Skip to main content

tv   Doc Film - Archeology 2.0 - Exploring the Past with Modern Technology  Deutsche Welle  January 7, 2019 4:15pm-5:00pm CET

4:15 pm
continue get made and women will have stronger representation we saw with what glenn close said at the awards ceremony last night and i think that's a movement that is going to keep going all right scott roxboro reporting from bonn thank you. and that does it for me on way iraq and for longer after the entire team . we make up. we've discovered for thousands of new sites from a range of different periods. but it's an idea of the data allows us to sharpen the focus of our inquiry and pinpoint exactly where to perform a day. in
4:16 pm
archaeology state of the art technology sometimes assumes the guise of an antiquated handcart. while archaeologists route boys in and rose and shot set up their equipment on a meadow they colleagues nearby are preparing a device that does look more high tech. the geomagnetic apparatus is so heavy it has to be towed by a vehicle both devices do the same thing only this one is larger and can survive a wider area.
4:17 pm
a group of german an irish archaeologists have met up at the old church at screen a fifteenth century sites. in mysticism but the church ruin is almost young compared to the an ancient monuments that dot the surrounding area. northwest of dublin the hill of screen is located opposite island's cultural treasure the hill of tara a millennia old place of assembly. the region is also home to giant megalithic tombs unique monuments built around three thousand b.c. by people who left nothing behind but their graves. a digital reconstruction lens an impression of the graves interiors many built in alignment with astronomical events.
4:18 pm
the archaeologists dragged the senses across the meadow to determine what lies beneath the surface. is first on this device is to me rush wide and equipped with five sensors you can cover two to three factors a day with a device like this so it's a fast way of collecting and evaluating archaeological data. that insecure and equipped with sixteen senses their colleagues magnetometer is even more effective in gathering archaeological evidence that humans were going to go so we need to be careful here out of the because if we swap the cables and the sensors will transmit the wrong positions emitted about that's why we do a final channel to see that everything's working so the proof of this all this was on the team is scouting for traces of ancient life underground without the
4:19 pm
intervention of a shovel it's a noninvasive technique called prospects in. february it's now hooking up the geomagnetic device to the computer. the computer has the task of recording all the measurement data and showing us where we have to prospect even when we are driving across the terrain invicta over to prosperity and how. the sixteen cents a device is used to take care magnetic measurements of the ground. move. everybody brings but really finding figures for the landscape harbors a history that began thousands of years ago and the archaeologists job description
4:20 pm
calls for a knowledge not just of history but technology too and today it helps if they don't mind being followed by curious horses we don't know exactly what's here the church has found it and we also want to know there are more about the history prior to the earliest documentary sources because we have some reference to say from the the eighth century in the tenth century referring to the screen being a place of burial. squads macross and showers are exact position. with the help of g.p.s. data the archaeologists can steer their vehicle across the meadow with the precision they need to generate a comprehensive ground image. this sense is dragging behind a vehicle measure the earth's magnetic field which lies underground like an invisible veil the presence of walsall grads alters the pattern of magnetism in the
4:21 pm
soil. and that is exactly what the senses can measure the computer registers these disturbances to reveal a long forgotten structure a shadow of the past. seventeen hundred kilometers further east in berlin the work is underway on a different type of digital archaeology in game developer thomas bremen studio three a virtual reality. it looks like a game but it isn't. the game designers are working with berlin archaeologist caracol maya technology makes ancient history their cooperation has yielded some surprising discoveries for example the hittites have not unusual reading technique. these are here for this one from left to right this one from right to left this one from left to right this
4:22 pm
again from right to left then back again yeah like in wavy lines that's awesome. as it's a missin in that archaeologists are anchored in past centuries and that applies to their methodology to. the ashes of the rapid development of computer technology in general but also a virtue archaeology is still something we need to get our heads around you know on come on and when i tell people i'm working with a game designer they just shut down because gaming technology sounds so frivolous but in fact this work is just the opposite views on what this is a goddess with. this looks like a video game but in fact it's a highly accurate copy of the real temple it's the temple of the weather god from aleppo one of the most important day it is in the ancient middle east the oldest parts of the temple date from the third millennium b.c.
4:23 pm
with visualization software the operator can make the sun rise and set allowing for a view of the complex in changing daylight the viewer gets a sense of space size and proportion. providing this damage with the we are not really standing in this temple we can judge and see things very differently than we could on a normal computer monitor as well as a religion computer morning and. does just the fact that i can stand here and for example squat down and actually get a three dimensional view of the object that is not something i can do on a normal computer monitor at all. aleppo in syria the temple was located in the heart of the city in the medieval city del from twenty twelve rebels holed up inside use the citadel to fire on government troops
4:24 pm
the result five thousand years of history turned to dust in a brutal civil war in early twenty levon the temple was still intact i call my stain from the lynn was on site to scan the complex security in the country still seemed so stable that the professor didn't just bring along his students he also took his young daughter on the trip. went to him you know below a million you'll see another representation of the weather god mounting his chariot here he is presented as combat ready. what's this that's the symbol for god and that's a makes. initially it was so only research but the dasher acquired new significance through the ravages of the syrian civil war. don't have their pets these and that we had an unimaginably large amount of data but when the civil war erupted and we couldn't get there anymore we were left wondering what do we do now. with mommy needs or it's sounds almost cynical
4:25 pm
now but we were in an ideal position was we were the only team of near eastern archaeologists to have scanned everything in three d. . says it was a ton of good fortune in the mists of terrible misfortune that don't look. the temple was badly damaged in the war but at least its memory has been digitally preserved. the scanned data is so precise the inscriptions are even more legible in virtual reality than they were in real life. that's. been on top when i learned to dig i had a piece of paper and a pencil that was all put together today we can use a scanner that is much more accurate than any reproduction on
4:26 pm
a sheet of paper lithia of of course that also gives rise to new fields of inquiry that is intriguing the how to hold it harder still as its plot. the generation of exact copies is a field that also interests maritime archaeologists all over the world measuring and marking shipwrecks underwater is one of their most demanding and arduous tasks and the conditions are not always as good as they are here in the baltic sea of the german island through can. only exceptional shipwrecks a salvaged and restored like the fourteenth century braman kong one of the world's largest ship finds. it took eighteen years of expensive conservation work to restore it to its full glory to learn more about this merchant ship from thirty
4:27 pm
nine thousand archaeologists created a digital model of the congo. zone a ship sponsor the construction of a ship like this is quite specialist and everything in the vessel is interconnected if you move one part by just two centimeters and it distorts the entire shape of the ship and so the computer gives you an overview. you're not dealing with a twenty three metre long ship you don't have to search the entire vessel for the place responsible for a deformity instead you can clearly see how every step you take impacts the entire structure and check whether a given step is change the overall shape that. the technology allowed researches for example to find out how the coke was silent without ever having to lower it into water. there is a shipwreck off froogle and that is not with recovering but it is never the less of
4:28 pm
interest to an here ologists. just as on the one special about this find is that it dates from the middle or perhaps even the early sixteenth century a period from which very few ships have been found and there is evidence that the word may have come from hamburg the bizarre herds are also some boxed arms or. even today certain details of the ship can be more clearly rendered if there copied underwater by hand. but the main job is done by a special camera it takes hundreds of images that are then used to generate a three d. computer model of the shipwreck while the wood has been perfectly preserved in the
4:29 pm
nutrient pool water of the baltic the current has a road with the ring down to its floor. david stop by as that's the great thing about it is you never see the wreck like this on a dive because visibility is poor. you can't create a model like there's even if you have a visibility of just thirty centimeters you know you just have to take enough photos so they overlap then you're looking at something no one has ever seen in that shape or form. for example the frigates ballast stones that still lie along the ship floor without them the vessel couldn't have carried its cargo of heavy cannons. one of the most spectacular exhibits in the collection of burnin smoochy in a bizarre make art goes largely unnoticed by visitors but the digital world is coming to its rescue. chi coal miners latest project is the richly carved wood done
4:30 pm
that was originally house in the nasser of palaces of the world famous alhambra in granada spain in berlin the dome is forced to lead a wallflower existence for conservation reasons. the corporate believe the dome is very poorly illuminated here in berlin. visitors can appreciate the way they could amid the light conditions in the alhambra for them so our aim is to recreate those lighting conditions virtually to allow visitors both here in the berlin museum and visitors to the alhambra and experience of the dome in its original context. invasion context before. in eighty ninety one the banker arthur fund grinnell was granted permission by the spanish authorities to move the dome to germany he had acquired a small palace on the alhambra from a spanish opera singer and later bequeath it to the spanish state but he decided to keep the don't pay himself for a time it decorated his villa in berlin before he donated it to the museum in.
4:31 pm
the dome was originally painted and gilded it's crafted from cedar and popular wood and consists of dozens of parts. a star ornament of heavenly beauty. one of the world's most important prehistoric landscapes is located in a bend of the highlands river born northwest of dublin. the passage graves of new grange down and now off with designated a unesco world heritage site in one thousand nine hundred three the central nearly thick mount of now has a sick conference the two hundred seventy five meters and is surrounded by twenty smaller tombs. the significance of numerous in grave stones remains a mystery many stories and legends are associated with the enormous mounds they are
4:32 pm
said to be the birthplace of heroes the hidden dwellings of elves and kings. the mount graves of newgrange doubt the now are all the catered within sight of each other. it's long been standard practice in archaeology to use drones to get an overview of the landscape the drones gather data to build digital terrain models on the computer sites with churches dating from the middle ages often have an older heritage invisible underground. there is a pledge to get an idea of all rulers seeking to exert political military or religious control over a territory but occupy any place that carried a particular significance so we use these old sites as a starting point because it's easy to imagine that with christianize asian these ancient sites were chosen as places to build churches.
4:33 pm
and in fact when it comes time to evaluate the data from the a.g.m. magnetic survey the archaeologists discover round structures that appear to predate the small maybe a little village. he lights and curse and they may be traces of circular grapes in closing burial mounds or they could be round house. in that distribution these objects make no reference to their stitch complex so one can assume that they date from another period so they wouldn't of. discovering hidden relics without taking draws on technology that originated in military applications. them to give us a color from the certainty of physical methods up based on measuring differences in the earth's magnetic field to the technology comes from hunting submarines which could be located underwater because they created disturbances in the earth's magnetic field. but this is a method that we now use in
4:34 pm
a modified form in archaeology look you've been. loosely is surrounded by traces of the past his work focuses on the mountain plateau of glauber need frankfurt it was first settled thousands of years ago the celts in particular left their mark on the area today it is known that the plateau was surrounded by a magnificent wall it did not serve as a fortification but the slope was steep enough rather it was designed to signal the power and splendor of the celtic princes the french young began here in the so-called near little cage with the emergence of the first farmers and cattle breeders in the region of the better of the first settlement up here the missiles the culture had no ramparts development continued into the late bronze age and by the early are an age around five hundred b.c. it was settled by the first people we could classify as celts and they were also
4:35 pm
the first to fortify this plateau for her first. and in conspicuous aerial photo taken in one thousand nine hundred eighty opened the door to one of the most spectacular discoveries in in archaeology. gemini archaeologists have been using aerial photography for decades to identify structures in the ground but this method only yields results following long periods of drought. runs it here are a lot in the field here you can see a darker structure relatively clearly in the great order which indicates that the grain is being supplied with more moisture in this particular place but boy did that so it can be assumed that there is a ditch there that retains the moisture better as a whole can come. the grave of a cultic prince was discovered deep in the field at the foot of the glasberg the corresponding burial mount had been plowed away long ago the huge hill has since been reconstructed and a museum installed behind the hill. a life
4:36 pm
size sandstone figure was found near the grave. the figure was in doubt with decorative chains and rings it was lying in a ditch together with fragments from other statues the celtic prince is crowned by a strange head piece. a golden chain was found in the prince's grave the stone figure was depicted wearing exactly the same chain. it's likely that the stone were a prince of cloud bag is the exact likeness of a person who lived more than two and a half thousand years ago. the body in the tomb was found with the same strange headpiece as the one crowning the stone figure.
4:37 pm
in subsequent years ariel archaeology has made further strides. we are made into classes and in addition to classical aerial archaeology now carried out digitally we also have other computer assisted methods of nondestructive testing to obtain information about archaeological remains in the last inch often so become. the most important of these methods is the lie down scan the scanner is fitted to an airplane and surveys the landscape below light as scanning was originally used by surveyors for archaeologists the data has proved a quantum leap in knowledge even if light outer rain models look somewhat unspectacular at first glance. what makes the lidar scan so invaluable is the methods ability to remove the noise of trees in vegetation from the data.
4:38 pm
driven off the roof to the ground penetrating radar shoots electromagnetic pulses into the earth from airplanes and sometimes helicopters. these signals are reflected back by any underground structures and the difference in the laser return times makes it possible to create a three d. image of the terrain it works in the forest as well because enough laser light can penetrate through the trees so that we achieve a relatively exactly surface image even in the forest coming on this image of you can follow the course of the roman lemus with the border between the roman empire and none occupied regions could this here may have been a watchtower for. you and here in the forest the remnants of a field of burial mounds this one here could theoretically be a burial mound that was opened in the past my guess would be sometime in the
4:39 pm
eighteenth century. at the time people typically entered from the top we call it funneling so they dug a funnel into the mound to extract burial objects or skeletons and what remained where these small holes at the top of the mount these faint traces indicate that what happened here and also on axel post lucian he discovered a large burial mound very close to the grave of the celtic prince a tiny dot on the scanner image not visible as a great image the thicket of the forest. multiple layers about pass lie beneath the ground we walk on we just can't see it. digital archaeology makes the invisible visible. in ireland to the number of discovered monuments has increased one hundred fold with the use of modern prospecting methods one particularly spectacular example is the hill of
4:40 pm
tara the mysterious national treasure it was the seat of irish kings and pagan priests at the heart of their power. for the hell of tara exudes an air of magic an island. back in the nineteenth century parish men would gather here and swear a holyoke not to rest until the land had won its independence. and there was a reason they did it here in the town. today self proclaimed druids inhabit the area at night you can hear them playing their harps christians built a church into. ruth boys in rows and shot systematically stride the length and breadth of the meadow on the expansive plateau with them magnetometer.
4:41 pm
here in tara it's a safe bet they'll find something interesting and they do the digital data shows numerous circles below the surface grave mounds or maybe sites of assembly. when we first started investigating tile there were about twenty five monuments known these mines that are visible but through geophysical survey we know there's more than one hundred monuments a lot of which you can't see above ground are buried beneath the surface. old maps can give clues to vanish structures.
4:42 pm
the people of tara lived thousands of years before the invention of writing they recorded their history in the ground and crafted sacred landscapes that only need to be deciphered. a deep channel on the planet was probably once the processional route it's clearly visible on the mind our scan it leads directly to the in a century the retina really a large ring more complex in fact it's a professional way and believe this is the route that the king elect would take on his way up to the summit of the hill of tar to be inaugurated to the left and right of the processional route ramparts were built to direct the marchers gaze to chemo on humans. interestingly there are a number of gaps along the length of the banks in which you can get a view out on very significant monuments and in particular borough monuments. so it
4:43 pm
seems prehistoric builders knew all about visual effects. but they also threw in from the that's what i personally find particularly appealing is that up here you're afforded a wider view of the landscape surrounding tara. and there are similar monuments on many of these mountains and held tops. not in the abundance we find on the hill or tara that is truly unique but there are also individual monuments which ultimately may have a common point of reference. and i never thought. the hill of war is another side that harbors a mysterious century students from dublin are digging their way into the hill at precisely defined points according to legend had a wing of each nation on the hill of ward a pagan festival of fire on the night of october this is a feminist. and in fact the students do find a large amount of animal bones an indication that people here may have come
4:44 pm
together for large celebrations with copious amount landscape surrounding tara and there are similar monuments on many of these mountains and held talks. not in the abundance we find on the hill or tara that is truly unique but there are also individual monuments which ultimately may have a common point of reference. and i never thought. the hill of war is another sign that harbors a mysterious century students from dublin are digging their way into the hill at precisely defined points according to legend had a wing of each nation on the hill of ward a pagan festival of fire on the night of october thirty first. and in fact the students do find a large amount of animal bones an indication that people here may have come together for large celebrations with copious amounts of food and irish archaeologists stephen davis has surveyed the hill but he was unable to find
4:45 pm
anything with g.m. magnetics he has a simple explanation. one of the probably isn't magnetic survey here which is what we might use of course the rest of it is all this heavy burning you've seen behind you with all this heavy burden is very heavy magnetic just because it's been burned so the whole thing really lights up and you can't see anything at all so with with resistance in the sky so we can see that this big mound behind us here is actually defined by a stone wall which is actually what we're taking out now in this case so that's why that's why we docked here we dug a small section into the side of this mound with the stone wall in the center. geo electric surveys measure the soil resistance and create images of structures underground only now can researches identify the various walls and ditches in the complex. where rituals really celebrated in large bonfires ignited here overnight on october the thirty first archaeological clues could confirm the
4:46 pm
theory. because they were burning. ok so the burning took place before whatever after dear that's fallen down onto itself this extends all the way over here. to have a fire festival here now but it's hypothesized a fire festival going back almost into the eye and there are many evil references to the creator from various meeting here in lighting a great fire. but those references would be several hundred years off it would have happened so we we were treated with a certain skepticism. we are finding a lot of evidence of fire so who knows. aside from graves and ritual sites the people who built these complexes left only one thing behind the bodies of then murdered kings their bodies are on display at the national museum of ireland in dublin the graves in their dead at the only testimony of early irish people
4:47 pm
a people who had no written language. like in tara a processional route can be made out in a digital data from the hill toward a road that is no longer visible in the meadows. the same was true of the celtic burial ground on the cloud back. here it's not just the burial mounds it's been reconstructed but also the processional route leading up to the hill it was flanked by deep trenches and originally much longer this is clear from the digital data at geomagnetic survey has revealed the roads further course.
4:48 pm
today it's known that the road was bordered by a high wall which was up to twelve meters wide at the base visitors could only see the great mound after turning the corner researchers believe the hill was even whitewashed like an island the structures here were designed with visuals in mind and astronomically aligned. others of the kind of it's not a road that marks a path from a to b. it's aligned with the southern major lunar standstill and astronomical phenomenon that occurs every eighteen point six years so it was possible to be five units of time without a calendar without to watch over a longer period of time from his youngest. in.
4:49 pm
the isle hundred. in grenada there are a few other sites in europe to draw as many tourists. every day only five thousand visitors are allowed to enter the castle the tickets are sold out weeks in advance call meyer feels privileged to work here. cole meyer and his team have been working for days at the plant see odell part time the villain or the belong to a sultan then to an opera singer and then a german banker from berlin it was from here that are to a fund remove the decorative dome in one thousand nine hundred one. it was replaced by a poor copy. of this one part of
4:50 pm
it's really a great feeling to be able to get a sense of the domes original setting with this. one believe the aromas the views through the windows all make for an entirely different experience than if you're standing in a museum and looking up in a dimly lit room or good know all. every detail of the chamber is carefully documented with a high performance scanner. watching the lengths being gone to here one can't help but ask why berlin doesn't just return the dome to its original home the archaeologist call such considerations a historical. if you could go to sleep when you get home the dome was brought to berlin legally there's no question about it it now has its own story and that story includes that of its previous owner the german banker who acquired it and brought it to germany. they don't know if he incorporated it into his own villa there and then by a detour that arrived at the berlin museum in this story belongs to the objects
4:51 pm
provenance it can't be ignored so there's less significant disappear. the digital reconstruction reveals the change is long lost splendor the original dime housed in the early museum has been integrated into this virtual reality experience . the dawn from this chamber was one of the oldest components of the alhambra probably cost around thirteen twenty. even if the time was still in place here the tower chamber is too small to accommodate the alhambra as five thousand daily visitors no one would ever get a glimpse of between are. you.
4:52 pm
running. in places where the walls are too high for the scanner another method is used photo grama tree a three d. model is generated using thousands of overlapping photos principio blog this is in principle i think it's a good idea to upload three d. images of these objects to the internet because then everyone can access them too gung frieden. in ireland scientists are a step ahead many scanned objects have already been posted on the internet. before the german archaeologists returned home they take a few soil samples it's an inexpensive substitute for next ovation.
4:53 pm
the researches are in doubt an area dotted with prehistoric burial mounds and medieval farms a power cable runs underground through a small medieval settlement geomagnetic data helps archaeologists of void hitting an electric cable rather than a medieval d.h. . does this also argue that's the big difference today in the ideal scenario i already know a tremendous amount about the site before i start my day and that enables me to plan the dig very precisely generally the areas of excavation a much smaller than they used to be because i simply don't have to search as much as i used to i'm with you as was. the archaeologists are drilling at a location they suspect harvest of waste. like modern garbage bins their historical
4:54 pm
previous s's say a lot about the living conditions of the people who lived here. the team can tell immediately that their technicians have hit the right spot numbers when you're going to do what you can see quite well here is the lowest layer that we still had on the drill head and that there is charcoal innit. so we already know we're in the middle of the occupation layer i'm a bit of a but i can't say i'm surprised because we already knew from the geomagnetic data that there's a structure here which we've already been able to classify apparently accurately and if we hadn't found this would be an indication that we've messed up our measurements. but it was accurate our swap to. the arms is a future of we've collected
4:55 pm
a lot of information without ones driving our shovel into the soil and what is particularly satisfying is what we found in the core sample namely charcoal. through radio carbon dating will be able to establish how all this charcoal airs which doesn't mean we'll know how old the ditch is about that is how we proceed one step at a time and of course when the botanists then examine the charcoal forest will know what type of trees were burned here. the soil samples undergo further testing in frankfurt the small pieces of charcoal from the historical waste pit a treated with the same ten to love and care as any ancient ceramic shot finally the soil is pulsed with x. rays to break down its chemical components canoed rassmann is hunting for
4:56 pm
a very specific element. i'm in their fight it is a human excretes about one kilogram a fast first per year in cattle it's about eighty kilograms. or if we have a lot of phosphorous it's probable that it's from the feces of humans and animals. so it's an early indicator of the length of time the spot was settled and. why was the sediment used for a short time or a longer duration the higher the fast first impact the higher the probability that the settlement was used for a long time even vaguely along its side notes for this. with their high tech equipment archaeologists have pinpointed many places where they could dig but they don't because digging destroys traces that hold out the promise of key insights with future as yet undeveloped methods you know and if i told them
4:57 pm
we shoulder a responsibility to human archaeology is a finite field besides do not grow back and things that have been excavated are lost to research. unfortunately this is an inherent part of archaeological excavation in the us you look stupid it's all scams. digital archaeology is the future of historical research but even today we can't do everything on a computer justina you know we're standing here in the landscape and we feel what's unique about it we see the hell of tara we see the top poker feet we get a holistic sense of the place but it's not possible to reproduce that in a virtual world technology provides us with useful tools but the archaeologist still has to do fieldwork.
4:58 pm
between two extremes closely culture. to explore the bad things and learn to still it's certainly highest mountain and. she's taking a brand new cable cutting so much that says summit descending into the popular. experience something very in the winter magic with genuine inside is. thirty minutes.
4:59 pm
how about taking a few risks you could even take a chance on was. referring to. don't expect a happy ending. to the church of god. where is home. when your family is scattered across the globe. with the words if you don't listen to the new because the journey back to the roots we should get a minimum of the. bush on traveling from up the road. to urgent assistance. good family starts in january twenty third on g.w. come up. to
5:00 pm
new modern. audience. to moderate. this is it means live from berlin stranded at united nations officials in thailand take charge of a desperate saudi teenager ramat up on one says she's fleeing abuse and will be killed the four storage turned home eighteen year old barricaded herself into or took a hotel room and broadcast her plight on social media also coming up security forces think up on ground up the rebels behind a failed coup attempt earlier a group of soldiers seized a public radio station.


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on