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tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  May 4, 2019 10:15am-11:01am CEST

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news at the top of the hour zoe's thanks for joining us. europe big idea. what's become of it. will it look like tomorrow. camping for a better future isn't enough europe requires our participation. years in the elections twenty nineteen may twenty sixth on d w.
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that the world has changed weather is getting more extreme. the day be a struggling one the talking of people on the moon in the millions then the talking up of people in the billions of drought flood. hurricanes that
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asked areas are being devastated by environmental catastrophe how many people will be forced to leave their homes by the mid century not due to conflict and war but due to climate change we appear to be on the path to a troubling future. from mr hill region to southeast asia from the pacific to the caribbean some people are fleeing rising waters others drought. the world's population began to soar about two hundred years ago soon it will top ten
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billion greenhouse gases are rising apace the resulting warming of the earth's atmosphere is wreaking havoc on the climate humankind which is responsible for this warming is becoming its victim more and more people are forced to leave their homes . inequality is being exacerbated by climate change wealthy industrialized nations are polluting our air while the main victims live in the global south for example in indonesia. pontypool hadia which means happy beach lies on the indian ocean due to rising seas and heavy rainfall the village is sinking into the sea. the flooding continues even now during dry season. the local. primary school is damp and smells of rot parents say conditions are
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intolerable and more than half the children have been taken out of school. teachers in primary grades. he attended this single himself and is determined to persevered. his classroom flooded for the first time in twenty thirteen. but then that conditions here are very very difficult for us we often have to send the children home when the classrooms flood the children sit with their legs in water. regular instruction has become impossible the children are falling behind within the next five or six years rahmatullah believes the school will be submerged. it will be abandoned along with the village
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. what will it look like here three decades from now in the year two thousand and fifty. dam there will be the most extreme conditions of four with our seventeen thousand islands at all of course and that will be if not by the sea so life will not be the same as here there's a lot of illness that will replace and the. growth of the whole world will be disturbed by horizontal strife. one against the other because fighting for food water may be erasure. very sad picture twenty fifty. for the for the indonesian special envoy the catastrophic impact of unchecked climate change is the biggest. allan's facing
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humankind today ten years ago the topic was barely on the radar. jakarta the capital of indonesia with some ten million residents it's the largest city in southeast asia around thirty million people live in the metropolitan area making it the second largest urban conglomeration in the world. and if the fish markets are located in north jakarta the scent of the ocean lies in the air mixing with the odors of the city. just a few kilometers from the city center the problems confronting this tropical metropolis become apparent residents struggle with small heat heavy traffic pollution population density and poor hygenic conditions and with increasing frequency
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flooding. the slum district of data is located near the airport it's five thousand residents used to live near the sea but these days it almost looks like they live in it. he calls them are no has lived in since the one nine hundred seventy s. he and his neighbors have watched the rising sea level with concern. at least once a month the flooding reaches his knees. sometimes the water remains two days sometimes a week you know. it flooded here for the first time around the year two thousand. first it was just a few centimeters. since two thousand and ten the flooding has been getting higher and higher but it's never been as bad as it is now. in jakarta the districts closest to the coast face the biggest problems poor
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neighborhoods like that up will be among the first to me complete relocation. he says the slums most at risk are situated along a wide corridor that snakes through the city says urban planner marco cousteau my view jaya. floods and most all only the coastal areas and the floods should be the sole ops teams in the city center observed qadhafi view from my office. kumasi jaya is director of the rue jax center for urban studies which searches for solutions for climate related problems right now their focus is the depletion of groundwater from the area the declining water table has even more serious consequences than rising sea levels. it's causing the ground to sink and large parts of the city with it if they can get most of the american model because on the video to dark the sea level rises at between four to six
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millimeters but you're but was is that the land. is subsiding by. tree to twenty sente meet us. in february two thousand and thirteen nearly half of jakarta was underwater. scenes like this are likely to become increasingly common. ocean levels continue to rise the land is collapsing and heavy rains are becoming more frequent. about one third of jakarta. currently below sea level environmental problems are causing a growing number of people to flee the city but most want to remain or have no other choice in an effort to protect the capital the government has begun building a seawall.
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but only six of the plan fifty kilometers have been built. and even their water is finding its way through it's becoming clear that everything located directly on the water will one day fall victim to it like this mosque. the bacteria sexually. neighborhoods will be flooded because neighborhoods have raised them so you know but exactly because they have raised their good all so the water. will actually flow to sort of the poor neighborhood. poor districts located along one of jakarta's thirteen rivers often stay submerged for weeks when the floodwaters rise. in.
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areas near the chile one river are most at risk like this low income district by the chile one tributary tongue call situated just four hundred meters from the ocean the drivers housekeepers fishermen construction workers and such that live here all face climate change related risks. it's estimated that sixty five percent of all they should will be directly. affected based which is a lot of people sixty five percent of three hundred million fail a million is hundred seventy million people live in. an island nation and six thousand am said that. this will be destroyed if they came up with figures of fourteen million for zero million because they are the people and those prone to . affix of landslides. fourteen million people
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directly and for. those involved may have to leave their homes. and. indonesia is prone to a variety of natural disasters. to mudslides flooding to drought but there is one place that is that risk of all of these the island of java. and it's here that one of the world's most densely populated areas is located in jakarta. this city's infamous traffic jams last almost until midnight only to resume again at dawn. more than three point five million people commute into the city every day
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. just one hundred kilometers southeast the bustle of jakarta is a distant memory. chair in your district is situated at the foot of two an active volcanoes. it's one of job as most further. farming regions. the rice vegetables and fruit grown here help feed the country's capital the village of surrounding is accessible only by motorbike or on foot. to do wrong he runs a small coffee plantation here like his father and grandfather he is a farmer. coffee used to be a safe choice it fetched a better price than vegetables and was hardier than rice. but that's changing. when i was younger all
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farmers would plant during rainy season so january february and march. and then everyone would harvest during dry season. but now my colleagues and i are desperate . because it's often dry in the rainy season and in the dry season it rains. we are paying the price for climate change our harvests dropped massively by about sixty percent. nearly half of local farmers have given up they've moved to other parts of indonesia or left the country altogether. some have become construction workers in saudi arabia but due to roni doesn't want to join them. so yeah. i can't imagine doing anything else. but i will stay here as long as possible but i'm a farmer that's who i am. i'm going to try to somehow adapt to climate change if it's
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too dry when it's time to plant for example i'll just wait. for. these mountainous regions don't just supply food to the cities and their forests also help store rainwater but extreme weather conditions are growing increasingly common here and still forests are falling victim to logging leaving rainwater to flow unhindered into the valley sometimes the water sweeps away everything in its path. mudslides have had fatal consequences these images states from twenty seventeen and twenty eight thousand.
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special climate envoy veto law says that by mid century climate change will have forced forty million people to flee their homes in indonesia alone farmers who can no longer till their fields slum dwellers whose ten roof tugs have sunk into the sea. most experts agree that it's the world's coldest regions that have become the cauldron for climate change these are the arctic the antarctic alaska and much of the permafrost of russia.
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nikita zima lived trained as a mathematician. but his father sergei his lifelong commitment inspired nikita to change course. now like his father he has dedicated his life to preserving russia's permafrost. he's come to the cleaner river in northeastern siberia an eight hour flight from moscow to gather evidence that the promise frost is vanishing. the ground has warmed up to three degrees celsius causing the top layer of the ice to melt one side effect is that more and more rare fossils are surfacing. for paleontologists this would be a treasure trove a field of riches from the distant pleistocene epoch.
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so think of the. moments where. not the biggest one but every state. twenty or so here was in the forces and because this new here was huge and then every square kilometer on one mama and they were four thousand years and all they were is here on the square kilometer maui around six hundred kids going to things so every once in a while there. all along the soil is a road sliding into the river as a consequence of the melting permafrost. nikita's enough cost plants like these zombies because the soil in which they are growing was barren for forty thousand years. this vegetation will also soon end up in the river.
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the changes taking place here could soon be a reality across wide expanses of russia. and it could also have a dramatic impact on the global climate and mass migration of peoples for there is an immense amount of biomass still trapped within the permafrost. if that trapped c o two and methane were to be released into the atmosphere the pace of climate change would increase dramatically. so there is a group of grasses which grew here maybe i don't forty thousand years ago and then prove that this is a huge storage of carbon and take always leave the roofs and put them on the one side of the balance and on the other side of the boats put all the above ground
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vegetation of the point at the base grow trees and shrubs of the good of you will see that they started it but it will sweep more. and the fear of us will start to be great everywhere all this we will become a wheel for microbes to eat and they were very soon alerted to greenhouse gases. that's ice pure ice out there and you see when this ice is melting the water is mixing with this soil and creating this month full of children down the top and they get additions have been very rapidly here so it's a combination of both a lot of carbon and also fight and that's a give you a very rugged carbon but for every problem that will be happening with the global warming worldwide with this thing it will be a problem before it so you can do it to see if it's going to be bad somewhere to turn very bad so if there is a week to stop that from happening like we need to apply that because if not you
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know. you can write any apocalyptic scenarios you want and probably most of them will come true. it's breakfast time in iquitos the mass guest house. interest in permafrost has soared over the past decade so now the guest rooms here at the station are usually booked year round with researchers from all over the world. this is the group from oxford university here to study the transformations currently underway in what used to be frozen earth. during the soviet era this enormous satellite used to broadcast television programming from moscow. last turned the station into a home base for scientists from around the world.
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yeah well though the data that has been collected in siberia and across russia's far east are alarming normally the vegetation binds greenhouse gases in the summer and only releases very small amounts back into the atmosphere in winter. so out here you can see that. your money for which is. cool but for the past few years the promise frost that stalling more and more in the summer is releasing ever increasing amounts of methane and c o two during the winter. the bottom of the biosphere is acting. as a friend as
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a motor brake on climate change so of about forty percent of the carbon dioxide we emit is being absorbed by the biosphere and that's acting to slow down climate change if i wasn't happening climate change of even faster than that it is one of the big concerns we have as a system scientists is understanding how long well the biosphere keep acting as a brake i mean is there a danger that at some time in the future. if this break will turn into the accelerate. scientists from all over are turning their attention to the permafrost and its potential impact on climate change. this group of researchers from prague is being hosted by the institute of applied ecology of the north in the republic of soka. the researchers have just returned from a crater that is carved into the permafrost. the soil samples are a gift to the institute. in return the researchers hope to obtain permission to
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exhibit some of their spectacular finds in a museum at home remains of a mammoth in the mummified remains of an extinct horse from the pleistocene epoch you. know. here. they would if they were. in the crater and wish the fossilized remains were found was named the bottom gaika crater but locals call it the gateway to the underworld. it's easy to see why. in the one nine hundred sixty s. a small section of forest was cleared to make way for a new road. the problem frost originally beneath the trees began eroding. that
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first the hole was just a few meters deep. the stupid and on average the make a crater is between forty and sixty meters deep and in some places it's one hundred meters deep it's one point five kilometers long and about one kilometer wide right now but it's hard to determine exactly how wide it is because it's expanding so quickly because these kinds of catastrophic events could become increasingly common hypnosis and not just in residential areas but anywhere in the wilderness wherever there are pipelines and natural gas facilities our entire infrastructure could be impacted. as opposed to. most of the cities in siberia and in russia's far east could be affected about twenty five million people in all. how big would the impact be if all the world's permafrost were to melt so far there isn't enough cross regional research to answer that but there are findings regarding the polar
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region from a global terrestrial network for permafrost in one thousand nine hundred six the problem frost melted to a depth of forty five centimeters in the summer by twenty seventeen it melted to a depth of eighty seven centimeters a nearly one hundred percent increase over just twenty years. this poses a danger to both people and infrastructure. natural gas and oil pipelines are particularly affected. greenpeace has estimated that leaks in pipelines caused by foreign soil are leading to about one percent of oil being lost that oil some five million tons of it each year seeps into the ground. the residents of the arctic city of chere ski in the far north east of russia are bearing witness to this rapid transformation. temperatures are rising in exorbitant. asphalt on the streets is
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beginning to buckle. in several buildings are showing signs that the solid ground on which they once stood has begun to sink. the city of chere ski on the kalina river is also home to nikita off. even though temperatures drop here to minus sixty degrees celsius in the winter the erosion of the permafrost soil appears unstoppable this is especially apparent at the former water treatment plant. like all the buildings here it stands on pillars. the earth began to sink here just two years ago now the crater is already ten
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meters deep. into the stars it's going we're on the stove what it was here a week ago there was something those two points with you in the air and now we came they really could go up down and that is the huge nice go in underneath there for the with this in this ice has been there all of it and eventually all that full fuel co-ops otho this process going to go and then it's you know centimeters a day maybe tens of something with us and they win the whole day so we got seriously over in the powerful and now with climate getting warm up there for the both of getting warm and we've debated it off like that so all the infrastructure in the next few decades will probably become up. elsewhere the heat of the sun is relentless this is cameroon and central africa here in the stream bed of the mile below river signs of despair are everywhere.
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at. the north of cameroon receives two months of rainfall a year at most in august and september during the rest of the year people must walk far to find water or dig deep. older people who live here say that water used to flow abundantly through the mile below river into the logan river and eventually discharging into lake chad. but those days are gone. they do want to cut the power works for the charity organization in the region his job is to ward off the looming humanitarian catastrophes. access to drinking water is an enormous problem for people and animals here in the
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far north of cameroon. often visits villages near the provincial capital of my rule. today he's in home to many herders. has been a social worker for many years and knows the signs of an impending humanitarian catastrophe. in the summer of twenty eighteen the region was on the brink. oh my god. look at nana i mean women used to french but now it's so bad the entire family has to help. now when young people want to build a house they have no water when we want to work there is no water a young man wants to be a farmer or work in sales and there's no water. so it's already begun young men are leaving they're going to the big cities to joan day and
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. people are starting to leave. we no longer know how we will be able to manage. the drought is especially hard on people who must find water not just for their families but also for their livestock that one little. guy gold who believes he is about sixty years old and has always tended his herds. now it's so dry that he and his son john paul are running out of options. this animal feed was harvested the previous year by now it's completely dried out and there isn't much left. if the next month doesn't bring rain the family fear the worst. if their livestock die they will be left with nothing.
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i believe the spring is six kilometers away we have to fetch water twice a day just to have barely enough for our cattle the goats and my family. over the past ten fifteen years the situation has grown much worse that's why young people aren't able to stay in their villages they're forced to leave to go to the cities there's no future for them here. young people are moving away because the lack of water is stealing their futures herders are having to leave for the cities because their livestock died of thirst traders grain farmers and hunters people from across northern cameron are leaving their homes they are climate refugees a sign of things to come. but
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climate is hardly ever the only reason behind a decision to migrate poverty is often a factor fear of terror attacks can also play a role. most of the people gathered here fled from the islamist group boko haram in neighboring nigeria. they are now unintentionally contributing to the desperate situation facing local cameroonians. people stand in line for up to eight hours to receive a few kilos of food they wait quietly and patiently despite the brutal heat. there are two hundred sacks of millet and corn for thirty thousand people this help is urgently needed but it's only a drop in the bucket. do you get in here out of. going to.
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devoted to meet us when we've already seen several waves of migration. people keep trying to make their way south to find farmland in areas where. there's more rain. many people have left here heading south. so that. if you did get. here in the mid may region the rains used to begin in april. now the rains come in late may. sometimes in early june. in the past it rained until october. the beauty but last year the rains ended in august. that's a disaster for us farmers.
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in order to farm properly soil must remain moist for at least four months out of the year experts call this the one hundred twenty day line if rain last less than four months soil will grow arid grain cultivation becomes impossible and livestock die. in the say hill region this line between survival and disaster is moving ever further south toward the equator where there's more rain from one nine hundred seventy to two thousand and sixteen up to one hundred kilometer wide stretches of land that were once arable have become desert. as a result hundreds of camps have arisen in the seville region filled with people who have lost their livelihoods temperatures reach forty five degree celsius in the shade and sixty degrees in the full sun. people here live at the edge of despair reliant on food deliveries from n.g.o.s. he said in golda and her
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family live in one of these camps they haven't a food for now and access to a water pump. but when they fled the drought they lost their independence. their fields where they used to plant millet and onions grew arid. lisa her husband and their five children are climate refugees. is or is she was suffering so much. there's no rain we have no water we don't have enough water to grow anything. she had a ship group of people here heading south. hoping that they'll be able to grow crops there and find something to eat. in southeast asia flooding is driving people from their homes. in africa it's the devastating drought. cameroon is suffering as is neighboring chad.
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lake chad which lent its name to the entire region is the only natural source of water in the area. researchers from the international organization for migration have come to the region surrounding lake chad to investigate the connection between climate change and the rise of climate migration. mashal remove the low of the un migration organisation has spent years in this the hill region every encounter and every conversation adds another layer of detail to his preliminary findings. today maria will and his team are visiting a camp for displaced people near lake chad. under the shadow of a nearly barren tree he speaks with mohammed abraham the head of the family ybor
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him tells no real oh he is a herder the family suffered a terrible ordeal before finally arriving in lake chad it was heat and lack of water that drove him from their home. climate change has a huge impact on us herders if there's no rain no plants grow and without green plants to eat our animals die so we heard or see are hit very hard by this. rocket from the chart which upside. down side and your side they all depended on this source you can realize that this lake is unique it's just a fresh water we feel. so many lives depend on if. it could be c.d.'s and.
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because we don't believe. we can hardly talk about living. in one nine hundred sixty three lake chad covered an area of twenty five thousand square kilometers. by two thousand and seven it was just twenty five hundred square kilometers more than ninety percent smaller and the lake continues to shrink. if the lake were to completely dry up more than fifty million people would probably become climate refugees and this figure does not take into account the rate of population growth. lake chad remains a life source for millions of people but as it continues to shrink water is becoming an ever scarcer and more valuable resource. and so our arable land and the fish in the lake. as lake chad get smaller competition for these resources will
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become increasingly bitter. even now fishermen in the region are competing for dwindling stocks of carp nile perch and to latvia. we've climate change there is a key impact. in that it it affects their distribution and department of fish and use that in mind it's a fishing industry as well so. it touches on the major level of people i don't. normally farm house it does. the region surrounding like chad is emblematic of the close connection between climate change and migration.
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you know they're not past we had a lot of fish good fish we sold them here are over in nigeria but now they have problems with terrorists and here we have no more fish in our lake. from lake chad to indonesia farmers can no longer rely on predictable seasons for planting and harvesting the climate has become a threat there are hurricanes cycling's drought flooding mudslides and wildfires and the melting permafrost could soon exacerbate all of those around the globe. on the american continent people are fleeing drought in northern brazil in the caribbean and the southern united states it's hurricanes. in africa people are leaving the arabs to hill region some will likely head north to europe. in spain italy and greece people also flee the rising heat. in
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asia coastal regions are vanishing under rising oceans people are fleeing to higher ground in river deltas like bangladesh. the south sea islands will be completely submerged. how many people will have become climate refugees by twenty fifty we know the moment approximately twenty million people are being displaced every year bust numbers more or less true for the last decade so we can say that on the climate change population growth possibly more vulnerable populations this number is going to grow if you look today we know that every year at least twenty five million people flee so fast forward thirty years. so that's why i think if you go to figure time hundred millions is not about the highest amount so you should have done they insult to do this to us you know if i had to estimate i'd say maybe a fifth or a quarter of the world's population will be forced to migrate. so that's about two
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this is deja news live from berlin another accident involving another boeing seven thirty seven twenty one people are injured as the jet slides off the runway at a u.s. naval station in florida as it arrives from cuba also coming up. ceremonies take place in bangkok for thailand's first foreign nation in seven decades our correspondent piece at the crowning of king rama. and india real us from the devastation after one of the worst.