst the ruins of rome new churches were built and the ancient roman buildings repurposed by christian. the pictorial canon over a van and made itself felt in some time out here in trust very the larger the church was the more imagery could be depicted.
here for the first time mary was depicted directly alongside jesus christ as his companion the mosaic still expresses representation directly but the angels are missing. thus the picture clearly indicates that the central figure of the new testament jesus christ the redeemer is superior to the angels in the hierarchy even though he was a human being. the up a bazillion san clemente in rome was built at the beginning of the twelfth century in it the buys and time court order is abandoned the christian cross dominates the ordering of the spheres still expresses numba and order but more important is the concentration on the christian visual symbols they signify the opposites of power christ as the holy land in the center of his flock.
am this is god as the angel of peace among us a full god it's a different pictorial message from those of antiquity all the buys and time empire . all. around the turn of the millennium the church order as expressed in images went through a profound crisis of increasing worldliness and corruption the authority of the pope and with it the message of salvation through the one church was substantially shaken. the radical return of the liturgy to the original message of salvation took place not initially but in france am in a small chapel near only on the founding motifs of that message of salvation are represented on its by centime or sanders.
above two small six winged chairs two other angels dominate the done. they represent the old and the new testament which in the language of the mosaic were delivered by angels to humankind. the suggestion of a hand tells us that they have delivered the scripture upon god's command and that the path to salvation can only lie in following god's will. this new system of christian liturgy and message of salvation comes from cluny abbey founded in one nine hundred ten by the juke of aquitaine as a benedictine abbey clooney was not only the center of the christian cosmos during the middle ages of the largest and most powerful church of the christian world it was only supposed later by st peter's basilica during the french revolution almost
nine hundred years later clooney was destroyed as being a symbol of an absolute monarchy that claimed divine legitimation. but today even amid the ruins the pattern significance of this order with its many of the churches and monasteries throughout burgundy is still palpable it's no accident that burgundy was home to the most significant monastic orders and of the biggest cathedrals of the eleventh and twelfth centuries the most important pilgrims way to santiago de compostela took them through here. turn cathedral houses the most significant pictorial example of the transformation of christian iconography joining that period. it was carved in stone by get back to a spittoon eleven twenty and eleven thirty five.
the main portal through which millions of pilgrims enter the church no longer depicted the power of god but the last judgment christ and the elders the angels that god's throne sits and judge over human souls which in line with the general understanding of this period threatened by evil more than ever in order to uphold order and the perfection of salvation christ and the angels have to demonstrate that they can differentiate between good and evil from this point on the rank of the angels changes dramatically in the imagery from now on a become the most important representatives of the ruler of old things a god that rewards good behavior. as christ companions the angels are a lot of the role of completing salvation the angels are once again the mediate has between god and humanity they fight for god full humanity against evil.
did. the pilgrims moved within the great knaves as though they were in a parade and looked up into the capitals with their vivid illustrations of the evil in all its incarnations. the second temptation of christ taken from the gospel of luke makes it clear what's happening here christ determination to resist heresy and damage. the suicide of judas shows what happens when someone turns away from god the monumentally impressive knave signified to the believers that any god's words could help against old least temptations and human weaknesses. latin or at home oh. oh oh my god i am heading southwards with the manton's just visible on the
horizon lies one of the most important cities of the middle ages want peace of the modern day said damie rockley was originally a burial place beyond the city walls the whole complex with its cathedral baptistry and campo some toll has begun in thirteen hundred. home i have the campo son joe was the notches symmetry of the christian middle ages and that's a place where death damnation and redemption played a prominent role here we find a monumental representation of the loves judgment. this powerful fresco must have shocked its contemporaries it begins with the last judgment on to ruffle christ who reveals his wounds and flings his outrage like lightning in the direction of hal this anger is offset by the gentle virgin mary to
his left. beneath them is an angel with us at high level with the viewer is the archangel michael with his sword. another angel herds frightened citizens of peas or towards damnation the faces up terrified and pleading but no one can escape divine judgment this is a recurring motif in christendom in the face of the minds of the last judgment the wealth and grant of bishops and even the power of mana all to no avail. in the frescoes pictorial arrangement the artist has paid tribute to social status the kings occupy the top ten even one of the angels reveals its fear in the face of
the past and unavoidable ity of the last judgment announced by trumpets on the left we can see the saved these two are portraits of real life citizens of pisa their facial expressions are calm and they all look up to the muscle figure of the virgin mary into seso before the judge their body language is relaxed the face is a clear although their expressions reveal intense concentration. pease's pious citizens are expressing their heartfelt gratitude for the victory of good over evil . the struggle. these angels receive the souls who have already been saved. it's as if in addition to the widely understood concepts of the apocalypse in the last judgment
a new orientation is taking place towards the end of the twentieth century not far from the russian pass on the edge of the southern alps the monastery of muddy and back was established to this day the benedictine monks there assemble in a narrow vaults that are a tree. the. marion barry monastery is famous for its roman frescoes in a symbolic series of images they reinterpret human beings path to salvation they are brought closer to the angels by pursuing their battle against evil. the more. humans can rise in the heavenly hierarchy by successfully overcoming evil that is the message of these frescoes. we see the end jet experiments and cherubs recognizable by their six wings that. alongside them
is the apostle peter who holds the key to heaven in paradise and on his right is a protective angel. this constellation indicates a new link between apostle and heavenly beings man and angel again come closer to one another despite the evil in the world. or the. who. is the most important message those communicated in the arrangement of angels above the almighty in the mandorla in jesus christ appears to be standing on his hand. the real focus is this small angel smaller than all the other heavenly figures it represents the new human who are to fighting a lifelong battle against evil is seen by christ to be deserving of redemption and
thus as a small angel is taken into the communion of the big angels human beings can rise into the sphere of the heavenly beings and can be redeemed heaven awaits them that's what this fresco expresses the small angel is both messenger and message a new era in the relationship between humanity and the heavenly smear has begun. hall further southwards we reach a place of great importance in christian iconography assisi. in burgundy joining the twelfth century monasteries have adopted a strictly organized liturgy and had almost completely rejected imagery. in the thirteenth century new waters arose in central italy this one in assisi was to be a purely mendicant told a completely dedicated to charity and neighborly love as the most direct path to redemption. the building of the lower church
began in the early thirteenth century together with thomas aquinas francis of assisi was considered the main renewal of the christian doctrine of salvation no building from the late middle ages bad as great a testament to the spirit of renewal as that of the highest church of assisi. its name is dominated by george those world famous francisco's but the real secret is to be found in the older decorated transepts of the name of what is here translated pictorially is the virgin mary's bodily ascension to heaven and her final end siltation over the angels. in one of the men dollars held up by for an angels jesus and mary are in friend in
loving devotion one of the angels is said to have called out who is she she who is raised up from the desert nestling on her lover. angel's profits on the saints assemble around the heavenly throne on which the virgin mary sits alongside has sung. as an intercessor on behalf of humanity. what is important here overprotectiveness hammes st francis whose face can no longer be recognized pleads for redemption on behalf of his brothers please convey primary to her son who listens and gives his blessing to the francisco. the virgin mary's role in the heavenly hierarchy is in this franciscan church newly defined. she is jesus companion and on with the angels at the same time she
remains a human being that signifies that she is the first human being to be redeemed and raised to heaven. the rose window in the outer wall is like a final symbol of this new order. the shape of the sun can be construed as referring to jesus the rose to the virgin mary both forms are united as part of a circle that has only one center god. at the close of the middle ages towards the end of the fourteenth century tuscany became a european stronghold of progress the dominican monk from and jellicoe came from the area around florence and achieved world renown with his portrayals of angels.
there's. than in the conspicuous chapel nicko tona is home to the annunciation a popular motif. the messages depicted in the fall most visible was the virgin mary is face still has a generic madonna like quality but is also individually defined and this image symbolizes not only the metaphorical line between the middle ages and the modern era it also makes clear what mood become more and more important human so i'm now represented as emotional and individual beings in the story of salvation. the lower part of the painting depicts the marriage between mary and joseph what is
grand breaking in this wet by from jellicoe is the expression with which he has endowed the figure of mary the archangel gabriel she is he's a cool she represents the human striving for salvation the face expresses humility and dignity yet is still powerful she remained self-conscious and had gesture expresses not subservience but surprise and also knowledge awareness of what is happening she has been endowed with an individual soul and it is for that reason that we still describe her as beautiful. the impact of and gena codes were remained basically limited to tuscany he traveled little his main ambition was to embellish the sacred places of worship for the brothers of his own order. once again the
relationship between the history of god. salvation in the world of the profane changed dramatically. the renaissance emerged first in tuscany then in rome it was a blossoming of trade and dot and since the downfall of the classical world had been so prosperous that of course also influenced the depiction of the angel. the vilified in rome was commissioned by the bank i go in and built by baldessari pedalled so it is seen as the ultimate expression of the high renaissance and with its perspective school it features a room of tom boy painting. the
walls are covered with scenes from the life of an example of the great what first catches the eye is a riding messenger with flowing clothes in the form of a white fan giving the impression of wings. the messenger is part of a historical allegorical depiction of the wedding of alexander to the persian princess roxanne that at the center alexander appears and hands the princess the crowd the real focus that was the heavenly messenger half and half archangel gabriel. alexander is typical of the newly awakened interest in mythical historical figures during the sixteenth century the small angels which look like cupid's are borrowed from the pagan classical era. in classical times cupid's when love calls depicted
the small boys. the art of christendom. makes them into anonymous angels and and celery figures they reveal the meaning and intention of the mural its aim is to move the view ascension not spiritual. the villa finest ciena is the high point of the renaissance this work shows have images from the trash cool era survived into christendom the godlike figures in the heroes return an allegorical form complementing the christian images. there. at the beginning of the sixteenth century the foundation was laid for the new st peter's basilica in rome it was intended as a proof that christendom suppose the classical era.
in the mid seventeenth century a sculpture was made for the church of sun to muddy. it had the same aim to illustrate the ultimate triumph of christendom. the sculpture. was a successor. whose late work marked the end of the renaissance and the beginning of the baroque. the motif of the ecstasy of saint teresa is a variation of the annunciation also depicted by frau angelica but with benny there was a decisive transformation. to rezone is portrayed in dramatic film many many attempts to make the ecstasy tangible the mits a groan her eyes are twisted her body is open. from now on the story of salvation on the motifs derived from it were presented
theatrically utilizing old visual tools available. that included classical heroes and an agrees. precisely at the moment when st peter's basilica symbolized the victory of christian imagery of a pagan antiquity the latter returned in full force into the christian. in the immense st peter's we find the legend of its foundation expressed in the sentence and so i say to you you peter and upon this rock i will build my church. the new building claim to be nothing less than the greatest monument in the history of the world time and again the builders dishpan it and down to it whether the immense vote would be capable of bearing the enormous. but will.
the spirit of the age demanded a massive triumphant. as an old man received a commission from pope clement the ninth to design the entrance to the cast as some tangent of. the building was the most a limb of emperor hadrian and the triumphant entrance way over the bridge was lined with statues of the classical gods of victory many replace these with angels converting a pagan monument and true christian. the angels honed the instruments of the passion will kristie in their hands the road becomes a symbolic way of the cross via dolorosa like the one walked by the pilgrims in jerusalem. converted it into
a triumphal procession and the angels bear with. as to it with the symbols of christ passion. the angel with a crown of thorns was structured by many himself the newly sculpted angel stood in the sequence of statues with the apostles peter and paul who were on it as martyrs and the here to proclaim the victory of christendom. the mausoleum of cast down sometimes a low but always dominated the entrance way to rome if people look around now they saw the miracle of st peter dedicated to the triumph of the holy roman church but this triumph was soon called into question by knowledge and science. the battle began for the right to interpret imagery and after bernie's death it was
no longer forty in italy but in the hapsburg empire on the other side of the house . nancy understood how. the house spoke again if you visit the headquarters of the hapsburgs in piano the hoff org you'll see on the left and right a representation of how austria ruled the world's oceans and much of the world ordered the debate to be has done since starting to see it as a plagiarized version of the fall of the rebel an angels associated with michael for it seemed as though they seize on strayer personifying defeating the enemy forces with the lance exactly as we know it from my clients this was the frost's lucifer into the jaws of hell and nowhere is this triumph as clear as in the michael motif of the christian tradition the church is celebrating its own triumph that's why the church directly adjoining the hoff org is dedicated not just to any old saint but to michael the hero the general of the angels with his soldierly
demeanor the inheritance. james i doubt if. any skin our eyes. this fall of the rebel angels was completed in seven hundred twenty six during the reign of the austrian emperor col the six. michael motif had become much more than merely a central christian motif it also signified gaunts forgiveness and the emperor's grand. the church of st karl as the most significant broke edifice in vienna makes that very clear. it is a sacred building with imperial aspirations the church was intended to symbolize the connection between rome and by send him between the west and the east roman churches that is why it looks rather like the haga sophia in istanbul and contains its imitation trojan columns this too has to be understood in an allegorical way
the absolute monarchs of the bald nero wanted to appear as glorious as the roman emperors. in the coppola is the ecclesia with an allegorical figure representing the one true church she wears a gorgeous cloak as the holy grail in her hand and holds the eucharist over the ground having the last supper positioned at the center of the coca-cola in the patron church of emperor charles the six was intended to signify that his empire would uphold the supremacy of the christian world view. out in bourg abbey is only one journey away from vienna towards the end of the reign of kala six the baroque painter paolo tolga was commissioned to decorate the central rooms of the abbey with frescos.
even the architecture of the imperial stack case has symbolic significance to flights of steps merge into a single one that implies that two separate spheres can be seen as a unity. religion with its helo's sits alongside science as allegorical figures on the heavenly coppola and they are reconciled with one another. all figures on the arched roof have both allegorical and sacred meaning the heavenly virtues of love and hope are depicted as symbolic female figures faith is shown as masculine and posing victoriously. the angels fill this heaven and serve as a minority and they seem as though they're about to applaud the harmonious order
the happy dancing. the painting a bump the imperial stack ace tries to illustrate to the viewer the reconciliation between the sacred and the scientific worlds angels have no significant role anymore in this harmony. that's the end of this history of angels more than one and a half thousand years of a dominant religious interpretation of the world with a single centile god gave way to an age of absolutism succeeded by the age of reason and the era of industrialization. the angels as messengers of an inscrutable god lost their significance but as advocates for and counselors to humanity they are an eternal reminder of humans yearning not to be alone and as
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read a book like this are. the toughest to determine the streets. this is d.w. news live in the syrian military enters the cheat kurdish held town of turkish atop a syrian turkish backed forces close in the flashpoint town of monday just bracing for an assault on the syrian government says kurdish forces requested and support also coming up with tens of thousands made homeless by indonesia's tsunami disaster
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