tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle July 30, 2019 7:15am-8:00am CEST
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the spectacular alps dazzling ice against a brilliant blue sky donny arnold and his friend are extreme mountaineers on a quest for the ultimate thrill. they're climbing the pits a nearly 4000 meter peak. unselect in pickle and position your ice axes on the wind you hear the tension of these crests and hisses when it breaks up the ice blocks it's really cool yes it is a make a cool buzz an increasing number of scientists are warning that such adventures might soon become impossible lobal warming is melting the glaziers donny arnold can see for himself the effects of climate change easy on the days when you could really go climbing in winter in that clip them called 10 years ago he thought there were lots more of them female.
a team led by glazer an expert. from the swiss federal institute of technology in zurich visits the mountains twice a year once in spring and again in autumn when the season begins. they investigate how much fresh snow fall there was in winter and the thickness of the snow cover over the ice the mall snow that has been the better the condition of the glazier today the 25th of april 28th it's in better shape than it's been for a while. more than 5 meters of snow fell in winter. jamba itself. we've measured snow water equivalent at 7 glaciers across what's our
land our measurements showed that in 2018 snow cover was well above average. and there wasn't quite as much snow depth everywhere and switzerland as there was here but it doesn't look like there was perhaps as much as 50 percent more than in a normal year st neots. first will be back in autumn. there are plenty of people who see the healthy snow fall as proof that climate change is a mess. but in europe's highest mountain ranges the evidence is all around in italy switzerland austria slovenia and germany. the environmental research station she found a house is located just beneath the peak of the. it's the highest altitude research
post in germany for professor anetta mental and her students from the technical university in munich it's the starting point for an alpine expedition she tells them that they can see the signs of global warming every day high levels of pollen for example it can be potentially life threatening for people with allergies. is the one result of global warming is that the pollen season starts earlier but doesn't enter any or there's a lot of pollen about even in autumn due to invasive species and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the air also raises pollen production. ringback the. eco climatology students will meet dozens of experts on the alpine study trip . starting with michelle card data
a scientist of international renown his area of expertise is permafrost and landslides erosion and natural hazards. often point out is the 1st we have to run now the temperature increase means the permafrost in the alps is starting to melt there is a growing risk of rock fall and mountains are simply not as cold as they used to be called blatter explains. next the group sense out to see inside that suit spitzer measuring the thickness of the permafrost is a bit like performing open heart surgery. or inspiring and intense. this tunnel is just 50 centimeters high the scientists have to crawl on all fours.
the permafrost inside the took spitzer is between a couple and a couple of dozen meters thick depending on side temperatures nowadays it's possible to measure it precisely the rock is illuminated with countless electrical sensors increasingly less rock inside the mountain is permanently frozen even here at germany's highest peak the permafrost is visibly thawing. cynicism science for it we've been observing a clear reduction in the permafrost since february of 2007 so more than a decade ago the occasional cold winter can slow the process slightly but over the years we've seen the thaw advance rubble and rock stabilize the ice in the critical areas where. the thought has set in but we have to keep a careful eye on it in case instabilities arise later. alpine instability
the residents of the small village of bondo in the swiss can tone of carbon know all too well what that can mean. al berezovsky is saying goodbye to her parents' home the house she spent her whole life in it has to be demolished. in a case well when i see my house dying this slow death it makes me very sad. i'm ready to leave now seem to forget. in summer 2017 a massive landslide it pits changelog brought 3000000 cubic meters of rock crashing down into the valley. whose desperate i suddenly heard this terrible noise shout i looked up at the mountain and saw huge chunks of rock cascading down the side of it it looked like a larva but moving very slowly and soundlessly it was ice water and soil
they had. a surveillance camera at a local carpentry business recorded these images. 8 hikers were killed out of the village was destroyed the landslide was a result of climate change. they used to be houses here now there's just rubble. elevators are as his house was full of boulders and rocks. it's in the prohibited area of the village where people are no longer allowed to live. 82 year old elvira zionist's had to leave bondo she moved in with her son in a neighboring village her house was 345 years old her great grandfather bought it. in that. house i do feel good is that. i'm all found
was initially i was just very sad i cried a lot see i was glad that i was there when it was torn down. it's the same as it is with people you don't let people die alone i didn't want my home to dial and think that once they have been. the 200 residents of bondo are still at risk another 3000000 cubic metres of rock fall from pits gentle oh could hit the village at any time. montana are left there but that the mountain has a fever they say here. was
the landslide that devastated bondo a one off are such disasters set to become more frequent to answer these questions professor michelle a car blatter has put together a team of scientists today they're heading to what they believe is one of the most intriguing spots in the entire house. the helicopter has hardly any room to land here on the hopeful but the border between germany and austria runs over the summit not far from over stop. in 2014 a crack appeared in a mountain that has since widened there is an acute risk of rock for one of 2 paths at the top of the mountain has been closed off. an aerial view reveals the full extent of the danger several hundreds of thousands of tons of rock
could hurtle into the valley. collecting data at an altitude of 2600 meters is a risky undertaking what could happen if the summit collapses doesn't bear thinking about. these are very positive but there's about 260000 cubic meters of rock mass we began taking measurements here in 2014 and since then it's moved 30 centimeters right now it's moving several millimeters a month i need to really want. to from what i want to deformations underway are so strong and can change in such a short space of time that it won't be long now well it could all come crashing down this year or next year or next we can't rule that out. the alps are effectively held together by permafrost not just here in al going germany and bondo
switzerland but everywhere. the cracks are showing literally in the alpine it'll. today the students are visiting screes slopes it wasn't long ago that these were covered in snow all year round. europe's highest mountain regions are highly sensitive to climate change they react to the slightest rise in temperature by even a 10th of a degree to any extended period without rain to every interference in nature with dramatic consequences. the temperature is rising and then there are a lot of activities of which anyway going to hurt us so basically. these that are going to lead us even more worse in the future for example if you're
using fields if you solve it on the planet it's going to affect the not only the same country i bet it's going to if you know billy and this is the 1st is that it matters to me because it affects my. the future of the future of my children and of the whole ecosystem of dad and i went with him i love nature i love being outside and i think that's why i want to learn about all this and find out what the future holds in mountain region the state of nevada ice i've seen things here and then if if i can transfer the technology or the knowledge that i've gained here or there then i will believe that we can lure the. climbing we can mitigate not exactly there we cannot do anything but adapt to the climate change happening.
with it's all year round snowy cap's germany's highest mountain is a major tourist attraction. but took spitzer's glazier is no longer growing it's melting away by 2040 at the latest it will have retreated completely. snowplows scrape together the last of the winter snow it's stored in snow depth hours at the start of a new season it will be used to get the beasts ready that way the season can get started as early as possible but the lack of snow is becoming increasingly problematic in 2018 even with snow farming the skiing season couldn't start in
november because the temperatures on the took spitzer were just too warm. i. even results in high altitudes now rely on artificial snow which is water and energy intensive. demand is so great that ski lift operators sometimes buy snow from private suppliers. almost every village in the alps is dependent on tourism and therefore on snow. keeping the visitors happy is all that matters whatever the cost no $1.00 wants the party to be over.
in summer the cost of all of that fun is written into the landscape. the resort of silver platter is located about finished all the slopes a little with countless snow machines maintaining the resort is a huge financial investment the damage wrought by tourism is substantial. hydrologist common the young from the university of strasbourg researches the effects of artificial snow on the alps even she is taken aback by the extent of the erosion caused by winter sports given the here this channel is very wide almost 2 metres you can tell from where i'm standing that it's really deep it's the ground is eroding completely there are channels all over the slopes big and small and. the young wants to establish if the ground can still absorb water she measures the
density of the soil the snow cats and the heavy artificial snow have left us on extremely compacted. it's thanks it's a struggle deposition a measuring rod she's never seen results like these before. this possibility and all the water will just flow off the surface as a result the pieced will be completely impermeable the water flowing here doesn't get absorbed it just runs off the surface and causes widespread erosion and open up and feel this is normally a really pretty meadow with permeable ground that's able to absorb water or. fall. yet new snow machines are being installed all over the alps like here in santa maria it's where 2 kilometers or pipeline of being late to keep east song created
at ever high altitudes for many resorts it's the only way they can survive but costs are exploding and eventually many ski lift operators simply won't be able to afford to stay in business winter sports industry is being outstripped by climate change. the production of artificial snow calls for vast quantities of water. manmade reservoirs are fed with melt water and mountain streams water that's needed elsewhere unique landscapes are being altered beyond recognition and gradually destroyed so she could be to use a new resorts are not insured against climate change if there's a temperature rise of one or 2 degrees then there is no guaranteed snow cover here she could beat it and there's no proper ski season anymore. i mean she sits on a type. according to the latest studies we may see a temperature increase of 4 degrees celsius by the end of the century for the time
being there is 630 ski resorts across the alps from slovenia to france by 208580 percent will likely have no more guaranteed snow cover and will therefore shut down a study conducted by the swiss federal institute of technology in zurich predicts that they'll only be natural snow cover up words of an altitude of 2400 metres. but despite this gloomy outlook many ski lift operators of failing to react many jobs depend on the winter sports industry but while they look the other way the unique natural world of the alps is slowly but surely degrading. the fledgling climatologist are now on their way to the lake fashion power plant its waters flow through the pipelines 200 meters down the mountainside to lake
cockrell and powers turbines. the increasing scarcity of water originating from high altitude sources is a harbinger of potential desert if occasion in parts of the alps melt water is especially in short supply on the edges of the alps and up above area in the past the water level in lake fashion had to be deliberately reduced there was a risk of flooding due to the vast amount of melt water in the spring. so we are finished there used to be so much snow melt here that i had to make room for it in the lake wanted support your a while now there's been much less the lake can absorb it so we don't need to reduce the water level. in this we can sink with. everything here in the alps is linked power generation on water supply. rising temperatures and the increased incidence of rock for. the following permafrost and
the developing a ridge ity. for years eco climatologist anetta man sol has been taking students on study trips to the alps. how much has the situation here changed in that time. and this one definitive so well we definitely need to worry in alpine regions the temperature has already risen to the result. that's a bigger increase than in the lowlands and a lot more than the global average. stack and the forecasts back this up there will be more of a temperature rise here than in surrounding regions and that's why there are such massive changes in nature i from the glaciers to the forest from hydrology to water supply. for example all trees require a specific temperature to flourish as temperatures rise ideal tree habitats and now at high altitudes. oh i did i know what that means is to be where the temperature
suits them they actually need to be $500.00 metres higher up the slopes than they are that includes tree species suited to mountain peaks but the problem with that is they can't be $500.00 metres higher up because obviously they're already of the summit so where they go there in the end. there's no shortage of evidence that the alpine environment is changing here in austria teams of specialists work tirelessly to avert landslides. disasters are becoming increasingly common not only landslides but also to rental rain and flooding. climate change is also causing periods of sustained drought and heat which leads to forest fires such as here in peak mount into in october 27th teen. aggravated by
strong hot and dry winds wild fires raged across the region for weeks on end some 1000 people were evacuated from their homes including 200 residents of a retirement home. grown out of bruno was in charge of dozens of firefighters from across the region who battled the inferno one of the worst hit areas was outside the small town of mom pantera the flames were up to 100 metres high recalls bruno many houses were completely destroyed even i am parts mounted in the blaze. if you know men don't in fairness from mentor it was an inferno it was bad enough for the people in the valley you could see it raging not them but it was worse for the people who were nearer for those involved in trying to put it out there were some highly critical moments the situation was dangerous because of the wind you think you were safe but then the wind would turn and suddenly you'd be surrounded by
flames. but there is pressure and if you. were the amount of forests destroyed by wildfire in italy in 2017 was 3 times greater than in the previous year. in periods of extreme heat all it takes is one tiny spark to start a huge conflagration. roona says that 70 percent of mom cantero was destroyed this forest will never regenerate were not wished the earth or sold them and then the strains can't be salvaged if they're not just sit us free as they could recover they're completely charred is nothing you can do but shot them down which if you're from sonora but the main.
devastation on this scale is unprecedented in the region not even the older firefighters have ever seen anything like it. since if climate change carries on at this rate and there are no longer drive periods in the summer and less and less snow in the winter then the situation is only going to get worse. people in engadine and switzerland are also struggling with triad conditions. centuries local farmers have been relying on melt water to irrigate their fields but mount water has become a finite resource.
greater denser meanwhile relies on rain water between february and august there was hardly any rain he's meadow is completely parched. as you can see it's as dry as hay. nothing's grown since may. the grass should be needy but this time of year in the cows will soon be coming down from the mountain meadows. about. his cows are still grazing in pasture at an elevation of 1900 metres but there too the ground is far too dry. and the cows aren't getting enough to drink in the summer of 2018 their supply had almost completely dried up. every drop is precious.
greater don't search the cattle regularly he fears for the future vision alpine pasture. i've got 90 cows and their calves. and the water here isn't even enough for a single cat. if there's not enough water the cows grazing last and then produce less milk. counts are gathering it looks like it might rain. but no it's yet another dry day. the farmer has to rely on normal turn a tip source of water. right now this is the only way of ensuring a water supply on the meadow the helicopter delivers 700 liters
a go and it takes several trips to fill up the well at a cost of 1300 euros. it's only enough for $4.00 to $5.00 days. for farmers like razor don't surf water has become a critical issue there's not enough for that animals to drink and there's not enough to keep the meadows green and that means not enough animal feed. food to go. we aren't going to have enough animal feed for the coming winter. so either we can buy in feed which is very expensive or we reduce our cattle or. radio don't so i had no choice but to slaughter some of his animals they see as.
farmers ski resorts tourists nature everyone and everything needs water and it's running out hydrologist common the young is measuring natural evaporation the results are alarming. she says the climate has become as dry as the sun held region in the sahara because little rain and large scale evaporation. distribution of water will become an increasing challenge in dry alpine valleys all foreigners will have to do the best they can. as in some confidence but i didn't does this. pain the future there will be more and more bottlenecks. are simply won't be enough water to irrigate all the meadows. there have to be stricter partitioning. like in dry countries in africa. and on in africa so definitely.
descent into the underworld ice climber donny arnold is exploring inside of 10 march last year in the continent ban and switzerland. deep in the grass he finds spectacular rock and dines formations. not many people have ever been down here anything like that done it can get to the very bottom only because the ice is solid enough this permafrost is thousands of years old. here.
this is steep and dangerous climb back out a unique experience. it might not be possible to do there so in the foreseeable future. the smoke with nothing actually makes me think if you bear in mind that researchers say that none of this will be here any more in 90 years time. or more glaciers it's all that's pretty tragic isn't it and this is so new continued even with all the show. the honors class here are invalid a switch to land is the largest in the ounds. 20 kilometers long and in parts nearly one kilometer think. of a from the swiss federal institute of technology in zurich is researching this
massive natural wonder will it survive. in the clothes furniture we can't really do anything because now is a glacier is reacting to a shift in the climate was an increase of temperatures that we hadn't for the ninety's which means that evan if we don't whatever happened in the future in terms of climate so mr wilkie pre-treat by at least 5 kilometers in time and what would happen if temperatures rose by 4 degrees as experts now predict. the launch of a has calculated that by the end of the century the alledged last year will have almost completely disappeared. so we freely i mean if we assume that it's imax and i was right it will cure it's most likely that there will be very little ice by 2100 and yet it's obvious that here in his friend's kid there are going on more ice longer ice you know since i'm sure.
it can accommodate 155 guests alpine hikers skiers and glazier enthusiastic from all over the world thanks to its panoramic views the concordia heart is one of the most popular alpine hostels in europe. there is a sense that it's the most beautiful place in the world to work on the ridge i know other alpine huts that are lovely but to me this is just the most amazing place in the world to work in and on our 4th and. but it's under threat. halfway down steep metal steps christophe saga points out the evidence that the on edge is dying. for us and one of the villains it's
a war that hit the hut was originally built on the spot and $877.00 back then the glacier reached roughly the point we're standing at so in the course of 140 years everything beyond that point has melted. that if it's retreated about 150 meters or so and submit. 150 meters in 140 years about a metre a year. from . the ice is melting faster sometimes 2 sometimes 3 meters a year.
was. the countryside here is it did like. i was living here hasn't always been on the tourist map but its popularity is growing as a destination for alpine tourists who respect the environment. jennifer and josh come from alaska this is their 3rd vacation in slovenia they love its unspoiled nature. and then also water lake on the far side. we we tend to look for someplace that's off the beaten path and she says they're the type of i think people we are and so we see just
a little bit of research and we decided that this sounded like a good place to perhaps explore 3 years ago and we came and we were delighted our there this country it's small but it seems to have almost anything you would want to find anywhere in the rest of europe. and. like jennifer and josh a growing number of tourists. looking for landscapes off the beaten path that flourished naturally places that don't need snow machines in winter and a left barren in summer slovenia is exactly what they're after. fly fishing in the crystal clear waters of lakes of in the up. 400 kilometers northwest in response to are all on the border to up above area this is where the climatology students for day excursion ends they're not really here to learn how to catch fish but about how increasingly warm waters are affecting fish stocks many
species can't survive. present here pointed toward the holes in the field where. the impact of climate change in the alps is impossible to overlook. the business on this and what i find especially worrying is that many people don't seem to want to believe it's happening or they don't care even though it's visible all around or is that it is the south glaciers everyone else your have as much water flowing downstream the end of the river is like this when i hear. this well there's been an environmental impacts with the south not english is over the side so. it is still for sale most of what things don't look good but there's no point being pessimistic it's more constructive to be optimistic and to take the lessons we've learned here and use them personally and professionally to do what we can the facts and to fight climate change as much as we can and to try to stop it was that.
there has always been human intervention in the hours it's been farmed passon roads have been built on the slopes villages in the valleys have grown sometimes on spots that are now high risk the people who live here will have to adapt to dry or hotter conditions and a future without dicey is. or you. can get in mid september glazier expert matty as hosts and his team pan up a visit to glaze 3000 their findings in april but positive how are things looking now. with.
the ground crackles and hisses as the research as make their way to measuring kits that's not a good sign the glazier that crossing is dying or the snow that should be covering it is gone in the space of just a few months. when we were here in april there was an incredible snow cover 5 meters deep crater from the snow was the 2nd compact just think about it 5 metres of snow 3000 metres above sea level has melted in the course of a summer. of thought that was possible to make if you healthy. 5 meters or snow and 1.3 meters of. the melting of the glaziers is irreversible. mathias horses watching his beloved glaziers die it's nothing less than
flags but what's going to happen when they grow. will humans and machines be able to peacefully coexist or are we on the verge of a robot collapse if we just bumble into this totally unprepared with our heads in the sand fusing to think about what could go wrong then let's face it it's probably going to be the biggest mistake in human history. artificial intelligence is now spreading through our society this little beginning of a cold indigent each morning. be subjected to continuous state surveillance. ai will experts be able to agree on ethical guidelines or will this technology create deadly new autonomous weapons systems play. play the race robot collapse starts aug 14th on t.w.
. this is news coming to you live from berlin more chaos in hong kong as anti-government protesters disrupt train services demonstrators blocked doors causing massive delays for commuters is the latest move in their campaign to force the government to respond to their demands for more democracy also coming up in germany.